Core Curriculum Content Standards

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NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: Social Studies
Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Three Worlds Meet (Beginnings to 1620)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
1. Three Worlds Meet

Indigenous societies in the Western Hemisphere migrated and changed in response to the physical environment and due to their interactions with Europeans.

European exploration expanded global economic and cultural exchange into the Western Hemisphere.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.1.a Compare and contrast forms of governance, belief systems, and family structures among African, European, and Native American groups.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.1.a Describe migration and settlement patterns of Native American groups, and explain how these patterns affected interactions in different regions of the Western Hemisphere.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.1.b Analyze the world in spatial terms, using historical maps to determine what led to the exploration of new water and land routes.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.1.a Evaluate the impact of science, religion, and technology innovations on European exploration.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.1.b Explain why individuals and societies trade, how trade functions, and the role of trade during this period.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.1.a Compare and contrast gender roles, religion, values, cultural practices, and political systems of Native American groups.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.1.b Explain how interactions among African, European, and Native American groups began a cultural transformation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.1.c Evaluate the impact of the Colombian Exchange on ecology, agriculture, and culture from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Colonization and Settlement (1585-1763)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
2. Colonization and Settlement

The colonists adapted ideas from their European heritage and from Native American groups to develop new political and religious institutions and economic systems.

The slave labor system and the loss of Native American lives had a lasting impact on the development of the United States and American culture.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.2.a Determine the roles of religious freedom and participatory government in various North American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.2.b Explain how and why early government structures developed, and determine the impact of these early structures on the evolution of American politics and institutions.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.2.c Explain how race, gender, and status affected social, economic, and political opportunities during Colonial times.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.2.a Determine factors that impacted emigration, settlement patterns, and regional identities of the colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.2.b Compare and contrast how the search for natural resources resulted in conflict and cooperation among European colonists and Native American groups in the New World.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.2.a Relate slavery and indentured servitude to Colonial labor systems.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.2.b Explain the system of mercantilism and its impact on the economies of the colonies and European countries.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.2.c Analyze the impact of triangular trade on multiple nations and groups.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.2.a Analyze the power struggle among European countries, and determine its impact on people living in Europe and the Americas.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.2.b Compare and contrast the voluntary and involuntary migratory experiences of different groups of people, and explain why their experiences differed.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
3. Revolution and the New Nation

Disputes over political authority and economic issues contributed to a movement for independence in the colonies.

The fundamental principles of the United States Constitution serve as the foundation of the United States government today
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.3.a Examine the ideals found in the Declaration of Independence, and assess the extent to which they were fulfilled for women, African Americans, and Native Americans during this time period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.b Evaluate the effectiveness of the fundamental principles of the Constitution (i.e., consent of the governed, rule of law, federalism, limited government, separation of powers, checks and balances, and individual rights) in establishing a federal government that allows for growth and change over time.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.c Determine the role that compromise played in the creation and adoption of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.d Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the UNITED STATES Constitution in terms of the decision-making powers of national government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.e Determine why the Alien and Sedition Acts were enacted and whether they undermined civil liberties.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.f Explain how political parties were formed and continue to be shaped by differing perspectives regarding the role and power of federal government.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.3.g Evaluate the impact of the Constitution and Bill of Rights on current day issues.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.3.a Assess how conflicts and alliances among European countries and Native American groups impacted the expansion of the American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.b Determine the extent to which the geography of the United States influenced the debate on representation in Congress and federalism by examining the New Jersey and Virginia plans.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.c Use maps and other geographic tools to evaluate the impact of geography on the execution and outcome of the American Revolutionary War.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.3.d Explain why New Jersey’s location played an integral role in the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.3.a Explain how taxes and government regulation can affect economic opportunities, and assess the impact of these on relations between Britain and its North American colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.3.b Summarize the effect of inflation and debt on the American people and the response of state and national governments during this time.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.3.c Evaluate the impact of the cotton gin and other innovations on the institution of slavery and on the economic and political development of the country.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.3.a Explain how the consequences of the Seven Years War, changes in British policies toward American colonies, and responses by various groups and individuals in the North American colonies led to the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.b Explain why the Declaration of Independence was written and how its key principles evolved to become unifying ideas of American democracy.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.c Analyze the impact of George Washington as general of the American revolutionary forces and as the first president of the United States.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.d Analyze how prominent individuals and other nations contributed to the causes, execution, and outcomes of the American Revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.e Examine the roles and perspectives of various socioeconomic groups (e.g., rural farmers, urban craftsmen, northern merchants, and southern planters), African Americans, Native Americans, and women during the American Revolution, and determine how these groups were impacted by the war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.f Analyze from multiple perspectives how the terms of the Treaty of Paris affected United States relations with Native Americans and with European powers that had territories in North America.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.3.g Evaluate the extent to which the leadership and decisions of early administrations of the national government met the goals established in the Preamble of the Constitution.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
4. Expansion and Reform

Westward movement, industrial growth, increased immigration, the expansion of slavery, and the development of transportation systems increased regional tensions.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.4.a Explain the changes in America’s relationships with other nations by analyzing policies, treaties, tariffs, and agreements.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.4.b Analyze how the concept of Manifest Destiny influenced the acquisition of land through annexation, diplomacy, and war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.4.c Assess the extent to which voting rights were expanded during the Jacksonian period.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.4.a Assess the impact of the Louisiana Purchase and western exploration on the expansion and economic development of the United States.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.B.4.b Map territorial expansion and settlement, as well as the locations of conflicts with and removal of Native Americans.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.4.a Analyze the debates involving the National Bank, uniform currency, and tariffs, and determine the extent to which each of these economic tools met the economic challenges facing the new nation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.4.b Explain how major technological developments revolutionized land and water transportation, as well as the economy, in New Jersey and nation.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.4.c Analyze how technological innovations affected the status and social class of different groups of people, and explain the outcomes that resulted.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.4.a Analyze the push-pull factors that led to increases in immigration, and explain why ethnic and cultural conflicts resulted.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.4.b Explore efforts to reform education, women’s rights, slavery, and other issues during the Antebellum period.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.4.c Explain the growing resistance to slavery and New Jersey’s role in the Underground Railroad.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.1 U.S. History: America in the World All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically about how past and present interactions of people, cultures, and the environment shape the American heritage. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions that reflect fundamental rights and core democratic values as productive citizens in local, national, and global communities.
Era Civil War and Reconstruction (1850-1877)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
5. Civil War and Reconstruction

The Civil War resulted from complex regional differences involving political, economic, and social issues, as well as different views on slavery.

The Civil War and Reconstruction had a lasting impact on the development of the United States.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.1.8.A.5.a Explain how and why the Emancipation Proclamation and the Gettysburg Address continue to impact American life.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.A.5.b Compare and contrast the approaches of Congress and Presidents Lincoln and Johnson toward the reconstruction of the South.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.1.8.B.5.a Determine the role of geography, natural resources, demographics, transportation, and technology in the progress and outcome of the Civil War.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.1.8.C.5.a Assess the human and material costs of the Civil War in the North and South.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.C.5.b Analyze the economic impact of Reconstruction on the South from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.1.8.D.5.a Prioritize the causes and events that led to the Civil War from different perspectives.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.b Analyze critical events and battles of the Civil War and determine how they contributed to the final outcome of the war.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.c Examine the roles of women, African Americans, and Native Americans in the Civil War.                                                                                                                          
6.1.8.D.5.d Analyze the effectiveness of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to the United States Constitution from multiple perspectives.

Social Studies Skills Table

Essential Question: What are effective strategies for accessing various sources of information and historical evidence, determining their validity, and using them to solve a problem or find a solution to a public policy question?
Social Studies Skill K-4 5-8 9-12
Chronological Thinking
  • Place key historical events and people in historical eras using timelines.
  • Construct timelines of the events occurring during major eras.
  • Compare present and past events to evaluate the consequences of past decisions and to apply lessons learned.
  • Explain how the present is connected to the past.
  • Explain how major events are related to one another in time.
  • Analyze how change occurs through time due to shifting values and beliefs as well as technological advancements and changes in the political and economic landscape.
Spatial Thinking
  • Determine locations of places and interpret information available on maps and globes.
  • Select and use various geographic representations to compare information about people, places, regions, and environments.
  • Construct various forms of geographic representations to show the spatial patterns of physical and human phenomena.
  • Use thematic maps and other geographic representations to obtain, describe, and compare spatial patterns and information about people, places, regions, and environments.
  • Use maps and other documents to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and growth of economic and political systems.
  • Relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
Critical Thinking
  • Distinguish fact from fiction.
  • Compare and contrast differing interpretations of current and historical events.
  • Distinguish valid arguments from false arguments when interpreting current and historical events.
  • Identify and use a variety of primary and secondary sources for reconstructing the past (i.e., documents, letters, diaries, maps, photos, etc.).
  • Assess the credibility of sources by identifying bias and prejudice in documents, media, and computer-generated information.
  • Evaluate sources for validity and credibility and to detect propaganda, censorship, and bias.
Presentational Skills
  • Use evidence to support an idea in a written and/or oral format.
  • Select and analyze information from a variety of sources to present a reasoned argument or position in a written and/or oral format.
  • Take a position on a current public policy issue and support it with historical evidence, reasoning, and constitutional analysis in a written and/or oral format.