Core Curriculum Content Standards

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Science Standards Learning Progressions

5.2 Physical Science All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
B. Changes in Matter: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.
Preschool By the end of Grade 2 By the end of Grade 4 By the end of Grade 6 By the end of Grade 8 By the end of Grade 12
Content: Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of changes in matter.

5.2.P.B.1 Explore changes in liquids and solids when substances are combined, heated, or cooled (e.g., mix sand or clay with various amounts of water; mix different colors of tempera paints; freeze and melt water and other liquids).
Content: Some properties of matter can change as a result of processes such as heating and cooling. Not all materials respond the same way to these processes.

5.2.2.B.1 Generate accurate data and organize arguments to show that not all substances respond the same way when heated or cooled, using common materials, such as shortening or candle wax.
Content: Many substances can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling.

5.2.4.B.1 Predict and explain what happens when a common substance, such as shortening or candle wax, is heated to melting and then cooled to a solid.
Content: When a new substance is made by combining two or more substances, it has properties that are different from the original substances.

5.2.6.B.1 Compare the properties of reactants with the properties of the products when two or more substances are combined and react chemically.
Content: When substances undergo chemical change, the number and kinds of atoms in the reactants are the same as the number and kinds of atoms in the products. The mass of the reactants is the same as the mass of the products.

5.2.8.B.1 Explain, using an understanding of the concept of chemical change, why the mass of reactants and the mass of products remain constant.
Content: An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions.

5.2.12.B.1 Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds they tend to form.
Content: Chemical changes can occur when two substances, elements, or compounds react and produce one or more different substances. The physical and chemical properties of the products are different from those of the reacting substances.

5.2.8.B.2 Compare and contrast the physical properties of reactants with products after a chemical reaction, such as those that occur during photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Content: A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.

5.2.12.B.2 Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
Content: The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.

5.2.12.B.3 Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.