Core Curriculum Content Standards

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Comprehensive Health and Physical Education Standards Learning Progressions

2.1 Wellness All students will acquire health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Personal Growth and Development :
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing self-help skills and personal hygiene skills promotes healthy habits.

2.1.P.A.1 Develop an awareness of healthy habits (e.g., use clean tissues, wash hands, handle food hygienically, brush teeth, and dress appropriately for the weather).
Content: Health-enhancing behaviors contribute to wellness.

2.1.2.A.1 Explain what being “well” means and identify self-care practices that support wellness.
Content: The dimensions of wellness are interrelated and impact overall personal well-being.

2.1.4.A.1 Explain the physical, social, emotional, and mental dimensions of personal wellness and how they interact.
Content: Staying healthy is a lifelong process that includes all dimensions of wellness.

2.1.6.A.1 Explain how health data can be used to assess and improve each dimension of personal wellness.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.8.A.1 Assess and apply health data to enhance each dimension of personal wellness.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.12.A.1 Analyze the role of personal responsibility in maintaining and enhancing personal, family, community, and global wellness.
Content: Developing self-help skills and personal hygiene skills promotes healthy habits.

2.1.P.A.2 Demonstrate emerging self-help skills (e.g., develop independence when pouring, serving, and using utensils and when dressing and brushing teeth).
Content: Health-enhancing behaviors contribute to wellness.

2.1.2.A.2 Use correct terminology to identify body parts, and explain how body parts work together to support wellness.
Content: The dimensions of wellness are interrelated and impact overall personal well-being.

2.1.4.A.2 Determine the relationship of personal health practices and behaviors on an individual’s body systems.
Content: Staying healthy is a lifelong process that includes all dimensions of wellness.

2.1.6.A.2 Relate how personal lifestyle habits, environment, and heredity influence growth and development in each life stage.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.8.A.2 Compare and contrast the impact of genetics, family history, personal health practices, and environment on personal growth and development in each life stage.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.12.A.2 Debate the social and ethical implications of the availability and use of technology and medical advances to support wellness.
Content: Staying healthy is a lifelong process that includes all dimensions of wellness.

2.1.6.A.3 Determine factors that influence the purchase of healthcare products and use of personal hygiene practices.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.8.A.3 Relate advances in technology to maintaining and improving personal health.
Content: Developing and maintaining wellness requires ongoing evaluation of factors impacting health and modifying lifestyle behaviors accordingly.

2.1.8.A.4 Determine the impact of marketing techniques on the use of personal hygiene products, practices, and services.

2.1 Wellness All students will acquire health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
B. Nutrition:
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing the knowledge and skills necessary to make nutritious food choices promotes healthy habits.

2.1.P.B.1 Explore foods and food groups (e.g., compare and contrast foods representative of various cultures by taste, color, texture, smell, and shape).
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.2.B.1 Explain why some foods are healthier to eat than others.
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.4.B.1 Explain how healthy eating provides energy, helps to maintain healthy weight, lowers risk of disease, and keeps body systems functioning effectively.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.6.B.1 Determine factors that influence food choices and eating patterns.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.8.B.1 Analyze how culture, health status, age, and eating environment influence personal eating patterns and recommend ways to provide nutritional balance.
Content: Applying basic nutritional and fitness concepts to lifestyle behaviors impacts wellness.

2.1.12.B.1 Determine the relationship of nutrition and physical activity to weight loss, weight gain, and weight maintenance.
Content: Developing the knowledge and skills necessary to make nutritious food choices promotes healthy habits.

2.1.P.B.2 Develop awareness of nutritious food choices (e.g., participate in classroom cooking activities, hold conversations with knowledgeable adults about daily nutritious meal and snack offerings).
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.2.B.2 Explain how foods in the food pyramid differ in nutritional content and value.
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.4.B.2 Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy eating practices.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.6.B.2 Summarize the benefits and risks associated with nutritional choices, based on eating patterns.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.8.B.2 Identify and defend healthy ways for adolescents to lose, gain, or maintain weight.
Content: Applying basic nutritional and fitness concepts to lifestyle behaviors impacts wellness.

2.1.12.B.2 Compare and contrast the dietary trends and eating habits of adolescents and young adults in the United States and other countries.
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.2.B.3 Summarize information about food found on product labels.
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.4.B.3 Create a healthy meal based on nutritional content, value, calories, and cost.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.6.B.3 Create a daily balanced nutritional meal plan based on nutritional content, value, calories, and cost.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.8.B.3 Design a weekly nutritional plan for families with different lifestyles, resources, special needs, and cultural backgrounds.
Content: Applying basic nutritional and fitness concepts to lifestyle behaviors impacts wellness.

2.1.12.B.3 Analyze the unique contributions of each nutrient class (fats, carbohydrates, protein, water, vitamins, and minerals) to one’s health.
Content: Choosing a balanced variety of nutritious foods contributes to wellness.

2.1.4.B.4 Interpret food product labels based on nutritional content.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.6.B.4 Compare and contrast nutritional information on similar food products in order to make informed choices.
Content: Eating patterns are influenced by a variety of factors.

2.1.8.B.4 Analyze the nutritional values of new products and supplements.

2.1 Wellness All students will acquire health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
C. Diseases and Health Conditions:
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing self-help skills and personal hygiene skills promotes healthy habits.

2.1.P.C.1 Develop an awareness of healthy habits (e.g., use clean tissues, wash hands, handle food hygienically, brush teeth, and dress appropriately for the weather).
Content: Knowledge about diseases and disease prevention promotes health-enhancing behaviors.

2.1.2.C.1 Summarize symptoms of common diseases and health conditions.
Content: The use of disease prevention strategies in home, school, and community promotes personal health.

2.1.4.C.1 Explain how most diseases and health conditions are preventable.
Content: The early detection and treatment of diseases and health conditions impact one’s health.

2.1.6.C.1 Summarize means of detecting and treating diseases and health conditions that are prevalent in adolescents.
Content: The prevention and control of diseases and health conditions are affected by many factors.

2.1.8.C.1 Evaluate emerging methods to diagnose and treat diseases and health conditions that are common in young adults in the United States and other countries, including hepatitis, sexually transmitted infections, HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, HPV, and testicular cancer.
Content: Personal health is impacted by family, community, national, and international efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.

2.1.12.C.1 Predict diseases and health conditions that may occur during one’s lifespan and speculate on potential prevention and treatment strategies.
Content: Knowledge about diseases and disease prevention promotes health-enhancing behaviors.

2.1.2.C.2 Summarize strategies to prevent the spread of common diseases and health conditions.
Content: The use of disease prevention strategies in home, school, and community promotes personal health.

2.1.4.C.2 Justify how the use of universal precautions, sanitation and waste disposal, proper food handling and storage, and environmental controls prevent diseases and health conditions.
Content: The early detection and treatment of diseases and health conditions impact one’s health.

2.1.6.C.2 Determine the impact of public health strategies in preventing diseases and health conditions.
Content: The prevention and control of diseases and health conditions are affected by many factors.

2.1.8.C.2 Analyze local, state, national, and international public health efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.
Content: Personal health is impacted by family, community, national, and international efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.

2.1.12.C.2 Develop strategies that will impact local, state, national, and international public health efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.
Content: Knowledge about diseases and disease prevention promotes health-enhancing behaviors.

2.1.2.C.3 Determine how personal feelings can affect one’s wellness.
Content: The use of disease prevention strategies in home, school, and community promotes personal health.

2.1.4.C.3 Explain how mental health impacts one’s wellness.
Content: The early detection and treatment of diseases and health conditions impact one’s health.

2.1.6.C.3 Compare and contrast common mental illnesses (such as depression, anxiety and panic disorders, and phobias) and ways to detect and treat them.
Content: The prevention and control of diseases and health conditions are affected by many factors.

2.1.8.C.3 Analyze the impact of mental illness (e.g., depression, impulse disorders such as gambling or shopping, eating disorders, and bipolar disorders) on physical, social, and emotional well-being.
Content: Personal health is impacted by family, community, national, and international efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.

2.1.12.C.3 Determine the emotional, social, and financial impact of mental illness on the family, community, and state.
Content: Personal health is impacted by family, community, national, and international efforts to prevent and control diseases and health conditions.

2.1.12.C.4 Relate advances in medicine and technology to the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness.

2.1 Wellness All students will acquire health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
D. Safety:
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing an awareness of potential hazards in the environment impacts personal health and safety.

2.1.P.D.1 Use safe practices indoors and out (e.g., wear bike helmets, walk in the classroom, understand how to participate in emergency drills, and understand why car seats and seat belts are used).
Content: Using personal safety strategies reduces the number of injuries to self and others.

2.1.2.D.1 Identify ways to prevent injuries at home, school, and in the community (e.g., fire safety, poison safety, accident prevention).
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.4.D.1 Determine the characteristics of safe and unsafe situations and develop strategies to reduce the risk of injuries at home, school, and in the community (e.g., fire safety, poison safety, accident prevention).
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.6.D.1 Summarize the common causes of intentional and unintentional injuries in adolescents and related prevention strategies.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.8.D.1 Assess the degree of risk in a variety of situations and identify strategies to reduce intentional and unintentional injuries to self and others.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.12.D.1 Determine the causes and outcomes of intentional and unintentional injuries in adolescents and young adults and propose prevention strategies.
Content: Developing an awareness of potential hazards in the environment impacts personal health and safety.

2.1.P.D.2 Develop an awareness of warning symbols and their meaning (e.g., red light, stop sign, poison symbol, etc.).
Content: Using personal safety strategies reduces the number of injuries to self and others.

2.1.2.D.2 Differentiate among the characteristics of strangers, acquaintances, and trusted adults and describe safe and appropriate behaviors/touches.
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.4.D.2 Summarize the various forms of abuse and ways to get help.
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.6.D.2 Explain what to do if abuse is suspected or occurs.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.8.D.2 Describe effective personal protection strategies used in public places and what to do when one’s safety is compromised.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.12.D.2 Explain ways to protect against abuse and all forms of assault and what to do if assaulted.
Content: Developing an awareness of potential hazards in the environment impacts personal health and safety.

2.1.P.D.3 Identify community helpers who assist in maintaining a safe environment.
Content: Using personal safety strategies reduces the number of injuries to self and others.

2.1.2.D.3 Identify procedures associated with pedestrian, bicycle, and traffic safety.
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.4.D.3 Examine the impact of unsafe behaviors when traveling in vehicles, as a pedestrian, and when using other modes of transportation.
Content: Identifying unsafe situations and choosing appropriate ways to reduce or eliminate risks contributes to the safety of self and others.

2.1.6.D.3 Summarize the components of the traffic safety system and explain how people contribute to making the system effective.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.8.D.3 Analyze the causes and the consequences of noncompliance with the traffic safety system.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.12.D.3 Analyze the relationship between alcohol and drug use and the incidence of motor vehicle crashes.
Content: Developing an awareness of potential hazards in the environment impacts personal health and safety.

2.1.P.D.4 Know how to dial 911 for help.
Content: Applying first-aid procedures can minimize injury and save lives.

2.1.4.D.4 Demonstrate simple first-aid procedures for choking, bleeding, burns, and poisoning.
Content: Applying first-aid procedures can minimize injury and save lives.

2.1.6.D.4 Assess when to use basic first-aid procedures.
Content: Applying first-aid procedures can minimize injury and save lives.

2.1.8.D.4 Demonstrate first-aid procedures, including victim and situation assessment, Basic Life Support, and the care of head trauma, bleeding and wounds, burns, fractures, shock, and poisoning.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.12.D.4 Develop a rationale to persuade peers to comply with traffic safety laws and avoid driving distractors.
Content: Evaluating the potential for injury prior to engaging in unhealthy/risky behaviors impacts choices.

2.1.12.D.5 Summarize New Jersey motor vehicle laws and regulations and determine their impact on health and safety (e.g., organ/tissue donation, seatbelt use, and the use of hand-held devices).
Content: Applying first-aid procedures can minimize injury and save lives.

2.1.12.D.6 Demonstrate first-aid procedures, including Basic Life Support and automatic external defibrillation, caring for head trauma, bone and joint emergencies, caring for cold and heat injuries, and responding to medical emergencies.

2.1 Wellness All students will acquire health promotion concepts and skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
E. Social and Emotional Health:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Many factors at home, school, and in the community impact social and emotional health.

2.1.2.E.1 Identify basic social and emotional needs of all people.
Content: Many factors at home, school, and in the community impact social and emotional health.

2.1.4.E.1 Compare and contrast how individuals and families attempt to address basic human needs.
Content: Social and emotional development impacts all components of wellness.

2.1.6.E.1 Examine how personal assets and protective factors support healthy social and emotional development.
Content: Social and emotional development impacts all components of wellness.

2.1.8.E.1 Analyze how personal assets, resiliency, and protective factors support healthy social and emotional health.
Content: Respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture provide a foundation for the prevention and resolution of conflict.

2.1.12.E.1 Predict the short- and long-term consequences of unresolved conflicts.
Content: Many factors at home, school, and in the community impact social and emotional health.

2.1.2.E.2 Determine possible causes of conflict between people and appropriate ways to prevent and resolve them.
Content: Many factors at home, school, and in the community impact social and emotional health.

2.1.4.E.2 Distinguish among violence, harassment, gang violence, discrimination, and bullying and demonstrate strategies to prevent and resolve these types of conflicts.
Content: Respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture provide a foundation for the prevention and resolution of conflict.

2.1.6.E.2 Make recommendations to resolve incidences of school and community conflict, violence, harassment, gang violence, discrimination, and bullying.
Content: Respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture provide a foundation for the prevention and resolution of conflict.

2.1.8.E.2 Determine the effectiveness of existing home, school, and community efforts to address social and emotional health and prevent conflict.
Content: Respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture provide a foundation for the prevention and resolution of conflict.

2.1.12.E.2 Analyze how new technologies may positively or negatively impact the incidence of conflict or crisis.
Content: Many factors at home, school, and in the community impact social and emotional health.

2.1.2.E.3 Explain healthy ways of coping with common stressful situations experienced by children.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.4.E.3 Determine ways to cope with rejection, loss, and separation.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.6.E.3 Compare and contrast ways that individuals, families, and communities cope with change, crisis, rejection, loss, and separation.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.8.E.3 Explain how culture influences the ways families and groups cope with crisis and change.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.12.E.3 Examine how a family might cope with crisis or change and suggest ways to restore family balance and function.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.4.E.4 Summarize the causes of stress and explain ways to deal with stressful situations.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.8.E.4 Compare and contrast stress management strategies that are used to address various types of stress-induced situations.
Content: Stress management skills impact an individual’s ability to cope with different types of emotional situations.

2.1.12.E.4 Develop a personal stress management plan to improve/maintain wellness.

2.2 Integrated Skills All students will develop and use personal and interpersonal skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Interpersonal Communication :
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Effective communication may be a determining factor in the outcome of health- and safety-related situations.

2.2.2.A.1 Express needs, wants, and feelings in health- and safety-related situations.
Content: Effective communication may be a determining factor in the outcome of health- and safety-related situations.

2.2.4.A.1 Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication in health- and safety-related situations.
Content: Effective communication may be a determining factor in the outcome of health- and safety-related situations.

2.2.6.A.1 Demonstrate verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication in various settings that impact the health of oneself and others.
Content: Effective interpersonal communication encompasses respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture.

2.2.8.A.1 Compare and contrast verbal and nonverbal interpersonal communication strategies in a variety of settings and cultures in different situations.
Content: Effective interpersonal communication encompasses respect and acceptance for individuals regardless of gender, sexual orientation, disability, ethnicity, socioeconomic background, religion, and/or culture.

2.2.12.A.1 Employ skills for communicating with family, peers, and people from other backgrounds and cultures that may impact the health of oneself and others.
Content: Effective communication is the basis for strengthening interpersonal interactions and relationships and resolving conflicts.

2.2.4.A.2 Demonstrate effective interpersonal communication when responding to disagreements or conflicts with others.
Content: Effective communication is the basis for strengthening interpersonal interactions and relationships and resolving conflicts.

2.2.6.A.2 Demonstrate use of refusal, negotiation, and assertiveness skills in different situations.
Content: Effective communication is the basis for strengthening interpersonal interactions and relationships and resolving conflicts.

2.2.8.A.2 Demonstrate the use of refusal, negotiation, and assertiveness skills when responding to peer pressure, disagreements, or conflicts.
Content: Effective communication is the basis for strengthening interpersonal interactions and relationships and resolving conflicts.

2.2.12.A.2 Demonstrate strategies to prevent, manage, or resolve interpersonal conflicts.
Content: Technology increases the capacity of individuals to communicate in multiple and diverse ways.

2.2.12.A.3 Analyze the impact of technology on interpersonal communication in supporting wellness and a healthy lifestyle.

2.2 Integrated Skills All students will develop and use personal and interpersonal skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
B. Decision-Making and Goal Setting :
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Effective decision-making skills foster healthier lifestyle choices.

2.2.2.B.1 Explain what a decision is and why it is advantageous to think before acting.
Content: Many health-related situations require the application of a thoughtful decision-making process.

2.2.4.B.1 Use the decision-making process when addressing health-related issues.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.6.B.1 Use effective decision-making strategies.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.8.B.1 Predict social situations that may require the use of decision-making skills.
Content: Developing and implementing an effective personal wellness plan contributes to healthy decision-making over one’s lifetime.

2.2.12.B.1 Predict the short- and long-term consequences of good and poor decision-making on oneself, friends, family, and others.
Content: Effective decision-making skills foster healthier lifestyle choices.

2.2.2.B.2 Relate decision-making by self and others to one’s health.
Content: Many health-related situations require the application of a thoughtful decision-making process.

2.2.4.B.2 Differentiate between situations when a health-related decision should be made independently or with the help of others.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.6.B.2 Predict how the outcome(s) of a health-related decision may differ if an alternative decision is made by self or others.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.8.B.2 Justify when individual or collaborative decision-making is appropriate.
Content: Developing and implementing an effective personal wellness plan contributes to healthy decision-making over one’s lifetime.

2.2.12.B.2 Evaluate the impact of individual and family needs on the development of a personal wellness plan and address identified barriers.
Content: Effective decision-making skills foster healthier lifestyle choices.

2.2.2.B.3 Determine ways parents, peers, technology, culture, and the media influence health decisions.
Content: Many health-related situations require the application of a thoughtful decision-making process.

2.2.4.B.3 Determine how family, peers, technology, culture, and the media influence thoughts, feelings, health decisions, and behaviors.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.6.B.3 Determine how conflicting interests may influence one’s decisions.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.8.B.3 Analyze factors that support or hinder the achievement of personal health goals during different life stages.
Content: Effective decision-making skills foster healthier lifestyle choices.

2.2.2.B.4 Select a personal health goal and explain why setting a goal is important.
Content: Many health-related situations require the application of a thoughtful decision-making process.

2.2.4.B.4 Develop a personal health goal and track progress.
Content: Every health-related decision has short- and long-term consequences and affects the ability to reach health goals.

2.2.6.B.4 Apply personal health data and information to support achievement of one’s short- and long-term health goals.

2.2 Integrated Skills All students will develop and use personal and interpersonal skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
C. Character Development:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Character traits are often evident in behaviors exhibited by individuals when interacting with others.

2.2.2.C.1 Explain the meaning of character and how it is reflected in the thoughts, feelings, and actions of oneself and others.
Content: Personal core ethical values impact the health of oneself and others.

2.2.4.C.1 Determine how an individual’s character develops over time and impacts personal health.
Content: Personal core ethical values impact the behavior of oneself and others.

2.2.6.C.1 Explain how character and core ethical values can be useful in addressing challenging situations.
Content: Working together toward common goals with individuals of different abilities and from different backgrounds develops and reinforces core ethical values.

2.2.8.C.1 Analyze strategies to enhance character development in individual, group, and team activities.
Content: Individual and/or group pressure to be successful in competitive activities can result in a positive or negative impact.

2.2.12.C.1 Analyze the impact of competition on personal character development.
Content: Character traits are often evident in behaviors exhibited by individuals when interacting with others.

2.2.2.C.2 Identify types of disabilities and demonstrate appropriate behavior when interacting with people with disabilities.
Content: Character building is influenced by many factors both positive and negative, such as acceptance, discrimination, bullying, abuse, sportsmanship, support, disrespect, and violence.

2.2.4.C.2 Explain why core ethical values (such as respect, empathy, civic mindedness, and good citizenship) are important in the local and world community.
Content: Character building is influenced by many factors both positive and negative, such as acceptance, discrimination, bullying, abuse, sportsmanship, support, disrespect, and violence.

2.2.6.C.2 Predict situations that may challenge an individual’s core ethical values.
Content: Working together toward common goals with individuals of different abilities and from different backgrounds develops and reinforces core ethical values.

2.2.8.C.2 Analyze to what extent various cultures have responded effectively to individuals with disabilities.
Content: Core ethical values impact behaviors that influence the health and safety of people everywhere.

2.2.12.C.2 Judge how individual or group adherence, or lack of adherence, to core ethical values impacts the local, state, national, and worldwide community.
Content: Character building is influenced by many factors both positive and negative, such as acceptance, discrimination, bullying, abuse, sportsmanship, support, disrespect, and violence.

2.2.4.C.3 Determine how attitudes and assumptions toward individuals with disabilities may negatively or positively impact them.
Content: Character building is influenced by many factors both positive and negative, such as acceptance, discrimination, bullying, abuse, sportsmanship, support, disrespect, and violence.

2.2.6.C.3 Develop ways to proactively include peers with disabilities at home, at school, and in community activities.
Content: Rules, regulations, and policies regarding behavior provide a common framework that supports a safe, welcoming environment.

2.2.8.C.3 Hypothesize reasons for personal and group adherence, or lack of adherence, to codes of conduct at home, locally, and in the worldwide community.
Content: Core ethical values impact behaviors that influence the health and safety of people everywhere.

2.2.12.C.3 Analyze current issues facing the disability community and make recommendations to address those issues.

2.2 Integrated Skills All students will develop and use personal and interpersonal skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
D. Advocacy and Service :
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Service projects provide an opportunity to have a positive impact on the lives of self and others.

2.2.2.D.1 Determine the benefits for oneself and others of participating in a class or school service activity.
Content: Service projects provide an opportunity to have a positive impact on the lives of self and others.

2.2.4.D.1 Explain the impact of participation in different kinds of service projects on community wellness.
Content: Participation in social and health- or service-organization initiatives have a positive social impact.

2.2.6.D.1 Appraise the goals of various community or service-organization initiatives to determine opportunities for volunteer service.
Content: Effective advocacy for a health or social issue is based on communicating accurate and reliable research about the issue and developing and implementing strategies to motivate others to address the issue.

2.2.8.D.1 Plan and implement volunteer activities to benefit a local, state, national, or world health initiative.
Content: Effective advocacy for a health or social issue is based on communicating accurate and reliable research about the issue and developing and implementing strategies to motivate others to address the issue.

2.2.12.D.1 Plan and implement an advocacy strategy to stimulate action on a state, national, or global health issue, including but not limited to, organ/tissue donation.
Content: Participation in social and health- or service-organization initiatives have a positive social impact.

2.2.6.D.2 Develop a position about a health issue in order to inform peers.
Content: Effective advocacy for a health or social issue is based on communicating accurate and reliable research about the issue and developing and implementing strategies to motivate others to address the issue.

2.2.8.D.2 Defend a position on a health or social issue to activate community awareness and responsiveness.

2.2 Integrated Skills All students will develop and use personal and interpersonal skills to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
E. Health Services and Information :
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing an awareness of potential hazards in the environment impacts personal health and safety.

2.2.P.E.1 Identify community helpers who assist in maintaining a safe environment.
Content: Knowing how to locate health professionals in the home, at school, and in the community assists in addressing health emergencies and obtaining reliable information.

2.2.2.E.1 Determine where to access home, school, and community health professionals.
Content: Communicating health needs to trusted adults and professionals assists in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of health problems.

2.2.4.E.1 Identify health services and resources provided in the school and community and determine how each assists in addressing health needs and emergencies.
Content: Health literacy includes the ability to compare and evaluate health resources.

2.2.6.E.1 Determine the validity and reliability of different types of health resources.
Content: Potential solutions to health issues are dependent on health literacy and available resources.

2.2.8.E.1 Evaluate various health products, services, and resources from different sources, including the Internet.
Content: Potential solutions to health issues are dependent on health literacy and available resources.

2.2.12.E.1 Analyze a variety of health products and services based on cost, availability, accessibility, benefits, and accreditation.
Content: Communicating health needs to trusted adults and professionals assists in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of health problems.

2.2.4.E.2 Explain when and how to seek help when experiencing a health problem.
Content: Communicating health needs to trusted adults and professionals assists in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of health problems.

2.2.6.E.2 Distinguish health issues that warrant support from trusted adults or health professionals.
Content: Communicating health needs to trusted adults and professionals assists in the prevention, early detection, and treatment of health problems.

2.2.8.E.2 Compare and contrast situations that require support from trusted adults or health professionals.
Content: Affordability and accessibility of healthcare impacts the prevention, early detection, and treatment of health problems.

2.2.12.E.2 Determine the effect of accessibility and affordability of healthcare on family, community, and global health.

2.3 Drugs and Medicines All students will acquire knowledge about alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and medicines and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Medicines:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.2.A.1 Explain what medicines are and when some types of medicines are used.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.4.A.1 Distinguish between over-the-counter and prescription medicines.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.6.A.1 Compare and contrast short- and long-term effects and the potential for abuse of commonly used over-the-counter and prescription medicines and herbal and medicinal supplements.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.8.A.1 Explain why the therapeutic effects and potential risks of commonly used over-the-counter medicines, prescription drugs, and herbal and medicinal supplements vary in different individuals.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.12.A.1 Determine the potential risks and benefits of the use of new or experimental medicines and herbal and medicinal supplements.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.2.A.2 Explain why medicines should be administered as directed.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.4.A.2 Determine possible side effects of common types of medicines.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.6.A.2 Compare information found on over-the-counter and prescription medicines.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.8.A.2 Compare and contrast adolescent and adult abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medicines and the consequences of such abuse.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.12.A.2 Summarize the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of a medicine.
Content: Medicines come in a variety of forms (prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, medicinal supplements), are used for numerous reasons, and should be taken as directed in order to be safe and effective.

2.3.12.A.3 Relate personal abuse of prescription and over-the-counter medicines to wellness.

2.3 Drugs and Medicines All students will acquire knowledge about alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and medicines and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
B. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs :
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.2.B.1 Identify ways that drugs can be abused.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.4.B.1 Explain why it is illegal to use or possess certain drugs/substances and the possible consequences.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.1 Explain the system of drug classification and why it is useful in preventing substance abuse.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.1 Compare and contrast the physical and behavioral effects of commonly abused substances by adolescents.
Content: There are immediate and long-term consequences of risky behavior associated with substance abuse.

2.3.12.B.1 Compare and contrast the incidence and impact of commonly abused substances (such as tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, inhalants, anabolic steroids, and other drugs) on individuals and communities in the United States and other countries.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.2.B.2 Explain effects of tobacco use on personal hygiene, health, and safety.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.4.B.2 Compare the short- and long-term physical effects of all types of tobacco use.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.2 Relate tobacco use and the incidence of disease.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.2 Predict the legal and financial consequences of the use, sale, and possession of illegal substances.
Content: There are immediate and long-term consequences of risky behavior associated with substance abuse.

2.3.12.B.2 Debate the various legal and financial consequences of the use, sale, and possession of illegal substances.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.2.B.3 Explain why tobacco smoke is harmful to nonsmokers.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.4.B.3 Identify specific environments where second-hand/passive smoke may impact the wellness of nonsmokers.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.3 Compare the effect of laws, policies, and procedures on smokers and nonsmokers.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.3 Analyze the effects of all types of tobacco use on the aging process.
Content: There are immediate and long-term consequences of risky behavior associated with substance abuse.

2.3.12.B.3 Correlate increased alcohol use with challenges that may occur at various life stages.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.2.B.4 Identify products that contain alcohol.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.4.B.4 Summarize the short- and long-term physical and behavioral effects of alcohol use and abuse.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.4 Determine the impact of the use and abuse of alcohol on the incidence of illness, injuries, and disease, the increase of risky health behaviors, and the likelihood of harm to one’s health.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.4 Compare and contrast smoking laws in New Jersey with other states and countries.
Content: There are immediate and long-term consequences of risky behavior associated with substance abuse.

2.3.12.B.4 Correlate the use of alcohol and other drugs with incidences of date rape, sexual assault, STIs, and unintended pregnancy.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.2.B.5 List substances that should never be inhaled and explain why.
Content: Use of drugs in unsafe ways is dangerous and harmful.

2.3.4.B.5 Identify the short- and long- term physical effects of inhaling certain substances.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.5 Determine situations where the use of alcohol and other drugs influence decision-making and can place one at risk.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.5 Explain the impact of alcohol and other drugs on those areas of the brain that control vision, sleep, coordination, and reaction time and the related impairment of behavior, judgment, and memory.
Content: There are immediate and long-term consequences of risky behavior associated with substance abuse.

2.3.12.B.5 Relate injected drug use to the incidence of diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.6 Summarize the signs and symptoms of inhalant abuse.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.6 Relate the use of alcohol and other drugs to decision-making and risk for sexual assault, pregnancy, and STIs.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.6.B.7 Analyze the relationship between injected drug use and diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.7 Explain the impact of inhalant use and abuse on social, emotional, mental, and physical wellness.
Content: There is a strong relationship between individuals who abuse drugs and increased intentional and unintentional health-risk behaviors.

2.3.8.B.8 Analyze health risks associated with injected drug use.

2.3 Drugs and Medicines All students will acquire knowledge about alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and medicines and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
C. Dependency/Addiction and Treatment:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.2.C.1 Recognize that some people may have difficulty controlling their use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.4.C.1 Identify signs that a person might have an alcohol, tobacco, and/or drug use problem.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.6.C.1 Summarize the signs and symptoms of a substance abuse problem and the stages that lead to dependency/addiction.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.8.C.1 Compare and contrast theories about dependency/addiction (such as genetic predisposition, gender-related predisposition, and multiple risks) and provide recommendations that support a drug free life.
Content: The ability to interrupt a drug dependency/addiction typically requires outside intervention, a strong personal commitment, treatment, and the support of family, friends, and others.

2.3.12.C.1 Correlate duration of drug abuse to the incidence of drug-related injury, illness, and death.
Content: There are many ways to obtain help for treatment of alcohol, tobacco, and other substance abuse problems.

2.3.2.C.2 Explain that people who abuse alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs can get help.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.4.C.2 Differentiate between drug use, abuse, and misuse.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.6.C.2 Explain how wellness is affected during the stages of drug dependency/addiction.
Content: The ability to interrupt a drug dependency/addiction typically requires outside intervention, a strong personal commitment, treatment, and the support of family, friends, and others.

2.3.8.C.2 Summarize intervention strategies that assist family and friends to cope with the impact of substance abuse.
Content: The ability to interrupt a drug dependency/addiction typically requires outside intervention, a strong personal commitment, treatment, and the support of family, friends, and others.

2.3.12.C.2 Analyze the effectiveness of various strategies that support an individual’s ability to stop abusing drugs and remain drug-free.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.4.C.3 Determine how advertising, peer pressure, and home environment influence children and teenagers to experiment with alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
Content: Substance abuse is caused by a variety of factors.

2.3.6.C.3 Determine the extent to which various factors contribute to the use and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs by adolescents, such as peer pressure, low self-esteem, genetics, and poor role models.
Content: Substance abuse impacts individuals from all cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds.

2.3.12.C.3 Predict the societal impact of substance abuse on the individual, family, and community.
Content: There are many ways to obtain help for treatment of alcohol, tobacco, and other substance abuse problems.

2.3.6.C.4 Determine effective strategies to stop using alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, and that support the ability to remain drug-free.

2.4 Human Relationships and Sexuality All students will acquire knowledge about the physical, emotional, and social aspects of human relationships and sexuality and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Relationships:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: The family unit encompasses the diversity of family forms in contemporary society.

2.4.2.A.1 Compare and contrast different kinds of families locally and globally.
Content: The family unit encompasses the diversity of family forms in contemporary society.

2.4.4.A.1 Explain how families typically share common values, provide love and emotional support, and set boundaries and limits.
Content: Healthy relationships require a mutual commitment.

2.4.6.A.1 Compare and contrast how families may change over time.
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.1 Predict how changes within a family can impact family members.
Content: Individuals in healthy relationships share thoughts and feelings, have fun together, develop mutual respect, share responsibilities and goals, and provide emotional security for one another.

2.4.12.A.1 Compare and contrast how family structures, values, rituals, and traditions meet basic human needs worldwide.
Content: The family unit encompasses the diversity of family forms in contemporary society.

2.4.2.A.2 Distinguish the roles and responsibilities of different family members.
Content: The family unit encompasses the diversity of family forms in contemporary society.

2.4.4.A.2 Explain why healthy relationships are fostered in some families and not in others.
Content: Healthy relationships require a mutual commitment.

2.4.6.A.2 Analyze the characteristics of healthy friendships and other relationships.
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.2 Explain how the family unit impacts character development.
Content: Individuals in healthy relationships share thoughts and feelings, have fun together, develop mutual respect, share responsibilities and goals, and provide emotional security for one another.

2.4.12.A.2 Compare and contrast the current and historical role of life commitments, such as marriage.
Content: The family unit encompasses the diversity of family forms in contemporary society.

2.4.2.A.3 Determine the factors that contribute to healthy relationships.
Content: Healthy relationships require a mutual commitment.

2.4.6.A.3 Examine the types of relationships adolescents may experience.
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.3 Explain when the services of professionals are needed to intervene in relationships.
Content: Individuals in healthy relationships share thoughts and feelings, have fun together, develop mutual respect, share responsibilities and goals, and provide emotional security for one another.

2.4.12.A.3 Analyze how personal independence, past experience, and social responsibility influence the choice of friends in high school and young adulthood.
Content: Healthy relationships require a mutual commitment.

2.4.6.A.4 Demonstrate successful resolution of a problem(s) among friends and in other relationships.
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.4 Differentiate between affection, love, commitment, and sexual attraction.
Content: Individuals in healthy relationships share thoughts and feelings, have fun together, develop mutual respect, share responsibilities and goals, and provide emotional security for one another.

2.4.12.A.4 Predict how relationships may evolve over time, focusing on changes in friendships, family, dating relationships, and lifetime commitments such as marriage.
Content: Healthy relationships require a mutual commitment.

2.4.6.A.5 Compare and contrast the role of dating and dating behaviors in adolescence.
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.5 Determine when a relationship is unhealthy and explain effective strategies to end the relationship.
Content: Individuals in healthy relationships share thoughts and feelings, have fun together, develop mutual respect, share responsibilities and goals, and provide emotional security for one another.

2.4.12.A.5 Determine effective prevention and intervention strategies to address domestic or dating violence (e.g., rules of consent).
Content: The values acquired from family, culture, personal experiences, and friends impact all types of relationships.

2.4.8.A.6 Develop acceptable criteria for safe dating situations, such as dating in groups, setting limits, or only dating someone of the same age.
Content: Technology impacts the capacity of individuals to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships.

2.4.12.A.6 Analyze how various technologies impact the development and maintenance of local and global interpersonal relationships.

2.4 Human Relationships and Sexuality All students will acquire knowledge about the physical, emotional, and social aspects of human relationships and sexuality and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
B. Sexuality:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Gender-specific similarities and differences exist between males and females.

2.4.2.B.1 Compare and contrast the physical differences and similarities of the genders.
Content: Puberty is the period of sexual development, determined primarily by heredity, in which the body becomes physically able to produce children.

2.4.4.B.1 Differentiate the physical, social, and emotional changes occurring at puberty and explain why puberty begins and ends at different ages.
Content: Most significant physical, emotional, and mental growth changes occur during adolescence, but not necessarily at the same rates.

2.4.6.B.1 Compare growth patterns of males and females during adolescence.
Content: Personal lifestyle habits and genetics influence sexual development as well as overall growth patterns.

2.4.8.B.1 Analyze the influence of hormones, nutrition, the environment, and heredity on the physical, social, and emotional changes that occur during puberty.
Content: The decision to become sexually active affects one’s physical, social, and emotional health.

2.4.12.B.1 Predict the possible long-term effects of adolescent sex on future education, on career plans, and on the various dimensions of wellness.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.6.B.2 Summarize strategies to remain abstinent and resist pressures to become sexually active.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.8.B.2 Determine the benefits of sexual abstinence and develop strategies to resist pressures to become sexually active.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.12.B.2 Evaluate information that supports abstinence from sexual activity using reliable research data.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.6.B.3 Determine behaviors that place one at risk for HIV/AIDS, STIs, HPV, or unintended pregnancy.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.8.B.3 Compare and contrast methods of contraception used by adolescents and factors that may influence their use.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.12.B.3 Analyze factors that influence the choice, use, and effectiveness of contraception, including risk-reduction and risk-elimination strategies.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.6.B.4 Predict the possible physical, social, and emotional impacts of adolescent decisions regarding sexual behavior.
Content: Responsible actions regarding sexual behavior impact the health of oneself and others.

2.4.8.B.4 Relate certain behaviors to placing one at greater risk for HIV/AIDS, STIs, and unintended pregnancy.
Content: Discussion of topics regarding sexuality requires a safe, supportive environment where sensitivity and respect is shown toward all.

2.4.12.B.4 Compare and contrast attitudes and beliefs about gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender equity across cultures.
Content: Discussion of topics regarding sexuality requires a safe, supportive environment where sensitivity and respect is shown toward all.

2.4.8.B.5 Discuss topics regarding gender identity, sexual orientation, and cultural stereotyping.
Content: Early detection strategies and regular physical exams assist in the prevention and treatment of illness or disease.

2.4.12.B.5 Relate preventative healthcare strategies of male/female reproductive systems to the prevention and treatment of disease (e.g., breast/testicular exams, Pap smear, HPV vaccine).
Content: Early detection strategies assist in the prevention and treatment of illness or disease.

2.4.8.B.6 Explain the importance of practicing routine healthcare procedures such as breast self-examination, testicular examinations, and HPV vaccine.

2.4 Human Relationships and Sexuality All students will acquire knowledge about the physical, emotional, and social aspects of human relationships and sexuality and apply these concepts to support a healthy, active lifestyle.
C. Pregnancy and Parenting:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: The health of the birth mother impacts the development of the fetus.

2.4.2.C.1 Explain the factors that contribute to a mother having a healthy baby.
Content: Knowing the physiological process of how pregnancy occurs as well as development of the fetus leading to childbirth contribute to a greater understanding of how and why a healthy environment should be provided for the pregnant mother.

2.4.4.C.1 Explain the process of fertilization and how cells divide to create an embryo/fetus that grows and develops during pregnancy.
Content: Knowing the physiological process of how pregnancy occurs as well as development of the fetus leading to child birth contribute to a greater understanding of how and why a healthy environment should be provided for the pregnant mother.

2.4.6.C.1 Summarize the sequence of fertilization, embryonic growth, and fetal development during pregnancy.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.8.C.1 Summarize the signs and symptoms of pregnancy and the methods available to confirm pregnancy.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.1 Compare embryonic growth and fetal development in single and multiple pregnancies, including the incidence of complications and infant mortality.
Content: The health of the birth mother impacts the development of the fetus.

2.4.4.C.2 Relate the health of the birth mother to the development of a healthy fetus.
Content: Knowing the physiological process of how pregnancy occurs as well as development of the fetus leading to child birth contribute to a greater understanding of how and why a healthy environment should be provided for the pregnant mother.

2.4.6.C.2 Identify the signs and symptoms of pregnancy.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.8.C.2 Distinguish physical, social, and emotional changes that occur during each stage of pregnancy, including the stages of labor and childbirth and the adjustment period following birth.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.2 Analyze the relationship of an individual’s lifestyle choices during pregnancy and the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome, sudden infant death syndrome, low birth weight, premature birth, and other disabilities.
Content: Knowing the physiological process of how pregnancy occurs as well as development of the fetus leading to child birth contribute to a greater understanding of how and why a healthy environment should be provided for the pregnant mother.

2.4.6.C.3 Identify prenatal practices that support a healthy pregnancy.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.8.C.3 Determine effective strategies and resources to assist with parenting.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.3 Evaluate the methods and resources available to confirm pregnancy.
Content: Adolescent parents may have difficulty adjusting to emotional and financial responsibilities of parenthood.

2.4.6.C.4 Predict challenges that may be faced by adolescent parents and their families.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.8.C.4 Predict short- and long-term impacts of teen pregnancy.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.4 Determine the impact of physical, social, emotional, cultural, religious, ethical, and legal issues on elective pregnancy termination.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.8.C.5 Correlate prenatal care with the prevention of complications that may occur during pregnancy and childbirth.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.5 Evaluate parenting strategies used at various stages of child development based on valid sources of information.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.6 Compare the legal rights and responsibilities of adolescents with those of adults regarding pregnancy, abortion, and parenting.
Content: Pregnancy, childbirth, and parenthood are significant events that cause numerous changes in one’s life and the lives of others.

2.4.12.C.7 Analyze factors that affect the decision to become a parent.

2.5 Motor Skill Development All students will utilize safe, efficient, and effective movement to develop and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Movement Skills and Concepts:
PreschoolBy the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing competence and confidence in gross and fine motor skills provides a foundation for participation in physical activities.

2.5.P.A.1 Develop and refine gross motor skills (e.g., hopping, galloping, jumping, running, and marching).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.2.A.1 Explain and perform movement skills with developmentally appropriate control in isolated settings (i.e., skill practice) and applied settings (i.e., games, sports, dance, and recreational activities).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.4.A.1 Explain and perform essential elements of movement skills in both isolated settings (i.e., skill practice) and applied settings (i.e., games, sports, dance, and recreational activities).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.6.A.1 Explain and perform movement skills that combine mechanically correct movement in smooth flowing sequences in isolated settings (i.e., skill practice) and applied settings (i.e., games, sports, dance, and recreational activities).
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.8.A.1 Explain and demonstrate the transition of movement skills from isolated settings (i.e., skill practice) into applied settings (i.e., games, sports, dance, and recreational activities).
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.12.A.1 Explain and demonstrate ways to transfer movement skills from one game, sport, dance, or recreational activity to another (e.g., striking skills from/to tennis, badminton, ping pong, racquetball).
Content: Developing competence and confidence in gross and fine motor skills provides a foundation for participation in physical activities.

2.5.P.A.2 Develop and refine fine motor skills (e.g., completes gradually more complex puzzles, uses smaller-sized manipulatives during play, and uses a variety of writing instruments in a conventional manner).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.2.A.2 Demonstrate changes in time, force, and flow while moving in personal and general space at different levels, directions, ranges, and pathways.
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.4.A.2 Use body management skills and demonstrate control when moving in relation to others, objects, and boundaries in personal and general space.
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.6.A.2 Explain concepts of force and motion and demonstrate control while modifying force, flow, time, space, and relationships in interactive dynamic environments.
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.8.A.2 Apply the concepts of force and motion (weight transfer, power, speed, agility, range of motion) to impact performance.
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.12.A.2 Analyze application of force and motion (weight transfer, power, speed, agility, range of motion) and modify movement to impact performance.
Content: Developing competence and confidence in gross and fine motor skills provides a foundation for participation in physical activities.

2.5.P.A.3 Use objects and props to develop spatial and coordination skills (e.g., throws and catches balls and Frisbees, twirls a hula-hoop about the hips, walks a balance beam, laces different sized beads, and buttons and unbuttons).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.2.A.3 Respond in movement to changes in tempo, beat, rhythm, or musical style.
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.4.A.3 Explain and demonstrate movement sequences, individually and with others, in response to various tempos, rhythms, and musical styles.
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.6.A.3 Create and demonstrate planned movement sequences, individually and with others, based on tempo, beat, rhythm, and music (creative, cultural, social, and fitness dance).
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.8.A.3 Create, explain, and demonstrate, as a small group, a planned movement sequence that includes changes in rhythm, tempo, and musical style (creative, cultural, social, and fitness dance).
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.12.A.3 Design and lead a rhythmic activity that includes variations in time, space, force, flow, and relationships (creative, cultural, social, and fitness dance).
Content: Understanding of fundamental concepts related to effective execution of actions provides the foundation for participation in games, sports, dance, and recreational activities.

2.5.2.A.4 Correct movement errors in response to feedback.
Content: Ongoing feedback impacts improvement and effectiveness of movement actions.

2.5.4.A.4 Correct movement errors in response to feedback and explain how the change improves performance.
Content: Performing movement skills effectively is often based on an individual’s ability to analyze one’s own performance as well as receive constructive feedback from others.

2.5.6.A.4 Use self-evaluation and external feedback to detect and correct errors in one’s movement performance.
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.8.A.4 Detect, analyze, and correct errors and apply to refine movement skills.
Content: Movement skill performance is primarily impacted by the quality of instruction, practice, assessment, feedback, and effort.

2.5.12.A.4 Critique a movement skill/performance and discuss how each part can be made more interesting, creative, efficient, and effective.

2.5 Motor Skill Development All students will utilize safe, efficient, and effective movement to develop and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle.
B. Strategy:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Teamwork consists of effective communication and other interactions between team members.

2.5.2.B.1 Differentiate when to use competitive and cooperative strategies in games, sports, and other movement activities.
Content: Offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies are applied in most games, sports, and other activity situations.

2.5.4.B.1 Explain and demonstrate the use of basic offensive and defensive strategies (e.g., player positioning, faking, dodging, creating open areas, and defending space).
Content: There is a relationship between applying effective tactical strategies and achieving individual and team goals when competing in games, sports, and other activity situations.

2.5.6.B.1 Demonstrate the use of offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies in individual, dual, and team activities.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.8.B.1 Compare and contrast the use of offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies in a variety of settings.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.12.B.1 Demonstrate and assess tactical understanding by using appropriate and effective offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies.
Content: Teamwork consists of effective communication and other interactions between team members.

2.5.2.B.2 Explain the difference between offense and defense.
Content: Offensive, defensive, and cooperative strategies are applied in most games, sports, and other activity situations.

2.5.4.B.2 Acknowledge the contributions of team members and choose appropriate ways to motivate and celebrate accomplishments.
Content: There is a relationship between applying effective tactical strategies and achieving individual and team goals when competing in games, sports, and other activity situations.

2.5.6.B.2 Compare and contrast strategies used to impact individual and team effectiveness and make modifications for improvement.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.8.B.2 Assess the effectiveness of specific mental strategies applied to improve performance.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.12.B.2 Apply a variety of mental strategies to improve performance.
Content: Teamwork consists of effective communication and other interactions between team members.

2.5.2.B.3 Determine how attitude impacts physical performance.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.8.B.3 Analyze individual and team effectiveness in achieving a goal and make recommendations for improvement.
Content: Individual and team execution in games, sports, and other activity situations is based on the interaction of tactical use of strategies, positive mental attitudes, competent skill levels, and teamwork.

2.5.12.B.3 Analyze factors that influence intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and employ techniques to enhance individual and team effectiveness.
Content: Teamwork consists of effective communication and other interactions between team members.

2.5.2.B.4 Demonstrate strategies that enable team members to achieve goals.

2.5 Motor Skill Development All students will utilize safe, efficient, and effective movement to develop and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle.
C. Sportsmanship, Rules, and Safety:
By the end of Grade 2By the end of Grade 4By the end of Grade 6By the end of Grade 8By the end of Grade 12
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.2.C.1 Explain what it means to demonstrate good sportsmanship.
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.4.C.1 Summarize the characteristics of good sportsmanship and demonstrate appropriate behavior as both a player and an observer.
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.6.C.1 Compare the roles and responsibilities of players and observers and recommend strategies to enhance sportsmanship-like behavior.
Content: Self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success include safety practices, adherence to rules, etiquette, cooperation, teamwork, ethical behavior, and positive social interaction.

2.5.8.C.1 Assess player behavior for evidence of sportsmanship in individual, small-group, and team activities.
Content: Self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success include safety practices, adherence to rules, etiquette, cooperation, teamwork, ethical behavior, and positive social interaction.

2.5.12.C.1 Analyze the role, responsibilities, and preparation of players, officials, trainers, and other participants and recommend strategies to improve their performance and behavior.
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.2.C.2 Demonstrate basic activity and safety rules and explain how they contribute to moving in a safe environment.
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.4.C.2 Apply specific rules and procedures during physical activity and explain how they contribute to a safe active environment.
Content: Practicing appropriate and safe behaviors while participating in and viewing games, sports, and other competitive events contributes to enjoyment of the event.

2.5.6.C.2 Apply rules and procedures for specific games, sports, and other competitive activities and describe how they enhance participation and safety.
Content: Self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success include safety practices, adherence to rules, etiquette, cooperation, teamwork, ethical behavior, and positive social interaction.

2.5.8.C.2 Summarize types of equipment, products, procedures, and rules that contribute to the safety of specific individual, small-group, and team activities.
Content: Self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success include safety practices, adherence to rules, etiquette, cooperation, teamwork, ethical behavior, and positive social interaction.

2.5.12.C.2 Develop rule changes to existing games, sports, and activities that enhance safety and enjoyment.
Content: There is a strong cultural, ethnic, and historical background associated with competitive sports and dance.

2.5.6.C.3 Relate the origin and rules associated with certain games, sports, and dances to different cultures.
Content: Movement activities provide a timeless opportunity to connect with people around the world.

2.5.8.C.3 Analyze the impact of different world cultures on present-day games, sports, and dance.
Content: Cultural practices regarding physical activity, sports, and games reflect a microcosm of society.

2.5.12.C.3 Determine the current impact of globalization and technology on the development of, participation in, and viewing of games, sports, dance, and other movement activities, and predict future impact.

2.6 Fitness All students will apply health-related and skill-related fitness concepts and skills to develop and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle.
A. Fitness and Physical Activity:
Preschool By the end of Grade 2 By the end of Grade 4 By the end of Grade 6 By the end of Grade 8 By the end of Grade 12
Content: Developing competence and confidence in gross and fine motor skills provides a foundation for participation in physical activities.

2.6.P.A.1 Develop and refine gross motor skills (e.g., hopping, galloping, jumping, running, and marching).
Content: Appropriate types and amounts of physical activity enhance personal health.

2.6.2.A.1 Explain the role of regular physical activity in relation to personal health.
Content: Each component of fitness contributes to personal health as well as motor skill performance.

2.6.4.A.1 Determine the physical, social, emotional, and intellectual benefits of regular physical activity.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.1 Analyze the social. emotional, and health benefits of selected physical experiences.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.1 Summarize the short- and long-term physical, social, and emotional benefits of regular physical activity.
Content: Taking personal responsibility to develop and maintain physical activity levels provides opportunities for increased health, fitness, enjoyment, challenges, self-expression, and social interaction.

2.6.12.A.1 Compare the short- and long-term impact on wellness associated with physical inactivity.
Content: Developing competence and confidence in gross and fine motor skills provides a foundation for participation in physical activities.

2.6.P.A.2 Develop and refine fine motor skills (e.g., completes gradually more complex puzzles, uses smaller-sized manipulatives during play, and uses a variety of writing instruments in a conventional manner).
Content: Appropriate types and amounts of physical activity enhance personal health.

2.6.2.A.2 Explain what it means to be physically fit and engage in moderate to vigorous age-appropriate activities that promote fitness.
Content: Each component of fitness contributes to personal health as well as motor skill performance.

2.6.4.A.2 Participate in moderate to vigorous age-appropriate activities that address each component of health-related and skill-related fitness.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.2 Determine to what extent various activities improve skill-related fitness versus health-related fitness.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.2 Use health data to develop and implement a personal fitness plan and evaluate its effectiveness.
Content: Taking personal responsibility to develop and maintain physical activity levels provides opportunities for increased health, fitness, enjoyment, challenges, self-expression, and social interaction.

2.6.12.A.2 Design, implement, and evaluate a fitness plan that reflects knowledge and application of fitness-training principles.
Content: Appropriate types and amounts of physical activity enhance personal health.

2.6.2.A.3 Develop a fitness goal and monitor progress towards achievement of the goal.
Content: Each component of fitness contributes to personal health as well as motor skill performance.

2.6.4.A.3 Develop a health-related fitness goal and track progress using health/fitness indicators.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.3 Develop and implement a fitness plan based on the assessment of one’s personal fitness level, and monitor health/fitness indicators before, during, and after the program.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.3 Analyze how medical and technological advances impact personal fitness.
Content: Taking personal responsibility to develop and maintain physical activity levels provides opportunities for increased health, fitness, enjoyment, challenges, self-expression, and social interaction.

2.6.12.A.3 Determine the role of genetics, gender, age, nutrition, activity level, and exercise type on body composition.
Content: Each component of fitness contributes to personal health as well as motor skill performance.

2.6.4.A.4 Determine the extent to which different factors influence personal fitness, such as heredity, training, diet, and technology.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.4 Predict how factors such as health status, interests, environmental conditions, and available time may impact personal fitness.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.4 Determine ways to achieve a healthy body composition through healthy eating, physical activity, and other lifestyle behaviors.
Content: Taking personal responsibility to develop and maintain physical activity levels provides opportunities for increased health, fitness, enjoyment, challenges, self-expression, and social interaction.

2.6.12.A.4 Compare and contrast the impact of health-related fitness components as a measure of fitness and health.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.5 Relate physical activity, healthy eating, and body composition to personal fitness and health.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.5 Use the primary principles of training (FITT) for the purposes of modifying personal levels of fitness.
Content: Taking personal responsibility to develop and maintain physical activity levels provides opportunities for increased health, fitness, enjoyment, challenges, self-expression, and social interaction.

2.6.12.A.5 Debate the use of performance-enhancing substances (i.e., anabolic steroids and other legal and illegal substances) to improve performance.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.6 Explain and apply the training principles of frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) to improve personal fitness.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective training principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.8.A.6 Determine the physical, behavioral, legal, and ethical consequences of the use of anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing substances.
Content: Knowing and applying a variety of effective fitness principles over time enhances personal fitness level, performance, and health status.

2.6.6.A.7 Evaluate the short- and long-term effects of anabolic steroids and other performance-enhancing substances on personal health.