2004 Historic Preservation Bulletin: Archaeology Theme Issue
of the past enriches the present by bringing a more complete understanding
of human experience to contemporary life. This appreciation has inspired
individual citizens and community groups to advocate for resource identification,
protection, and interpretation. While all resource types can enrich our
understanding, the focus of the 2004 conference was on New Jersey's archaeological
Morning speakers were
Dr. William Kelso and Dr. R. Michael Stewart. Using his work with the Jamestown
Rediscovery Project, Dr. Kelso challenged our commonly held perceptions
about our buried past, while illustrating how "rediscovery" leads to reinterpretations
of history and invigorates heritage tourism. Dr. Kelso's presentation instilled
a sense of the challenge and mystery solving associated with the effort
to dispel the long held belief that the remains of the earliest settlement
of Jamestown were all gone, eroded into the James River. Dr. Kelso challenged
common misconceptions about site location and preservation, and showed how
careful, well designed archaeological investigation can yield highly significant,
unforeseen discoveries as well as solid scientific data for testing hypotheses.
The work at Jamestown exemplifies the role that archaeological resources
can and should play in defining community identify, fostering pride, and
bolstering local heritage tourism.
Dr. Stewart, one of
the leading experts on the Native American archaeology of the Delaware Valley,
provided a glimpse into the lives of New Jersey's original inhabitants through
an archaeological portal. He discussed the ways in which the material remains
left behind by the original New Jerseyans can inform regarding lifeways.
He chronicled aspects of our most up-to-date anthropological understanding
of 11,000 years of prehistory in New Jersey.
There were three breakout
tracks in the afternoon. "Archaeology: Bringing Historic Sites to Life,"
focused on the ways archaeology enables communities and historic site managers
to better interpret historic properties, bringing new life to sites and
their former occupants. The process of archaeological exploration can stimulate,
educate, and involve community members in the history under their feet.
Gail Hunton and Rebecca Yamin discussed their collaborative efforts on several
projects to benefit Monmouth County's historic sites and public. Richard
Veit discussed his work with students and volunteers at house museums. James
Lee used his expertise with New Jersey's canals to illustrate how interpreted
ruins and restored features convey feelings and understanding of our forebears'
labors. David Orr discussed working with volunteers from initial discovery
through historic reenactments at Valley Forge and Independence National
second breakout track focused on archaeological site protection. Aspects
of federal and state laws, regulation, standards, and guidelines were reviewed
and exemplified by Nancy Brighton, Elizabeth Merritt, and Andrea Tingey.
The quality of most archaeological work in New Jersey is enhanced when the
regulators, the regulated community, and historic preservation professionals
doing the work all comprehend the laws and regulations. Archaeological site
identification and protection at the municipal level in New Jersey was discussed
by F. Robert Perry, Olga Chesler, and Larry Randolph. Their experiences
in Evesham and South Plainfield townships have broad applicability throughout
our state's municipal milieu.
The third breakout
track, "From Your House to the White House: Tips for Effective Advocacy,"
explored some of the complexities of successful advocacy. Just because a
sites has been temporarily rescued does not mean it has been preserved.
This two session track explored the basic tools, techniques, programs, an
incentives for saving resources and ensuring long-term protection. The basics
of advocacy were covered within the context of the three-year long saga
to nominate the Black Creek Native American archaeological site in Sussex
County to the New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places. Panelists
and speakers included Adrian Scott Fine, Urie Ridgeway, Jessica Paladini,
and Gregory Werkheiser. Synergistic relationships between open space preservation/acquisition
and historic and archaeological site protection were explored in presentations
by Fawn McGee, Bill Liebeknecht, Greg Lattanzi, and Ron Emrich.
Many of the topics
explored at the conference were introduced prior to the conference in the
Spring 2004 Historic Preservation Bulletin.
Sponsored by: NJ
DEP, Natural and Historic Resources, Historic Preservation Office
Co-Sponsored by: Preservation New Jersey, NJ Department of Transportation,
Old Barracks Museum, and Archaeological Society of New Jersey
Speaker: Dr. William Kelso, Jamestown Rediscovery Project
Archaeology provides Dr. Kelso with a sense of challenge and mystery-solving.
In 1996, Kelso and a small staff of archaeologists dispelled the long
held belief that the remains of the earliest settlement at Jamestown had
eroded into the James River. Not only will Kelso challenge common misconceptions
about probable site locations, but drawing from his work on the Rediscovery
Project, conference participants will gain an understanding of how sensitive
investigation can change and reinterpret our past. Kelso’s work in Jamestown
exemplifies the role that archaeological resources can and should play
in defining community identity, fostering pride, and bolstering the local
Dr. R. Michael Stewart,
Temple University, Department of Anthropology
Did you ever wonder what life was like in New Jersey before European
settlement? Dr. R. Michael Stewart, one of the leading experts on the
prehistoric archaeology of the Delaware Valley, will provide a glimpse
into the lives of New Jersey’s Native Americans as understood through
the lens of archaeology. His presentation will discuss the ways in which
the material remains left behind by these original Americans tell us
about their lifeways. Dr. Stewart will also chronicle aspects of our
understanding of Native American cultural change during the past 11,000
House Annex (B)
New Jersey Resource Room
Bringing Historic Sites to Life
Archaeology enables communities and historic site managers to better interpret
historic properties, bringing new life to the sites and their former occupants.
The contribution of archaeology extends far beyond its value to history
and historical interpretation. The process of archaeological exploration
can stimulate, educate, and involve community members in the history under
on the Public's Sites
Site Manager, Gail Hunton, and archaeologist, Rebecca Yamin, have collaborated
on several projects to the benefit of Monmouth County's historic sites
and its public. They will discuss long term planning to accomplish archaeology.
Professor Richard Veit has built a reputation working with students
and volunteers at house museums and other sites. Through effective planning
the usefulness of the archaeology on public sites has been far greater
than often modest project scopes would suggest. The session will explore
initial considerations such as project funding and promotion through
enhanced outcomes such as broadened interpretive programs. You will
learn how to provide "voices" to speakers of the past, and the critical
integration between archaeology, site planning and management. Moderator:
Gail Hunton, Monmouth County Parks Commission Speakers: Gail
Hunton, Monmouth County Parks Commission; Rebecca Yamin Ph.D. John Milner
Associates; Richard Veit, Monmouth University, Department of History
Respect for the past and archaeological remains of the past have been
embraced by the federal, state, county, and local governments. This track
introduces the laws, regulations, standards, and guidelines that shape
public archaeology in New Jersey.
and State Laws, Regulations, Standards and Guidelines
The session will begin with a brief introduction to the intellectual basis
for Government's involvement in the protection of historic properties.
Most archaeological work in New Jersey is required by consequent federal
and state laws and regulations. The quality of this archaeological work
is enhanced when the regulators, the regulated community, and historic
preservation professionals doing the work know the requirements of the
laws and regulations. Speakers will outline pertinent regulations including:
Section 106, Section 4(f), the New Jersey Register of Historic Places
Act, Department of Environmental Protection Land Use permits, Pinelands
Commission, and NJ Executive Order 215. Moderator: Nancy
Brighton, US Army Corps of Engineers - New York District Speakers:
Elizabeth Merritt Esq., National Trust for Historic Preservation; Andrea
Tingey, Historic Preservation Office
Your House to the White House: Tips for Effective Advocacy
All too often, historic and archaeological resources are the center of
public controversy. This track has been developed to familiarize conference
participants with the complexities of successful advocacy . Just because
a site has been temporarily rescued, does not necessarily mean it's preserved.
This two-session track will explore the basic tools, techniques, programs
and incentives for saving resources and ensuring long-term protection.
Connecting local grassroots advocacy to state and national lobbying efforts
will also be featured.
Basics of Advocacy:
Local, Legal & Tribal
All too often, historic and archaeological resources are the center
of controversy. This session will begin with an overview of the basic
tools and strategies that can be used and adapted to advocate for the
immediate protection and long term preservation of cultural resources.
This introduction will be followed by a moderated panel session which
will provide a critical analysis on the three-year saga to nominate
the Black Creek Site to the New Jersey and National Registers of Historic
Places. Local advocacy, legal tactics and strategic influence from the
Native American community subtly changed the dynamics of the historic
preservation playing field in New Jersey. Our panelists will share their
perspectives on the importance of preserving this site, and their collaborative
effort to ensure its preservation. Moderator: Dorothy
P. Guzzo, HPO Speakers: Adrian Scott Fine, National Trust for
Historic Preservation; Urie Ridgeway, Tribal Councilman, Naticoke-Lenni-Lenape;
Jessica Paladini, Vernon Township Civic Association; Gregory Werkheiser
Esq., Piper Rudnick, pro bono counsel for Lenni-Lenape
will embark (rain or shine) in front of the State House Annex. Please
note that each tour is limited to a maximum of 30 participants.
Farm Tour, Led
by Dr. R. Michael Stewart
Dr. R. Michael Stewart, of Temple University, will be providing a three-hour
walking tour of Abbott Farm National Historic Landmark. Abbott Farm is
composed of multiple sites with occupations spanning from the Paleo-Indian
through Contact periods. This property became the focal point of a famous
40-year controversy about the antiquity of human occupation of the New
World. More than 100 books and articles have been published on Abbott
Farm and the Landmark continues to provide insight into Native American
lifeways by being a focus of ongoing archaeological research. The tour
will give participants a sense of the types of landscapes that attracted
Native American settlement and the ways in which these settings have changed
over time. The tour will be open to all registered attendees, but will
be limited to 30 participants on a first-come, first-served basis. The
tour will involve brisk walking through wooded areas and some rough terrain,
and therefore, require proper outerwear and foot attire. Insect repellent
is also recommended.
by Richard Hunter & Ian Burrow
Take part in a two part guided tour of the historic urban landscapes
of Trenton led by Richard Hunter and Ian Burrow, Principals of Hunter
Research, Inc. of Trenton, who have devoted much time to research on
this fascinating city.
Parks for the Living and Parks for the Dead with Richard Hunter. A bus
will take us to two important Trenton landmarks: Riverview Cemetery
and the brand-new NJ Route 29 Historic Deck Park. Riverview Cemetery
has its origins in a Quaker cemetery laid on the bluff above the Delaware
in the late 1670's. Long before that, it was a prime settlement location
for Native Americans. In the 19th century it was landscaped and greatly
expanded and now contains the memorials of many prominent Trentonians
and of George McClellan, Civil War general and Governor of New Jersey.
The exciting and innovative historical interpretive program at the adjacent
Route 29 Deck Park takes visitors through the history of Trenton using
a variety of media.
Part Two: Trenton
Underground with Ian Burrow. This walking tour (wear appropriate shoes
and clothing: this is a rain or shine event!) will explore the urban
historic landscape and archaeological sites of 18th century Trenton
in the State House and Mill Hill Historic Districts. Prehistoric settlements,
underground streams, early iron and steel works, military and governmental
sites, waterpower systems and mills all lie in this small area. Clues
to these features are lurking in the modern urban fabric.
Community Out of Fragments of the Past
Can ruinous and forgotten sites pull communities together to tell lost
stories and restore a sense of place? James Lee looks at New Jersey's
canals, in order to illustrate considerations in treatment of historic
features on the landscape from interpreted ruins to restoration. Professor
David Orr, perhaps more recognized for his work in locations such as Valley
Forge and Independence National Historic Park, will discuss working with
volunteers from initial discovery through historical reenactments. Moderator:
Richard Hunter, Ph.D., Hunter Research, Inc. Speakers: James Lee,
Hunter Research, Inc.; David Orr Ph.D., Temple University, Dept. of Anthropology
Site Identification and Protection at the Municipal Level
Powerful tools are available to municipalities for identifying, evaluating,
and protecting their archaeological resources. Three panelists in this
session will share their experiences in crafting master plans and ordinance
language that integrates archaeological considerations with other valued
elements of community life. Moderator: Mike Gregg, HPO
Speakers: F. Robert Perry P.P., Evesham Township Planner; Olga
A. Chesler, Esq., Montgomery McCracken Walker & Rhoads LLP, and member
of the Cherry Hill Historical Commission; Larry Randolph, Chair, South
Plainfield Township Environmental Commission
This session will explore some strategies for effective historic and archaeological
site advocacy. Presentations will provide critical information for lobbying
at the state and federal levels, discuss state-level organizations that
may provide support for lobbying efforts, and highlight the synergistic
relationship between open space preservation/acquisition and historic
and archaeological site protection. Moderator: Katherine Marcopul,
HPO Speakers: Fawn McGee, NJDEP, Green Acres; William Liebknecht,
President and Gregory Lattanzi, 2nd Vice President, ASNJ; Ron Emrich,
Preservation New Jersey