Delaware • New Jersey • Pennsylvania
New York • United States of America
Alkalinity - Alkalinity is a total measure of the substances in water that have "acid-neutralizing" ability. Don't confuse alkalinity with pH. pH measures the strength of an acid or base; alkalinity indicates a solution's power to react with acid and "buffer" its pH -- that is, the power to keep its pH from changing.
Alkalinity is important for fish and aquatic life because it protects or buffers against pH changes (keeps the pH fairly constant) and makes water less vulnerable to acid rain. The main sources of natural alkalinity are rocks, which contain carbonate, bicarbonate, and hydroxide compounds. Borates, silicates, and phosphates may also contribute to alkalinity.
Limestone is rich in carbonates, so waters flowing through limestone regions generally have high alkalinity -- hence its good buffering capacity. Conversely, granite does not have minerals that contribute to alkalinity. Therefore, areas rich in granite have poor buffering capacity.
Carbon Dioxide - Carbon dioxide is an odorless, colorless gas produced during the respiration cycle of animals, plants and bacteria, and through the burning of materials that contain carbon. All animals and many bacteria use oxygen and release carbon dioxide. Green plants, in turn, absorb the carbon dioxide and, by the process of photosynthesis, produce oxygen and carbon-rich foods.
Green plants carry on photosynthesis only in the presence of light. At night they respire, or take up oxygen, and burn the food they made during the day. Consequently, more oxygen is used and more carbon dioxide enters waterways at night than during the daytime. When carbon dioxide levels are high and oxygen levels are low, fish have trouble respiring, and their problems become worse as water temperatures rise. Also, as carbon dioxide levels increase, pH decreases.
Conductivity - Conductivity is a measure of the ability of water to pass an electrical current. Conductivity in water is affected by the presence of inorganic dissolved solids, such as chloride, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate anions (i.e., ions that carry a negative charge) or sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron and aluminum cations (i.e., ions that carry a positive charge). Organic compounds like oil do not conduct electrical current very well and, therefore, have a low conductivity when in water.
Conductivity also is affected by water temperature B the warmer the water, the higher the conductivity. It is measured in micromhos (mho) or siemens per centimeter.
Conductivity in streams and rivers is affected by the geology of the area through which the water flows. For example, streams that run through areas with granite bedrock tend to have lower conductivity because granite is composed of more inert materials that do not ionize, or dissolve into ionic compounds, when washed into the water. Streams that run through areas with clay soils tend to have higher conductivity because of the presence of materials that ionize when washed into the water. The presence of salt in the Delaware River as one moves closer to the Delaware Bay will increase conductivity.
Conductivity is useful as a general measure of stream water quality. Each stream tends to have a relatively constant range of conductivity that, once established, can be used as a baseline for comparison with regular conductivity measurements. Significant changes in conductivity could then be used as an indicator that a discharge or some other source of pollution has entered a stream. For example, a failing waste water plant would raise the conductivity because of the presence of chloride, phosphate and nitrate. On the other hand, an oil spill would lower conductivity.
Nitrate and Phosphate - Nitrate and phosphate are necessary for aquatic plant growth, which supports the rest of the aquatic food chain. Both of these nutrients are derived from a variety of natural and artificial sources, including decomposition of plant and animal materials, man-made fertilizers, and sewage. Rainfall also can be a significant source of nitrates. While excessive nutrients might cause undesirable plant growth with their deleterious impacts on water quality, an appropriate level of nutrients is one of the driving forces of the aquatic ecosystem.
Determining the optimum levels of nitrates and phosphates in water is extremely complex. Their levels often fluctuate considerably because they are constantly being taken up and released by aquatic life, being exchanged with stream bed sediments, and undergoing various other transformations.
Natural nitrate concentrations rarely exceed 10 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Most are less than 1 mg/l, especially during periods of high plant production. Concentrations greater than 20 mg/l may pose a health hazard to small mammals, causing a problem where the blood's hemoglobin cannot transport oxygen.
In natural unpolluted water, phosphate levels are generally very low. Phosphorus, which combines with oxygen to form phosphate, is most often the limiting factor for plant production in streams.
Oxygen - Dissolved - Dissolved oxygen (DO, pronounced dee-oh) is oxygen that is dissolved in water. It gets there by diffusion from the surrounding air; aeration of water that has tumbled over falls and rapids; and as a product of photosynthesis. The amount of dissolved oxygen present is affected by temperature. Cold water generally contains more DO than warm water.
If water is too warm, there may not be enough oxygen in it. When there are too many bacteria or aquatic animals in the area, they may overpopulate, using DO in great amounts.
Oxygen levels also can be reduced through over fertilization of water plants by run-off from farm fields containing phosphates and nitrates (the ingredients in fertilizers). Under these conditions, the numbers and size of water plants increase a great deal. Then, if the weather becomes cloudy for several days, respiring plants will use much of the available DO. When these plants die, they become food for bacteria, which in turn multiply and use large amounts of oxygen.
How much DO an aquatic organism needs depends upon its species, its physical state, water temperature, pollutants present, and other factors. For example, at 5 °C (41 °F), trout use about 50-60 milligrams (mg) of oxygen per hour; at 25 °C (77 °F), they may need five or six times that amount. Fish are cold-blooded animals, so they use more oxygen at higher temperatures when their metabolic rate increases.
Numerous scientific studies suggest that 4 to 5 parts per million (ppm) of DO is the minimum amount that will support a large, diverse fish population. The DO level in more pristine waters like the non-tidal Delaware River averages between 8 to 9 ppm.
pH - pH is a measure of the acid/alkaline relationship in a water body. pH values range on a scale of zero to 14, with 7 being neutral. Since pH is logarithmic, a one-notch change in pH (e.g., from 6 to 7) represents a 10-fold increase.
A pH of about 6 to 9 is generally favored by aquatic life, especially fish. Algae and rooted plants in a stream modify pH levels through the photosynthesis and respiration processes. If plants are active, wide swings in pH levels can be observed over a 24-hour period, with low values experienced at night and high values experienced at midday. In-stream pH levels can also be impacted by acid and alkaline chemicals from industry, mining, acid rain, and other man-made sources, as well as by natural sources such as limestone deposits (bedrock) and tannic acid (produced by certain vegetation).
Turbidity - The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines turbidity as "the optical property of a water sample that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted in straight lines through the sample. In simple terms, turbidity answers the question, "How cloudy is the water?"
Light's ability to pass through water depends on how much suspended material is present. Turbidity may be caused when light is blocked by large amounts of silt, microorganisms, plant fibers, sawdust, wood ashes, chemicals, and coal dust. Any substance that makes water cloudy will cause turbidity. The most frequent causes of turbidity in lakes and rivers are plankton and soil erosion from storm water runoff.
The most accurate way to determine water's turbidity is with an electronic turbidimeter. The turbidimeter has a light source and a photoelectric cell that accurately measures the light scattered by suspended particles in a water sample. The results are reported in units called Nephelometric Turbidity Units or NTU's.
Water Temperature - Water temperature is an important environmental factor for fish and other aquatic life, with many species needing specific temperature ranges to thrive. Temperature affects the concentrations of dissolved oxygen in water, with higher concentrations occurring with colder temperatures.