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White-Tailed Deer References

The following sources are referenced on the white-tailed deer biology page.

01* Snyder, F. 1988a. Progress Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; Study # IV - population inventory; Job: A - Calculation of fall (pre-hunting) populations. NJ DFG&W Federal Aid Project # W-45-R-24.

02* Snyder, F. 1988b. Progress Report: A study of the New Jersey Deer Herd; Study # I - annual deer harvest; Job A - determination of the size and distribution of the annual deer harvest. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Project W-45-R-24.

03* Snyder, F. 1986a. Final Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; IV - population inventory; A - calculation of fall populations. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Project # W-45-R-22.

04* Snyder, F. 1987. Final Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; I - annual deer harvest; A - determination of the size and distribution of the annual deer harvest. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Report W-45-R-23.

05* Snyder, F. 1986b. Final Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; I - annual deer harvest; A - determination of the size and distribution of the annual deer harvest. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Report W-45-R-22.

06* Snyder, F. 1985a. Progress Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; Study # IV - population inventory; Job: A - Calculation of fall (pre-hunting) populations. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Project # W-45-R-21.

07* Snyder, F. 1984. Progress Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; Study # IV - population inventory; Job: A - Calculation of fall (pre-hunting) populations. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Project # W-45-R-20.

08* Snyder, F. 1985b. Final Report: A study of the New Jersey deer herd; I - annual deer harvest; A - determination of the size and distribution of the annual deer harvest. NJDFG&W Federal Aid Report W-45-R-21.

09* New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife. 1989. 1988-89 Total harvest by zone and season. Unpublished table.

10* New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife. 1989. Deer harvest by county and season (1909-1989). Unpublished table.

11* Anon. A preference list of winter deer foods.

12* Burke, D. et al. undated. An assessment of deer hunting in New Jersey. New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Shellfisheries, Bureau of Wildlife Management.

13* O'Gara, B.W. and R.B. Harris. 1988. Age and condition of deer killed by predators and automobiles. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:316-320. [NJDBF]

14* McCullough, D. R. and P. Beier. 1986. Upper vs. lower molars for cementum annuli age determination of deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:705-706. [NJDBF]

15* Ozoga, J.J. and R. K. Clute. 1988. Mortality rates of marked and unmarked fawns. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:549-551. [NJDBF]

16* Ozoga, J.J. and L.J. Verme. 1986. Initial and subsequent maternal success of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:122-124. [NJDBF]

17* Ozoga, J.J. and L.J. Verme. 1986. Relation of maternal age to fawn-rearing success in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:480-486. [NJDBF]

18* DeYoung, C.A. 1989. Mortality of adult male white-tailed deer in south Texas. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:513-518. [NJDBF]

19* Verme, L.J. and W.F. Johnston. 1986. Regeneration of northern white cedar deeryards in Upper Michigan. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:307-313. [NJDBF]

20* Tilghman, N.G. 1989. Impacts of white-tailed deer on forest regeneration in northwestern Pennsylvania. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:524-532. [NJDBF]

21* DeYoung, C.A. 1988. Comparison of net-gun and drive-net capture for white-tailed deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:318-320. [NJDBF]

22* Keister, G.P.,jr., C.E. Trainer and M.J. Willis. 1988. A self-adjusting collar for young ungulates. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:321-323. [NJDBF]

23* Beier, P. and D.R. McCullough. 1988. Motion-sensitive radio collars for estimating white-tailed deer activity. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:11-13. [NJDBF]

24* Mech, L.D., K.E. Kunkel, R.C. Chapman and T.J. Kreeger. 1990. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:297-299. [NJDBF]

25* Delgiudice, G.D., K.E. Kunkel, L.D. Mech, and U.S. Seal. 1990. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:299-303. [NJDBF]

26* Conner, M.C., R.A. Lancia, and K.H. Pollock. 1986. Precision of the change-in-ratio technique for deer population management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:125-129. [NJDBF]

27* Feldhamer, G.A., J.E. Gates, D.M. Harman, A.J. Loranger, and K.R. Dixon. 1986. Effects of interstate highway fencing on white-tailed deer activity. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:497-503. [NJDBF]

28* Root, B.G., E.K. Fritzell and N.F. Giessman. 1988. Effects of intensive hunting on white-tailed deer movement. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:145-151. [NJDBF]

29* Lancia, R.A., K.H. Pollock, J.W. Bishir, and M.C. Conner. 1988. A white-tailed deer harvesting strategy. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:589-595. [NJDBF]

30* Hansen. L.P., C.M. Nixon and F. Loomis. 1986. Factors affecting daily and annual harvest of white-tailed deer in Illinois. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 14:368-376. [NJDBF]

31* Decker, D.J., and T.A. Gavin. 1987. Public attitudes toward a suburban deer herd. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15:173-180. [NJDBF]

32* Lenarz, M.S. 1987. Economics of forest openings for white-tailed deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 15:568-573. [NJDBF]

33* Wood, G.W. 1988. Effects of prescribed fire on deer forage and nutrients. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:180-186. [NJDBF]

34* Nixon, C.M., L.P. Hansen and P.A. Brewer. 1988. Characteristics of winter habitats used by deer in Illinois. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:552-555. [NJDBF]

35* Miller, K.V., K.E. Kammermeyer, R.L. Marchinton and E.B. Moser. 1987. Population and habitat influences on antler rubbing by white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:62-66. [NJDBF]

36* Huegel, C.N., r.B. Dahlgren and H.L. Gladfelter. 1986. Bedsite selection by white-tailed deer fawns in Iowa. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:474-480. [NJDBF]

37* Wiles, G.J. and H.P. Weeks, jr. 1986. Movements and use patterns of white-tailed deer visiting natural licks. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:487-496. [NJDBF]

38* Conover, M.R. 1989. Relationships between characteristics of nurseries and deer browsing. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 17:414-418. [NJDBF]

39* Holzenbein, S., and G. Schwede. 1989. Activity and movements of female white-tailed deer during the rut. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:219-223. [NJDBF]

40* McCullough, D.R., D.H. Hirth and S.J. Newhouse. 1989. Resource partitioning between sexes in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:277-283. [NJDBF]

41* Demarais, S., J.W. Fuquay and H.A. Jacobson. 1986. Seasonal rectal temperatures of white-tailed deer in Mississippi. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:702-705. [NJDBF]

42* DelGiudice, G.D., L.D. Mech, U.S. Seal and P.D. Karns. 1987. Effects of winter fasting and refeeding on white-tailed deer blood profiles. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:865-873. [NJDBF]

43* Wood, A.K., R.E. Short, A-E. Darling, G.L. Dusek, R.G. Sasser and C.A. Ruder. 1986. Serum assays for detecting pregnancy inn mule and white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:684-687. [NJDBF]

44* Hygnstrom, S.E., and S.R. Craven. 1988. Electric fences and commercial repellents for reducing deer damage in cornfields. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:291-296. [NJDBF]

45* Burt, W.H. 1969. Mammals of the Great Lakes Region. Univ. of Michigan Press Ann Arbor, Mich:246.

46* Wood, P. and M.L. Wolfe. 1988. Intercept feeding as a means of reducing deer-vehicle collisions. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:376-380. [NJDBF]

47* Conover, M.R. and G.S. Kania. 1988. Browsing preference of white-tailed deer for different ornamental species. Wildl. Soc. Bull.

48* Rogers, L.L. 1987. Seasonal changes in defecation rates of free-ranging white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:330-333. [NJDBF]

49* Weckerly, F.W., P.L. Leberg and R.A. Van den Bussche. 1987. Variation of weight and chest girth in white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:334-337. [NJDBF]

50* Verme, L.J., J.J. Ozoga, and J.T. Nellist. 1987. Induced early estrus in penned white-tailed deer does. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:54-56. [NJDBF]

51* Bubenik, G.A. and L. Brownlee. 1987. Assessing health of male white-tailed deer by white blood cell counts. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:57-58. [NJDBF]

52* Rogers, L.L., A.N. Moen and M.L. Shedd. 1987. Rectal temperatures of 2 free-ranging white-tailed deer fawns. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:59-62. [NJDBF]

53* Pekins, P.J. and W.W. Mautz. 1988. Digestibility and nutritional value of autumn diets of deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:328-332. [NJDBF]

54* Jacobson, H.A., H.J. Bearden and D.B. Whitehouse. 1989. Artificial insemination trials with white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:224-227. [NJDBF]

55* DelGiudice, G.D., L.D. Mech, and U.S. Seal. 1988. Chemical analyses of deer bladder urine and urine collected from snow. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:324-326. [NJDBF]

56* DelGiudice, G.D., L.D. Mech and U.S. Seal. 1989. Physiological assessment of deer populations by analysis of urine in snow. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:284-291. [NJDBF]

57* DelGiudice, G.D. and U.S. Seal. 1988. Classifying winter undernutrition in deer via serum and urinary urea nitrogen. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16:27-32. [NJDBF]

58* DeLiberto, T.J., J.A Pfister, S. Demarais and U.S. Seal. 1988. Urea nitrogen in serum and vitreous humor of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:599-601. [NJDBF]

59* Ullrey, D.E., J.T. Nellist, J.P. Duvendeck, P.A. Whetter, and L.D. Fay. 1987. Digestibility of vegetative rye for white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:51-53. [NJDBF]

60* Feldhamer, G.A., T.P. Kilbane and D.W. Sharp. 1989. Cumulative effect of winter on acorn yield and deer body weight. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:292-295. [NJDBF]

61* Predl, S. 1990. Personal communication. New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife.

62* McCullough, D.R. 1979. The George Reserve deer herd. Population Ecology of a K-selected Species. Univ. Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. 268 pp.

63* Caughley, G. 1976. Wildlife management and the dynamics of ungulate populations. Pp 183-246 in T.H. Coaker, ed, Applied Biology. Academic Press, NY.

64* Sadleir, R.M.F.S. 1987. Reproduction of female cervids. Pp 123-144 in C.M. Wemmer, ed. Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

65* Bunnell, F.L. 1987. Reproductive tactics of Cervidae adn their relationships to habitat. Pp 145-167 in C.M. Wemmer, ed. Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

66* Chesser, R.K. and M.H. Smith. 1987. Relationship of genetic variation to growth and reproduction in White-tailed Deer. Pp 168-177 in C.M. Wemmer, ed. Biology and Management of the Cervidae. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

67* Schulze, T.L., M.F. Lakat, G.S. Bowen, W.E. Parkin and J.K. Shisler. 1984. Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) and other Ixoded ticks collected from White-tailed Deer in New Jersey, USA, I. Geographical distribution and its relation to selected environmental and physical factors. J. Med. Entomol. 21:741-749. [NJDBF]

68* Schulze, T.L., G.S. Bowen, M.F. Lakat, W.E. Parkin, and J.K. Shisler. 1985. The role of adult Ixodes dammini (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of Lyme disease in New Jersey, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 22:88-93. [NJDBF]

69* Ferrigno, D.M. 1990. A study of the New Jersey deer herd: Calculation of fall (pre-hunting populations). NJ DFG&W Feder Aid Project No. W-45-R-25.

70* Ferrigno, D.M. 1990. A study of the New Jersey deer herd: Determination of the size and distribution of the annual deer harvest. NJ DFG&W Federal Aid Project No. W-45-R-25.

71* Nichols, T.C. 1990. A study of the New Jersey deer herd: Collection and evaluation of age, sex, weight, antler beam and antler point information from the annual deer harvest. NJ DFG&W Federal Aid Project No. W-45-R-25.

72* Roscoe, D.E. and W. Stansley. 1989. Wildlife Health Project: Deer health study. NJ DFG&W Federal Aid Project No. W-62-R5. [NJDBF]

73* Foster, N.M., R.D. Breckon, A.J. Luedke, R.H. Jones and H.E. Metcalf. 1977. Transmission of two strains of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in deer by Culicoides variipennis. J. Wildl. Dis. 13:9-16. [NJDBF]

74* Lund, R. 1990. Personal communication. New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife.

75* Cowan, R.L., Clark, A.C. 1981. Nutritional requirements. Diseases and Parasites of White-Tailed Deer. Davidson, W.R., Hayes, F.A., Nettles, V.F., Kellogg, F.E. Southeastern Coop. Wildl. Dis. Study, Athens, Ga:72-86458.

76* Predl, S. 1989. Progress Report: II-B - Collection and evaluation of reproductive and condition data throughout the winter - spring period on a statewide basis. New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife Federal Aid to Wildlife Project W-45-R-25. [NJDBF]

77* Halls, L.K., ed. 1984. White-tailed Deer: Ecology and Management. Stackpole Books, Washington, D.C. 870 pp.

78* Dehority, B.A. 1990. Rumen ciliate protozoa in Ohio White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Protozoology 37:473-475.

80* Dasmann, W. 1971. If Deer Are to Survive. Wildl. Manage. Inst. Washington, D.C:128.

82* Davidson, W.R., Hayes, F.A., Nettles, V.F., Kellogg, F.E. (ed.) 1981. Diseases and parasites of white-tailed deer. Southeastern Coop. Wildl. Dis. Study, Athens, Ga:458.

83* Mech, L.D., and R.E. McRoberts. 1990. Relationship between age and mass among female white-tailed deer during winter and spring. J. Mammalogy 71: 686-689.

84* Nelson, M.E., and L.D. Mech. 1990. Weights, productivity, and mortality of old white-tailed deer. J. Mammalogy 71:689-691.

85* Jones, J.M. and J.H. Witham. 1990. Post-translocation survival and movements of metropolitan white-tailed deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 18:434-441.

86* Thill, R.E., H.F. Morris, and A.T. Harrel. 1990. Nutritional quality of Deer diets from Southern pine-hardwood forests. Amer. Midland Nat. 124: 413-417.

90* Doutt, J.K., Heppenstall, C.A., Guilday, J.E. 1977. Mammals of Pennsylvania. Penn. Game Comm. Harrisburg, Penn:282.

95* Engle, J.W., Jr. 1950. An investigation of conditions influencing the pattern of overpopulated deer in areas in Virginia during 1949. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech., Blacksburg, Va. UNPB:113.

96* Weckerly, F.W. and J.P. Nelson. 1990. Age and sex differences of White- tailed diet composition, quality, and calcium. J. Wildl. Manage. 54: 532- 538.

97* Schmitz, O.J. 1990. Management implications of foraging theory - Evaluating deer supplemental feeding. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:522-532.

98* Delgiudice, G.D., L.D. Mech, and U.S. Seal. 1990. Effects of winter undernutrition on body composition and physiological profiles of White-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 54:539-550.

102* Eve, J.H., Kellog, F.E. 1977. Management implications of abomasal parasites in southeastern white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 41:169-177.

103* Watkins, B.E., J.H. Witham, D.E. Ullrey, D.J. Watkins, and J.M. Jones. 1991. Body composition and condition evaluation of White-tailed Deer fawns. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:39-51.

104* Novak, J.M., K.T. Scribner, W.D. Dupont, and M.H. Smith. 1991. Catch-effort estimation of White-tailed deer population size. J. Wildl. Manage. 55:31-38.

105* Johnson, A.S. 1987. Pine Plantations as Wildlife Habitat: A Perspective. In: Managing Southern Forests for Wildlife and Fish. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, General Tech. Rep. SO-65.

106* Landers, J.L. 1987. Prescribed Burning for Managing Wildlife in Southeastern Pine Forests. In: Managing Southern Forests for Wildlife and Fish. USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, General Tech. Rep. SO-65.

107* Halls L.K. 1978. White-tailed Deer. In: John L. Schmidt and D.L. Gilbert (eds.) Big Game of North America, Ecology and Management. Wildlife Management Institute. Stackpole Books.

108* Knierim, P.G., K.L. Carvell, and J.D. Gill. 1971. Browse in Thinned Oak and Cove Hardwood Stands. Journal of Wildlife Management. 35(1) pp. 163-168.

109* Dickson, J.G. Oak and Flowering Dogwood Fruit Production for Eastern Wild Turkeys. In: W.M. Healy and G.B. Healy (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth National Wild Turkey Symposium. pp. 90-95.

115* French, C.E., McEwen, L.C., Magruder, N.D., Ingram, R.H., Swift, R.W. 1956. Nutrient requirements for growth and antler development in the white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 20:221-232.

158* Harlow, R.F. 1971. Foods of white-tailed deer in the southeast based on rumen analysis. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Va.:72.

159* Harlow, R.F., Whelan, J.B., Crawford, H.S., Akeen, J.E. 1975. Deer foods during years of oak mast abundance and scarcity. J. Wildl. Manage. 39(2):330-336.

162* Hawkins, R.E., Klimistra, W.D. 1970. A preliminary study of the social organization of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 34(2):407-419.

165* Hofmann, R.R. 1982. Adaptive changes of gastric and intestinal morphology in response to different fiber content in ruminant diets. International Symp. of Dietary Fiber in Human and Animal Nutrition. Palmerston North, New Zealand.

185* Kistner, T.P., Trainer, C.E., Hartmann, N.A. 1980. A field technique for evaluating physical condition of deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 8:11-17.

187* Knierim, P.G., Carvell, K.L., Gill, J.D. 1971. Browse in thinned oak and cove hardwood stands. J. Wildl. Manage. 35(1):163-168.

211* Martin, A.C., Zim, H.S., Nelson, A.L. 1951. American Wildlife and Plants: A Guide to Wildlife Food Habits. Dover Publ., Inc. New York, New York:500.

222* Moen, A.N. 1978. Seasonal changes in heart rates, activity, metabolism, and forage intake of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 42(4):715-738.

239* Pursglove, S.R., Prestwood, A.K., Nettles, V.F., Hayes, F.A. 1976. Intestinal nematodes of white-tailed deer in southeastern United States. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 169:896-900.

253* Scanlon, J.J. 1981. Effects of pine conversion on forage availability for white-tailed deer in the Virginia Piedmont. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech. Blacksburg, Va. UNPB:171.

258* Severinghaus, C.W., Cheatum, E.L. 1956. Life and times of the white-tailed deer. The Deer of North America. Wildl. Manage. Inst., Washington, D.C.

294* Verme, L.J. 1969. Reproductive patterns of white-tailed deer related to nutritional plane. J. Wildl. Manage. 33:881-887.

304* Whitaker, J.O., Jr. 1980. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf New York, N.Y:745.

386* Davidson, W.R., Crow, C.B. 1983. Parasites, diseases, and health status of sympatric populations of sika deer and white-tailed deer in Maryland and Virginia. J. Wildl. Dis. 19(4):345-348.

501* New Jersey Division of Fish, Game and Wildlife, 1989. New Jersey's Wildlife Species Status List.

2188* Halls, L.K. 1978. White-tailed deer. In: Big Game of North America: Ecology and Management. Schmidt, J.L., Gilbert, D.L., eds. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa.

2190* Weber, A. J. 1966. Regional differences in fawning times of North Carolina deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 30(4):843-845.

DWG* Stein, Raymond J. 1979. Mammals of the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area New Jersey and Pennsylvania. [NJDBF]

GS* USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service. 1984. Mammals of Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge New Jersey. [NJDBF]

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