Core Curriculum Content Standards

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Science Standards Learning Progressions

5.2 Physical Science All students will understand that physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.
E. Forces and Motion: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.
 Preschool By the end of Grade 2 By the end of Grade 4 By the end of Grade 6 By the end of Grade 8 By the end of Grade 12 Content: Observations and investigations form a basis for young learners’ understanding of motion. 5.2.P.E.1 Investigate how and why things move (e.g., slide blocks, balance structures, push structures over, use ramps to explore how far and how fast different objects move or roll). Content: Objects can move in many different ways (fast and slow, in a straight line, in a circular path, zigzag, and back and forth). 5.2.2.E.1 Investigate and model the various ways that inanimate objects can move. Content: Motion can be described as a change in position over a period of time. 5.2.4.E.1 Demonstrate through modeling that motion is a change in position over a period of time. Content: An object’s position can be described by locating the object relative to other objects or a background. The description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from that reported from a different observer’s view. 5.2.6.E.1 Model and explain how the description of an object’s motion from one observer’s view may be different from a different observer’s view. Content: An object is in motion when its position is changing. The speed of an object is defined by how far it travels divided by the amount of time it took to travel that far. 5.2.8.E.1 Calculate the speed of an object when given distance and time. Content: The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time. 5.2.12.E.1 Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and measured values. Content: A force is a push or a pull. Pushing or pulling can move an object. The speed an object moves is related to how strongly it is pushed or pulled. When an object does not move in response to a push or a pull, it is because another push or pull (friction) is being applied by the environment. 5.2.2.E.2 Predict an object’s relative speed, path, or how far it will travel using various forces and surfaces. Content: There is always a force involved when something starts moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. A greater force can make an object move faster and farther. 5.2.4.E.2 Identify the force that starts something moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. Content: Magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces can act at a distance. 5.2.6.E.2 Describe the force between two magnets as the distance between them is changed. Content: Forces have magnitude and direction. Forces can be added. The net force on an object is the sum of all the forces acting on the object. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. 5.2.8.E.2 Compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object acted on by unbalanced forces in a given specific scenario. Content: Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational). 5.2.12.E.2 Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential applications of this understanding. Content: Some forces act by touching, while other forces can act without touching. 5.2.2.E.3 Distinguish a force that acts by direct contact with an object (e.g., by pushing or pulling) from a force that can act without direct contact (e.g., the attraction between a magnet and a steel paper clip). Content: Magnets can repel or attract other magnets, but they attract all matter made of iron. Magnets can make some things move without being touched. 5.2.4.E.3 Investigate and categorize materials based on their interaction with magnets. Content: Friction is a force that acts to slow or stop the motion of objects. 5.2.6.E.3 Demonstrate and explain the frictional force acting on an object with the use of a physical model. Content: The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied. 5.2.12.E.3 Create simple models to demonstrate the benefits of seatbelts using Newton's first law of motion. Content: Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. Weight is a measure of how strongly an object is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where they are on Earth. 5.2.4.E.4 Investigate, construct, and generalize rules for the effect that force of gravity has on balls of different sizes and weights. Content: Sinking and floating can be predicted using forces that depend on the relative densities of objects and materials. 5.2.6.E.4 Predict if an object will sink or float using evidence and reasoning. Content: The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force. 5.2.12.E.4 Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.