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Taxonomic References for Freshwater Macroinvertebrates used by the Biomonitoring Staff


General

  • Eddy, S. and A.C. Hodson, 1961. Taxonomic Keys to the Common Animals of the North Central States, 3rd Ed. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN. pp.162.

  • Hilsenhoff, W.L., 1975. Aquatic Insects of Wisconsin. Technical Bulletin No. 89, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI. pp.52.

  • Hilsenhoff, W.L., 1982. Using a Biotic Index to Evaluate Water Quality in Streams. Technical Bulletin No. 132, Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI.

  • Merritt, R.W. and K.W. Cummins, 1984. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 2nd Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. pp.722.

  • Merritt, R.W. and K.W. Cummins, 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, 3rd Ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. pp.862.

  • Peckarsky, B.L., P.R. Fraissinet, M.A. Denton and D.J. Conklin Jr., 1990. Freshwater Macroinvertbrates of Northeastern North America. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. pp.442.

  • Pennak, R.W., 1978. Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. pp.803.

  • Pennak, R.W., 1989. Freshwater Invertebrates of the United States: Protozoa to Mollusca, 3rd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. pp.628.

  • Thorp, J.H. and A.P. Covich, 1991. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, California. pp.911.

  • Usinger, R.L., 1956. Aquatic Insects of California. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. pp.508.

  • Ward, H.B. and G.C. Whipple, 1959. Freshwater Biology, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, NY. pp.1248.

Turbellaria

  • Kenk, R., 1972. Freshwater Planarians (Turbellaria) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD02/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.81.

Polychaetes

  • Foster, N., 1972. Freshwater Polychaetes (Annelida) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD03/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.15.

Nematodes

  • Ferris, V.R., J.M. Ferris, and J.P. Tjepkema, 1973. Genera of Freshwater Nematodes (Nematoda) of Eastern North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD01/73, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.38.

 

Oligochaeta

  • Brinkhurst, R.O., 1964. Studies on the North American Oligochaeta I: Naididae and Opistocystidae. Vol. 116, Proc. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. 195-230.

  • Brinkhurst, R.O., 1965. Studies of the North American Aquatic Oligochaeta II: Tubificidae. Vol. 117 No. 4, Proc. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. 117-172.

  • Hiltunen, J.K. and D.J. Klemm, 1980. A Guide to the Naididae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) of North America. EPA-600/4-80-0, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. pp.48.

  • Kathman, R.D. and R.O. Brinkhurst, 1998. Guide to the Freshwater Oligochaetes of North America. Aquatic Resources Center, College Grove, TN. pp.264.

  • Milligan, M.R., 1997. Identification Manual for the Aquatic Oligochaeta of Florida Volume 1 Freshwater Oligochaetes. State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Tallahassee, FL. pp.187.

  • Stimpson, K.S., D.J. Klemm, and J.K. Hiltunen, 1982. A Guide to the Freshwater Tubificidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) of North America. EPA-600/3-82-033, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. pp.61.

 

Hirudinea

  • Klemm, D.J., 1972. Freshwater Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD05/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.53.

  • Klemm, D.J., 1982. Leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North America. EPA-600/3-82-025, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. pp.177.

 

Crustacea

  • Hobbs, H.H., 1972. Crayfishes (Astacidae) of North and Middle America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD05/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.173.

  • Holsinger, J.R., 1972. The Freshwater Amphipod Crustaceans (Gammaridae) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD04/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.89.

  • Williams, W.D., 1972. Freshwater Isopods (Asellidae) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD05/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.45.

 

Coleoptera

  • Brown, H.P., 1972. Aquatic Dryopoid Beetles (Coleoptera) of the United States. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD04/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.82.

  • Epler, J.H., 1996. Identification Manual for the Water Beetles of Florida. State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Facilities, Tallahassee, Florida. pp.259.

 

Diptera

  • Adler, Peter H. and Ke Chung Kim, 1985. The Blackflies (Simuliidae, Diptera) of Pennsylvania: Bionomics, Taxonomy, and Distribution. The Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station. pp.88.

  • Beck, W.M. and E.C. Beck, 1966. Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida; I. Pentaneurini (Tanypodinae). Bulletin of Florida State Museum, Biological Science Vol. 10 No. 8.

  • Beck, W.M., 1977. Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Common Freshwater Chironomidae. EPA-600/4-77-024, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, Ohio. pp.261.

  • Bode, R.W., 1983. Larvae of North American Eukefferiella and Tvetenia (Diptera: Chironomidae). Bulletin No. 452, New York State Museum, Albany, NY. pp.40.

  • Epler, J.H., 1995. Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of Florida. State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Facilities, Tallahassee, Florida. pp.317.

  • Epler, J.H., 2001. Identification Manual for the Larval Chironomidae (Diptera) of North and South Carolina. North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Raleigh, NC. pp.526.

  • Johannsen, O.A., 1934. Aquatic Diptera Part I: Nemocera, Exclusive of Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. Memoir 164 Plates I-XXIV, Cornell University Agriculture Experimental Station, Ithaca, NY.

  • Johannsen, O.A., 1935. Aquatic Diptera Part II: Orthorrhapha- Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha. Memoir 177 Plates I-XII, Cornell University Agriculture Experimental Station, Ithaca, NY.

  • Johannsen, O.A., 1937. Aquatic Diptera Part III: Chironomidae: Subfamilies Tanypodinae, Diasmesinae, and Orthocladinae. Memoir 205 Plates I-XVIII, Cornell University Agriculture Experimental Station, Ithaca, NY.

  • Johannsen, O.A., 1937. Aquatic Diptera Part IV: Chironomidae: Subfamily Chironominae. Memoir 210 Plates I-XVIII, Cornell University Agriculture Experimental Station, Ithaca, NY.

  • Mason, W.T., 1973. An Introduction to the Identification of Chironomid Larvae. USEPA National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, OH. pp.90.

  • Oliver, D.R., D. McClymont, and M.E. Roussel, 1978. A Key to Some Larvae of the Chironomidae (Diptera) from the Mackenzie and Porcupine River Watersheds. Fisheries and Marine Services Technical Report #791, Department of Fisheries and the Environment, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. pp.73.

  • Roback, S.S., 1957. The Immature Tendipidids of the Philadelphia Area. Monograph No. 9, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. pp.152.

  • Simpson, K.W. and R.W. Bode, 1980. Common larvae of Chironomidae (Diptera) from New York State streams and rivers, with particular reference to the fauna of artificial substrates. Bulletin No. 439, New York State Museum. pp.105.

  • Simpson, K.W., R.W. Bode, and P. Albu, 1983. Keys for the Genus Cricotopus adapted from "Revision der Gattung Cricotopus van der Wulp und ihrer Verwandten (Diptera, Chironomidae)" by M. Hirvenoja. Bulletin No.450, New York State Museum, Albany, NY. pp.133.

  • Soponis, A.R. and C.L. Russell, 1982. Identification of instars and species in some larval Polypedilum (Diptera: Chironomidae). Hydrobiologia 94: 25-32.

  • Stone, Alan and H.A. Jamnback, 1955. The Black Flies of New York State (Diptera: Simuliidae). Bulletin No. 349, New York State Museum, Albany, NY. pp.144.

  • Wood, D.M., B.V. Peterson, D.M. Davies, and H. Gyorkos, 1963. The Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Ontario. Part II Larval Identifications with Descriptions and Illustrations. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 93 1963: 99-129.

 

Ephemeroptera

  • Allen, R.K. and G.F. Edmunds, Jr., 1962. A Revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) V. The Subgenus Drunella in North America. Misc. Publ. Ent. Soc. Amer. 3: 147-179.

  • Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr., 1963. A Revision of the Genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) VI. The Subgenus Serratella in North America. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 56: 583-600.

  • Allen, R.K. and G.F. Edmunds, 1963. A Revision of the Genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Epemerellidae) VII. The Subgenus Eurylophella. Canadian Entomologist 95:597-623.

  • Allen, R.K. and G.F. Edmunds, 1965. A Revision of the Genus Ephemerella (Ephemeroptera: Epemerellidae) VIII. The Subgenus Ephemerella. Miscellaneous Publications of the Entomological Society of America 4:244-282.

  • Bednarik, A.F. and W.P. McCafferty, 1979. Biosystematic revision of the genus Stenonema (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae). Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 201.

  • Bergman and Hilsenhoff, 1978. Baetis (Epemeroptera: Baetidae) of Wisconsin. Great Lakes Entomologist 11:125-135.

  • Berner, L., 1955. The Southeastern Species of Baetisca (Ephemeroptera: Baetiscidae). Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science Vol. 18 No. 1.

  • Berner, L, 1975. The Mayfly Family Leptophlebiidae in the Southeastern United States. The Florida Entomologist Vol. 58 No. 3 137-162.

  • Edmunds, G.F., S.L. Jensen, and L. Berner, 1976. The Mayflies of North and Central America. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN. Various figures.

  • Flowers, R.W., 1980. Two new genera of Nearctic Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera). Fla. Ent. 63(3):296-307.

  • Jacobus, Luke M. and W.P. McCafferty, 2004. Revisionary Contributions to the Genus Drunella (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 112(2-3):127-147.

  • Lehmkuhl and Anderson, 1971. Contributions of the biology and taxonomy of the Paraleptophlebia of Oregon (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 47:85-93.

  • Lewis, P., 1974. Taxonomy and Ecology of Stenonema Mayflies (Heptageniidae: Ephemeroptera). EPA-670/4-74-006, USEPA National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, OH.

  • Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty, 1998. A New North American Genus of Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) and Key to Baetis Complex Genera. Ent. News 109(5):345-353.

  • Lugo-Ortiz, C.R., W.P. McCafferty, and R.D. Waltz, 1999. Definition and Reorganization of the Genus Pseudocloeon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) with New Species Descriptions and Combinations. Trans. of the American Entomological Society 125(1-2):1-37.

  • McCafferty, W.P., and R.D. Waltz, 1990. Revisionary synopsis of the Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) of North and Middle America. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 116:769-799.

  • McCafferty, W.P., and R.D. Waltz, 1995. Labiobaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae): New status, new North American species and related new genus. Ent. News 27:209-216.

  • McCafferty, W.P. and R.D. Waltz, 1998. A New Species of the Small Minnow Mayfly Genus Plauditus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South Carolina. Ent. News 109(5):354-356.

  • McCafferty, W.P., R.D. Waltz, J.M. Webb, and L.M. Jacobus, 2005. Revision of Heterocloeon McDunnough (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Journal of Insect Science 5:35.

  • Morihara, D. K. and W. P. McCafferty, 1978. The Baetis larvae of North America (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 105: 139-221.

  • Pfieffer, J., E. Kosnicki, M. Bilger, and B.D. Marshall, 2006. A Photographic Key to the Baetidae of EPA Region 3. Prepared by EcoAnalysts, Inc. for the UEPA, Office of Environmental Information, Environmental Analysis Division, Washington, D.C. Contract#50-CMAA-900065 with Perot Systems Government Services.

  • Waltz, R.D. and W.P. McCafferty, 1987. New Genera of Baetidae for some Nearctic species previously included in Baetis Leach (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 80:667-670.

  • Waltz, R.D., W.P. McCafferty, and J.H. Kennedy, 1985. Barbaetis: A New Genus of eastern Nearctic Mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Great Lakes Ent. 18:161-165.

  • Wiersma, N.A., C.R. Nelson, and K.F. Kuehnl, 2004. A New Small Minnow Mayfly (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Utah, U.S.A. Ent. News 115(3):139-145.

 

Trichoptera

  • Flint, O.S., 1962. Larvae of the caddisfly Rhyacophila in eastern North America (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 113:465-493.

  • Flint, O.S., Jr., 1984. The genus Brachycentrus in North America, with a proposed phylogeny of the genera of Brachycentridae (Trichoptera). Proceedings of the United States National Museum 115:467-481.

  • Pescador, M.L. and A.K. Rasmussen, 1995. Identification Manual for the Caddisfly (Trichoptera) Larvae of Florida. State of Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water Facilities, Tallahassee, Florida. pp.186.

  • Schuster, G.A. and D.A. Etnier, 1978. A Manual for the Identification of the Larvae of the Caddisfly Genera Hydropsyche Pictet and Symphitopsyche Ulmer in Eastern and Central North America (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). EPA-600/4-78-060, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. pp.129.

  • Wiggins, G.B., 1996. Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera), 2nd Ed. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. pp.457.

Plecoptera

  • Fullington and Stewart, 1980. Nymphs of the stonefly genus Taeniopteryx (Plecoptera: Taeniopterygidae) of North America. Journal of Kansas Entomological Society 53:237-259.

  • Hitchcock, Stephen W., 1974. Guide to the Insects of Connecticut: Part VII. The Plecoptera or Stoneflies of Connecticut. Bulletin 107. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Hartford, CT. pp.262.

  • Stewart, Kenneth W. and Bill P. Stark, 2002. Nymphs of North American Stonefly Genera, 2nd Ed. The Caddis Press, Columbus, Ohio. pp.510.

  • Surdick, Rebecca F. and Ke Chung Kim, 1976. Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Pennsylvania: A Synopsis. The Pennsylvania Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 808.

 

Odonata

  • Daigle, J.J., 1992. Florida Dragonflies (Anisoptera): A Species Key to the Aquatic Larval Stages. Technical Series Vol. 11 No. 1, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL. pp.29.

  • Daigle, J.J., 1991. Florida Damselflies (Zygoptera): A Species Key to the Aquatic Larval Stages. Technical Series Vol. 11 No. 1, Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL. pp.12.

 

Megaloptera

  • Cuyler, 1958. The larvae of Chauliodes Latreille (Megaloptera: Corydalidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 51: 582-586.

  • Neunzig, 1966. Larvae of the genus Nigronia Banks (Neuroptera: Corydalidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 68: 11-16.

 

Mollusca

  • Burch, J.B., 1972. Freshwater Sphaeriacean Clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD03/72, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.31.

  • Burch, J.B., 1973. Freshwater Unionacean Clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Water Pollution Control Research Series 18050 ELD03/73, USEPA, Washington D.C. pp.176.

  • Burch, J.B., 1982. Freshwater Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of North America. EPA-600/3-82-026, USEPA Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Cincinnati, OH. pp.294.

  • Heard, W.H., 1979. Identification Manual of the Freshwater Clams of Florida. Technical Series Volume 4 No. 2, State of Florida Department of Enviromental Regulation, Tallahassee, FL. pp.83.

  • Jokinen, E.H., 1992. The Freshwater Snails (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of New York State. Bulletin No. 482, New York State Museum, Albany, NY. pp.112.


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