|"Essay questions are supply or constructed response type questions and can be the best way to measure the students' higher order thinking skills, such as applying, organizing, synthesizing, integrating, evaluating, or projecting - while at the same time providing a measure of writing skills."
Alabama Professional Development Modules.
Ways to Instruct for Competency-based Assessment
See also: Applying Bloom's Taxonomy by Joan Dalton which gives question stems and possible related activities.
Developing Short Answer and Completion Questions, from Alabama.