Core Curriculum Content Standards

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NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: Visual and Performing Arts
Content Area Visual and Performing Arts
Standard 1.1 The Creative Process All students will demonstrate an understanding of the elements and principles that govern the creation of works of art in dance, music, theatre, and visual art.
Strand A. Dance
By the end of grade Content Statement CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
NOTE: By the end of grade 2, all students progress toward BASIC LITERACY in the following content knowledge and skills in DANCE.
Original choreography and improvisation of movement sequences begins with basic understanding of the elements of dance.
1.1.2.A.1 Identify the elements of dance in planned and improvised dance sequences.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Original movement is generated through improvisational skills and techniques.
1.1.2.A.2 Use improvisation to discover new movement to fulfill the intent of the choreography.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
There are distinct differences between pedestrian movements and formal training in dance.
1.1.2.A.3 Demonstrate the difference between pantomime, pedestrian movement, abstract gesture, and dance movement.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
The coordination and isolation of different body parts is dependent on the dynamic alignment of the body while standing and moving.
1.1.2.A.4 Apply and adapt isolated and coordinated body part articulations, body alignment, balance, and body patterning.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
NOTE: By the end of grade 5, all students demonstrate BASIC LITERACY in the following content knowledge and skills in DANCE.
Basic choreographed structures employ the elements of dance.
1.1.5.A.1 Analyze both formal and expressive aspects of time, shape, space, and energy, and differentiate basic choreographic structures in various dance works.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Movement is developed and generated through improvisation. Form and structure are important when interpreting original choreography.
1.1.5.A.2 Analyze the use of improvisation that fulfills the intent of and develops choreography in both its form and structure.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Musical and non-musical forms of sound can affect meaning in choreography and improvisation.
1.1.5.A.3 Determine how accompaniment (such as sound, spoken text, or silence) can affect choreography and improvisation.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Compositional works are distinguished by the use of various body movements and sources of initiation (i.e., central, peripheral, or transverse).
1.1.5.A.4 Differentiate contrasting and complimentary shapes, shared weight centers, body parts, body patterning, balance, and range of motion in compositions and performances.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
NOTE: By the end of grade 8, those students choosing DANCE as their required area of specialization demonstrate COMPETENCY in the following content knowledge and skills.
Numerous formal choreographic structures can be used to develop the elements of dance in the creation of dance works.
1.1.8.A.1 Interpret the choreographic structures of contrast and transition, the process of reordering and chance, and the structures of AB, ABA, canon, call and response, and narrative.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Styles and techniques in dance are defined by the ways in which the elements of dance and choreographic principles are manipulated in the creation of dance compositions.
1.1.8.A.2 Analyze dance techniques and styles to discern the compositional use of the elements of dance and choreographic principles relating to dynamics, as well as to discern spatial relationships.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Dance employs various themes and arts media to engage the viewer, develop meaning, and communicate emotions.
1.1.8.A.3 Examine how dance compositions are influenced by various social themes and arts media (e.g., dance for camera, interactive, telematics).                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
The quality of integrated movement depends on body alignment and the synchronized use of major and minor muscle groups. Variety in body patterns, range of motion, application of the elements of dance, and skill level enhance dance compositions and performance.
1.1.8.A.4 Integrate a variety of isolated and coordinated movements in dance compositions and performances, making use of all major muscle groups, proper body mechanics, body patterning, balance, and range of motion.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
NOTE: By the end of grade 12, those students choosing DANCE as their required area of specialization demonstrate PROFICIENCY in the following content knowledge and skills.
Creating master works in dance requires ability to comprehend, articulate, and manipulate time, space, and energy across and within a broad spectrum of choreographic structures and through the use of many choreographic devices.
1.1.12.A.1 Articulate understanding of choreographic structures or forms (e.g., palindrome, theme and variation, rondo, retrograde, inversion, narrative, and accumulation) in master works of dance.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Acute kinesthetic awareness and mastery of composition are essential for creating and interpreting master works of art.
1.1.12.A.2 Categorize the elements, principles, and choreographic structures of dance masterworks.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Interpretation of dance is heavily reliant on its context.
1.1.12.A.3 Analyze issues of gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, politics, age, and physical conditioning in relation to dance performances.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Artistry in dance performance is accomplished through complete integration of anatomical principles and clear direction of intent and purpose.
1.1.12.A.4 Synthesize knowledge of anatomical principles related to body alignment, body patterning, balance, strength, and coordination in compositions and performances.                                                                                                                                                                                                                            


Archetypal work of art: An artwork that epitomizes a genre of art.

Art genres: Artworks that share characteristic approaches to content, form, style, and design. Each of the four arts disciplines is associated with different genres.

Arts media: Artistic methods, processes, or means of expression (e.g., presentation mechanisms such as screen, print, auditory, or tactile modes) used to produce a work of art.

Art medium(s): Any material or technique used for expression in art. In art, "medium" refers to the physical substance used to create artwork. Types of materials include clay, pencil, paint, and others.

Artistic processes: For example, expressionism, abstractionism/nonobjectivism, realism, naturalism, impressionism, and others.

Balance: For example, in dance, complementary positions that are on or off the vertical, horizontal, or transverse axes.

Basic Literacy: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-5 arts standards. Basic Literacy is attained when a student can:

  1. Respond to artworks with empathy.
  2. Understand that artwork reflects historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives.
  3. Perform in all four arts disciplines at an age-appropriate level.
  4. Draw similarities within and across the arts disciplines.

Body patterning: For example, in dance, unilateral movement, contra-lateral movement, upper/lower body coordination, or standing or moving on two feet vs. one foot during movement patterns.

Characteristics of a well-made play: Inciting incident, confrontation, rising action, climax, dénouement, and resolution.

Choreographic structures: For example, AB, ABA, canon, call and response, narrative, rondo, palindrome, theme, variation, and others.

Competency: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-8 arts standards. Competency is attained when a student can:

  1. Respond to artworks with developing understanding, calling upon acquaintance with works of art from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
  2. Perceive artworks from structural, historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives.
  3. Perform in a chosen area of the arts with developing technical ability, as well as the ability to recognize and conceive solutions to artistic problems.
  4. Understand how various types of arts knowledge and skills are related within and across the arts disciplines.
Compound meter: Measures of music in which the upper numerator is divisible by three such as 6/8 or 9/8 time.
Consummate works of art: Expertly articulated concepts or renderings of artwork.

Discipline-specific arts terminology: Language used to talk about art that is specific to the arts discipline (dance, music, theatre, or visual art) in which it was created.

Ear training and listening skill: The development of sensitivity to relative pitch, rhythm, timbre, dynamics, form, and melody, and the application of sight singing/reading or playing techniques, diction/intonation, chord recognition, error detection, and related activities.

Effort Actions: "Effort actions," or more accurately "incomplete effort actions," specifically refers to nomenclature from Laban Movement Analysis-perhaps the most commonly employed international language of dance. The term refers to any of eight broad classifications or categories of movement: gliding, floating, dabbing, flicking, slashing, thrusting, pressing, and wringing. Each effort action has a specific relationship to the elements of dance (i.e., time, space, and energy) and is paired with another effort action (gliding & floating, dabbing & flicking, slashing & thrusting, pressing & wringing).

Elements of art: The compositional building blocks of visual art, including line, color, shape, form, texture, and space.

Elements of dance: The compositional building blocks of dance, including time, space, and energy.

Elements of music: The compositional building blocks of music, including texture, harmony, melody, and rhythm.

Elements of theatre: The compositional building blocks of theatre, including but not limited to plot, character, action, spectacle, and sound.

Exemplary works: Works representing genres of art that may be examined from structural, historical, and cultural perspectives.

Formalism: The concept that a work's artistic value is entirely determined by its form-the way it is made, its purely visual aspects, and its medium. The context for the work is of secondary importance. Formalism predominated Western art from the late 1800s to the 1960s.

Historical eras in the arts: Artworks that share distinct characteristics and common themes associated with a period of history.

Home tone: The first or key tone of any scale; the same as the tonic.

Kinesthetic awareness: Spatial sense.

Kinesthetic principles: Principles having to do with the physics of movement, such as work, force, velocity, and torque.

Locomotor and non-locomotor movements: Locomotor movements involve travel through space (e.g., walking, running, hopping, jumping, leaping, galloping, sliding, skipping), while non-locomotor movements are performed within a personal kinesphere and do not travel through space (e.g., axial turns).

Media Arts: For example, television, film, video, radio, and electronic media.

Mixed meter: A time signature in which each measure is divided into three or more parts, or two uneven parts, calling for the measures to be played with principles, and with subordinate metric accents causing the sensation of beats (e.g., 5/4 and 7/4 time, among others).

Movement affinities: The execution of dance phrases with relation to music. Dancers tend toward either lyricism (using the expressive quality of music through the full extension of the body following the accented beat), or bravura dancing (in which the dancer tends to accent the musical beat). Both are technically correct, but are used in different circumstances.

Musical families: The categorization of musical instruments according to shared physical properties, such as strings, percussion, brass, or woodwinds.

Music composition: Prescribed rules and forms used to create music, such as melodic line and basic chordal structures, many of which are embedded in electronic music notation programs, and which can apply equally to improvised and scored music.

New art media and methodologies: Artistic works that have a technological component, such as digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, computer robotics, and others.

Orff instruments: Precursors to melodic musical instruments, such as hand drums, xylophones, metalliphones, wood blocks, triangles, and others.

Ostinato: A short melodic phrase persistently repeated by the same voice or instrument.

Physical and vocal skills: For example, articulation, breath control, projection, body alignment.

Principles of design: Balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis, and unity.

Proficiency: A level of achievement that indicates a student meets or exceeds the K-12 arts standards. Proficiency is attained when a student can:

  1. Respond to artworks with insight and depth of understanding, calling upon informed acquaintance with exemplary works of art from a variety of cultures and historical periods.
  2. Develop and present basic analyses of artworks from structural, historical, cultural, and aesthetic perspectives, pointing to their impact on contemporary modes of expression.
  3. Perform in a chosen area of the arts with consistency, artistic nuance, and technical ability, defining and solving artistic problems with insight, reason, and technical proficiency.
  4. Relate various types of arts knowledge and skills within and across the arts disciplines, by mixing and matching competencies and understandings in art-making, history, culture, and analysis in any arts-related project.

Sensory recall: A technique actors commonly employ to heighten the believability of a character, which involves using sense memory to inform their choices.

Technical proficiency and artistry in dance performance: Works executed with clarity, musicality, and stylistic nuance that exhibit sound anatomical and kinesthetic principles.

Technical theatrical elements: Technical aspects of theatre, such as lighting, sets, properties, and sound.

Theatrical genres: Classifications of plays with common characteristics. For example, classical plays, post modern drama, commedia dell' arte, historical plays, restoration comedy, English renaissance revenge plays, and others.

Utilitarian and non-utilitarian art: Art may be functional (i.e., utilitarian) or decorative (i.e., non-utilitarian).

Visual communication: The sharing of ideas primarily through visual means-a concept that is commonly associated with two-dimensional images. Visual communication explores the notion that visual messages have power to inform, educate or persuade. The success of visual communication is often determined by measuring the audience's comprehension of the artist's intent, and is not based aesthetic or artistic preference. In the era of electronic communication, the importance of visual communication is heightened because visual displays help users understand the communication taking place.

Visual literacy: The ability to understand subject matter and the meaning of visual artworks within a given cultural context; the ability to communicate in a wide array of art media and express oneself in at least one visual discipline.

Vocal placement: The physical properties and basic anatomy of sound generated by placing the voice in different parts of the body, such as a head voice and chest voice.