Core Curriculum Content Standards

CCCS History | CCCS Home | Social Studies | Search:
NJ World Class Standards
Content Area: Social Studies
Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era The Beginnings of Human Society
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
1. The Beginnings of Human Society: Paleolithic and Neolithic Ages

Hunter/gatherers adapted to their physical environments using resources, the natural world, and technological advancements.

The agricultural revolution led to an increase in population, specialization of labor, new forms of social organization, and the beginning of societies.

Archaeology provides historical and scientific explanations for how ancient people lived.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.8.A.1.a Compare and contrast the social organization of early hunters/gatherers and those who lived in early agrarian societies.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.8.B.1.a Explain the various migratory patterns of hunters/gatherers who moved from Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, and describe the impact of migration on their lives and on the shaping of societies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.1.b Compare and contrast how nomadic and agrarian societies used land and natural resources.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.8.C.1.a Relate the agricultural revolution (including the impact of food surplus from farming) to population growth and the subsequent development of civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.1.b Determine the impact of technological advancements on hunter/gatherer and agrarian societies.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.8.D.1.a Demonstrate an understanding of pre-agricultural and post-agricultural periods in terms of relative length of time.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.1.b Relate the development of language and forms of writing to the expression of ideas, creation of cultural identity, and development of more complex social structures.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.1.c Explain how archaeological discoveries are used to develop and enhance understanding of life prior to written records.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples (4000-1000 BCE)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
2. Early Civilizations and the Emergence of Pastoral Peoples: Ancient River Valley Civilizations

Ancient river valley civilizations (e.g., Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus River [modern Pakistan and northwestern India], and, later, Yellow River Valley in China) developed due to favorable geographic conditions. They created centralized systems of government and advanced societies.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.8.A.2.a Explain why different ancient river valley civilizations developed similar forms of government.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.2.b Explain how codifying laws met the needs of ancient river valley societies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.2.c Determine the role of slavery in the economic and social structures of ancient river valley civilizations.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.8.B.2.a Determine the extent to which geography influenced settlement, the development of trade networks, technological innovations, and the sustainability of ancient river valley civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.2.b Compare and contrast physical and political maps of ancient river valley civilizations and their modern counterparts (i.e., Mesopotamia and Iraq; Ancient Egypt and Modern Egypt; Indus River Valley and Modern Pakistan/India; Ancient China and Modern China), and determine the geopolitical impact of these civilizations, then and now.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.8.C.2.a Explain how technological advancements led to greater economic specialization, improved weaponry, trade, and the development of a class system in ancient river valley civilizations.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.8.D.2.a Analyze the impact of religion on daily life, government, and culture in various ancient river valley civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.2.b Explain how the development of written language transformed all aspects of life in ancient river valley civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.2.c Analyze the factors that led to the rise and fall of various ancient river valley civilizations and determine whether there was a common pattern of growth and decline.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.2.d Justify which of the major achievements of the ancient river valley civilizations represent the most enduring legacies.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era The Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean World, India, and China (1000 BCE-600 CE)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
3. The Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean World, India, and China

Classical civilizations (i.e., Greece, Rome, India and China) developed and expanded into empires of unprecedented size and diversity by creating centralized governments and promoting commerce, a common culture, and social values.

Cultural exchange and diffusion dramatically increased, and enduring world religions emerged, during the era of classical civilizations.

Classical civilizations declined as a result of internal weaknesses and external invasions, but they left lasting legacies for future civilizations.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.8.A.3.a Compare and contrast the methods (i.e., autocratic rule, philosophies, and bureaucratic structures; communication and transportation systems) used by the rulers of Rome, China, and India to control and unify their expanding empires.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.3.b Compare and contrast the rights and responsibilities of free men, women, slaves, and foreigners in the political, economic, and social structures of classical civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.3.c Determine the foundational concepts and principles of Athenian democracy and the Roman Republic that later influenced the development of the United States Constitution.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.3.d Compare and contrast the roles and responsibilities of citizens in Athens and Sparta to those of United States citizens today, and evaluate how citizens perceived the principles of liberty and equality then and now.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.3.e Compare and contrast the American legal system and the legal systems of classical civilizations, and determine the extent to which the early systems influenced the current legal system.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.8.B.3.a Determine how geography and the availability of natural resources influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural systems of each of the classical civilizations and provided motivation for expansion.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.3.b Explain how geography and the availability of natural resources led to both the development of Greek city-states and to their demise.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.8.C.3.a Analyze the impact of expanding land and sea trade routes through the Mediterranean Basin, India, and China.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.3.b Explain how the development of a uniform system of exchange facilitated trade in classical civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.3.c Explain how classical civilizations used technology and innovation to enhance agricultural/manufacturing output and commerce, to expand military capabilities, to improve life in urban areas, and to allow for greater division of labor.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.8.D.3.a Compare and contrast social hierarchies in classical civilizations as they relate to power, wealth, and equality.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.3.b Relate the Chinese dynastic system to the longevity of authoritarian rule in China.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.3.c Determine common factors that contributed to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire, Gupta India, and Han China.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.3.d Compare the golden ages of Greece, Rome, India, and China, and justify major achievements that represent world legacies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.3.e Compare and contrast the tenets of various world religions that developed in or around this time period (i.e., Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Islam, Judaism, Sikhism, and Taoism), their patterns of expansion, and their responses to the current challenges of globalization.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.3.f Determine the extent to which religions, mythologies, and other belief systems shaped the values of classical societies.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era Expanding Exchanges and Encounters (500 CE-1450 CE)
Grade Level By the end of grade 8
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
4. Expanding Exchanges and Encounters

The emergence of empires (i.e., Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas) resulted from the promotion of interregional trade, cultural exchanges, new technologies, urbanization, and centralized political organization.

The rise and spread of new belief systems unified societies, but they also became a major source of tension and conflict.

While commercial and agricultural improvements created new wealth and opportunities for the empires, most people’s daily lives remained unchanged.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.8.A.4.a Analyze the role of religion and other means rulers used to unify and centrally govern expanding territories with diverse populations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.4.b Compare and contrast the Japanese and European systems of feudalism and the effectiveness of each in promoting social, economic, and political order.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.A.4.c Determine the influence of medieval English legal and constitutional practices (i.e., the Magna Carta, parliament, and the development of habeas corpus and an independent judiciary) on modern democratic thought and institutions.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.8.B.4.a Explain how geography influenced the development of the political, economic, and cultural centers of each empire and well as the empires’ relationships with other parts of the world.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.b Assess how maritime and overland trade routes (i.e., the African caravan and Silk Road) impacted urbanization, transportation, communication, and the development of international trade centers.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.c Determine how Africa’s physical geography and natural resources posed challenges and opportunities for trade and development.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.d Explain why the Arabian Peninsula’s physical features and location made it the epicenter of Afro-Eurasian trade and fostered the spread of Islam into Africa, Europe, and Asia.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.e Analyze the motivations for civilizations to modify the environment, determine the positive and negative consequences of environmental changes made during this time period, and relate these changes to current environmental challenges.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.f Explain how the geographies of China and Japan influenced their development and their relationship with one another.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.g Explain why the strategic location and economic importance of Constantinople and the Mediterranean Sea were a source of conflict between civilizations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.B.4.h Explain how the locations, land forms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America affected the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Incan societies, cultures, and economies.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.8.C.4.a Explain the interrelationships among improved agricultural production, population growth, urbanization, and commercialization.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.4.b Analyze how trade, technology, the availability of natural resources, and contact with other civilizations affected the development of empires in Eurasia and the Americas.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.4.c Explain how the development of new business practices and banking systems impacted global trade and the development of a merchant class.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.4.d Analyze the relationship between trade routes and the development of powerful city-states and kingdoms in Africa.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.C.4.e Determine the extent to which interaction between the Islamic world and medieval Europe increased trade, enhanced technology innovation, and impacted scientific thought and the arts.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.8.D.4.a Explain how contact between nomadic peoples and sedentary populations had both positive and negative political, economic, and cultural consequences.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.b Analyze how religion both unified and divided people.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.c Analyze the role of religion and economics in shaping each empire’s social hierarchy, and evaluate the impact these hierarchical structures had on the lives of various groups of people.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.d Analyze the causes and outcomes of the Crusades from different perspectives, including the perspectives of European political and religious leaders, the crusaders, Jews, Muslims, and traders.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.e Assess the demographic, economic, and religious impact of the plague on Europe.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.f Determine which events led to the rise and eventual decline of European feudalism.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.g Analyze the immediate and long-term impact on China and Europe of the open exchange between Europe and the Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.h Determine the extent to which the Byzantine Empire influenced the Islamic world and western Europe.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.i Explain how and why Islam spread in Africa, the significance of Timbuktu to the development and spread of learning, and the impact Islam continues to have on African society.                                                                                                                          
6.2.8.D.4.j Compare the major technological innovations and cultural contributions of the civilizations of this period and justify which represent enduring legacies.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era The Emergence of the First Global Age (1350-1770)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
1. The Emergence of the First Global Age: Global Interactions and Colonialism

The methods of and motivations for exploration and conquest resulted in increased global interactions, differing patterns of trade, colonization, and conflict among nations.

Colonization was inspired by the desire to have access to resources and markets, often at the expense of the indigenous culture, population, and environment.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.1.a Compare and contrast the motivations for and methods by which various empires (e.g., Ming, Qing, Spanish, Mughal, or Ottoman) expanded, and assess why some were more effective than others in maintaining control of their empires.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.1.a Explain major changes in world political boundaries between 1450 and 1770, and assess the extent of European political and military control in Africa, Asia, and the Americas by the mid-18th century.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.1.b Determine the role of natural resources, climate, and topography in European exploration, colonization, and settlement patterns.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.1.a Compare and contrast the economic policies of China and Japan, and determine the impact these policies had on growth, the desire for colonies, and the relative positions of China and Japan within the emerging global economy.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.1.b Trace the movement of essential commodities (e.g., sugar, cotton) from Asia to Europe to America, and determine the impact trade on the New World’s economy and society.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.1.c Assess the role of mercantilism in stimulating European expansion through trade, conquest, and colonization.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.1.d Determine the effects of increased global trade and the importation of gold and silver from the New World on inflation in Europe, Southwest Asia, and Africa.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.1.e Determine the extent to which various technologies, (e.g., printing, the marine compass, cannonry, Arabic numerals) derived from Europe’s interactions with Islam and Asia provided the necessary tools for European exploration and conquest.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.1.a Assess the political, social, and economic impact of the Columbian Exchange of plants, animals, ideas, and pathogens on Europeans and Native Americans.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.1.b Compare slavery practices and other forms of coerced labor or social bondage common in East Africa, West Africa, Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Americas.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.1.c Analyze various motivations for the Atlantic slave trade and the impact on Europeans, Africans, and Americans.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.1.d Explain how the new social stratification created by voluntary and coerced interactions among Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans in Spanish colonies laid the foundation for conflict.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.1.e Assess the impact of economic, political, and social policies and practices regarding African slaves, indigenous peoples, and Europeans in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.1.f Analyze the political, cultural, and moral role of Catholic and Protestant Christianity in the European colonies.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment (1350-1700)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
2. Renaissance, Reformation, Scientific Revolution, and Enlightenment

Ideas developed during the Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, Reformation, and Enlightenment led to political, economic, and cultural changes that have had a lasting impact.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.2.a Determine how the principle ideas of the Enlightenment (e.g., rationalism, secularism, tolerance, empiricism, natural rights, contractual government, laissez-faire economics, promotion by merit, and new theories of education) altered political thought in Europe, and trace the impact of these ideas over time.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.2.b Explain the paradox between the ideology of the Enlightenment and the treatment of women and non-Europeans in European society.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.2.c Determine the reasons for, and the consequences of, the rise of powerful, centralized nation states in Europe (i.e., the French absolute monarchy and the English limited monarchy).                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.2.a Relate the geographic location of Italian city-states to the fact that Italy was the center of the Renaissance.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.2.b Relate the division of European regions during this time period into those that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant to the practice of religion in the New World.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.2.a Relate the development of more modern banking and financial systems to European economic influence in the world.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.2.a Determine the factors that led to the Renaissance and the impact on the arts.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.2.b Determine the factors that led to the Reformation and the impact on European politics.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.2.c Justify how innovations from Asian and Islamic civilizations, as well as from ancient Greek and Roman culture, laid the foundation for the Renaissance.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.2.d Analyze the impact of new intellectual, philosophical, and scientific ideas on how humans viewed themselves and how they viewed their physical and spiritual worlds.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.2.e Assess the impact of the printing press and other technologies developed on the dissemination of ideas.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era Age of Revolutions (1750-1914)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
3. Age of Revolutions: Political and Industrial Revolutions, Imperialism, Reform, and Global Impact

Discontent with prevailing economic, political, and social conditions was the impetus for change, which resulted in revolution or reform.

The Industrial Revolution was a consequence of technological innovation and expanding economic activity and markets, resulting in massive population movement, urbanization, and the development of complex economic systems.

Industrialized nations embarked on a competitive race for global resources and markets, resulting in the establishment of political and economic control over large regions of the world that had a lasting impact.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.3.a Explain how and why various ideals (e.g., liberty, popular sovereignty, natural rights, democracy, and nationalism) became driving forces for reforms and revolutions.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.b Determine the extent to which the American, French, and Haitian revolutions influenced independence movements in Latin America.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.c Relate the responses of various governments to pressure for self-government or self-determination to subsequent reform or revolution.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.d Assess the extent to which revolutions during this time period resulted in the expansion of political, social, and economic rights and opportunities.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.e Analyze the relationship between industrialization and the rise of democratic and social reforms, including the expansion of parliamentary government.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.f Compare and contrast the struggles for women’s suffrage and workers’ rights in Europe and North America, and evaluate the degree to which each movement achieved its goals.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.3.g Analyze the motives for and methods by which European nations, Japan, and the United States expanded their imperialistic practices in Africa and Asia during this era, and evaluate the impact of these actions on their relations.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.3.a Assess the impact of imperialism by comparing and contrasting the political boundaries of the world in 1815 and 1914.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.3.b Relate the Industrial Revolution to population growth, new migration patterns, urbanization, and the environment.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.3.c Relate the role of geography to the spread of independence movements in Latin America.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.3.a Analyze interrelationships among the “agricultural revolution," population growth, industrialization, specialization of labor, and patterns of land-holding.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.3.b Analyze interrelationships among the Industrial Revolution, nationalism, competition for global markets, imperialism, and natural resources.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.3.c Compare the characteristics of capitalism, communism, and socialism to determine why each system emerged in different world regions.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.3.d Determine how, and the extent to which, scientific and technological changes, transportation, and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural changes.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.3.e Assess the impact of imperialism on economic development in Africa and Asia.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.3.f Determine the extent to which Latin American political independence also brought about economic independence in the region.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.3.a Explain how individuals and groups promoted revolutionary actions and brought about change during this time period.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.3.b Explain how industrialization and urbanization affected class structure, family life, and the daily lives of men, women, and children.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.3.c Compare and contrast China’s and Japan’s views of and responses to imperialism, and determine the effects of imperialism on the development and prosperity of each country in the 20th century.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.3.d Analyze the extent to which racism was both a cause and consequence of imperialism, and evaluate the impact of imperialism from multiple perspectives.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.3.e Analyze the impact of the policies of different European colonizers on indigenous societies, and explain the responses of these societies to imperialistic rule.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement (1900-1945)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
4. A Half-Century of Crisis and Achievement: The Era of the Great Wars

Nationalism, imperialism, industrialization, and militarism contributed to an increase in economic and military competition among European nations, the Ottoman Empire, and Japan, and led to World War I.

The failure of the Treaty of Versailles, the impact of the global depression, and the expansionist policies and actions of Axis nations are viewed as major factors that resulted in World War II.

World Wars I and II were "total wars" in which nations mobilized entire populations and economies and employed new military tactics that resulted in unprecedented death and destruction, as well as drastic changes in political boundaries.

World Wars I and II challenged economic and political power structures and gave rise to a new balance of power in the world.

Economic, technological, and military power and bureaucracies have been used by nations to deliberately and systematically destroy ethnic/racial, political, and cultural groups.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.4.a Explain the rise of fascism and spread of communism in Europe and Asia.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.4.b Compare the rise of nationalism in China, Turkey, and India.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.4.c Analyze the motivations, causes, and consequences of the genocides of Armenians, Roma (gypsies), and Jews, as well as the mass exterminations of Ukrainians and Chinese.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.4.d Assess government responses to incidents of ethnic cleansing and genocide.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.4.a Determine the geographic impact of World War I by comparing and contrasting the political boundaries of the world in 1914 and 1939.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.4.b Determine how geography impacted military strategies and major turning points during World War II.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.4.c Explain how the disintegration of the Ottoman empire and the mandate system led to the creation of new nations in the Middle East.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.4.d Explain the intended and unintended consequences of new national boundaries established by the treaties that ended World War II.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.4.a Analyze government responses to the Great Depression and their consequences, including the growth of fascist, socialist, and communist movements and the effects on capitalist economic theory and practice.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.4.b Compare and contrast World Wars I and II in terms of technological innovations (i.e., industrial production, scientific research, war tactics) and social impact (i.e., national mobilization, loss of life, and destruction of property).                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.4.c Assess the short- and long-term demographic, social, economic, and environmental consequences of the violence and destruction of the two World Wars.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.4.d Analyze the ways in which new forms of communication, transportation, and weaponry affected relationships between governments and their citizens and bolstered the power of new authoritarian regimes during this period.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.4.a Analyze the extent to which nationalism, industrialization, territory disputes, imperialism, militarism, and alliances led to World War I.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.b Analyze the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations from the perspectives of different nations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.c Assess the causes of revolution in the 20th century (i.e., in Russia, China, India, and Cuba), and determine the impact on global politics.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.d Analyze the extent to which the legacy of World War I, the global depression, ethnic and ideological conflicts, imperialism, and traditional political or economic rivalries caused World War II.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.e Compare how Allied countries responded to the expansionist actions of Germany and Italy.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.f Explain the role of colonial peoples in the war efforts of the Allies and the Central/Axis Powers in both World Wars.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.g Analyze the role of nationalism and propaganda in mobilizing civilian populations in support of “total war”                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.h Assess the extent to which world war, depression, nationalist ideology, communism, and liberal democratic ideals contributed to the emergence of movements for national self-rule or sovereignty in Africa and Asia.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.i Compare and contrast the actions of individuals as perpetrators, bystanders, and rescuers during events of persecution or genocide, and describe the long-term consequences of genocide for all involved.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.j Analyze how the social, economic, and political roles of women were transformed during this time period.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.k Analyze how the arts represent the changing values and ideals of society.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.4.l Assess the cultural impact of World War I, the Great Depression, and World War II.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era The 20th Century Since 1945 (1945-Today)
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
5. The 20th Century Since 1945: Challenges for the Modern World

Decolonization, the emergence of new independent nations, and competing ideologies changed the political landscape and national identities of those involved, and sometimes included military confrontations and violations of human rights.

International migration and scientific and technological improvements in the second half of the 20th century resulted in an increasingly global economy and society that are challenged by limited natural resources.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.5.a Explain how and why differences in ideologies and policies between the United States and the USSR resulted in a cold war, the formation of new alliances, and periodic military clashes.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.5.b Analyze the structure and goals of the United Nations and evaluate the organization’s ability to solve or mediate international conflicts.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.5.c Explain how World War II led to aspirations for self-determination, and compare and contrast the methods used by African and Asian countries to achieve independence.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.5.d Analyze the causes and consequences of mass killings (e.g., Cambodia, Rwanda, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Somalia, and Sudan), and evaluate the responsibilities of the world community in response to such events.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.5.e Assess the progress of human and civil rights around the world since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.5.a Determine the impact of geography on decisions made by the Soviet Union and the United States to expand and protect their spheres of influence.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.5.b Analyze the reasons for the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, and evaluate the impact of these events on changing national boundaries in Eastern Europe and Asia.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.5.c Determine the impact of migration on way of life (e.g., social, economic, and political structures) in countries of origin and in adopted countries.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.5.d Analyze post-independence struggles in South Asia, including the struggle over the partitioning of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan, as well as later tensions over Kashmir.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.B.5.e Assess the role of boundary disputes and limited natural resources as sources of conflict.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.5.a Explain how and why Western European countries and Japan achieved rapid economic recovery after World War II.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.b Compare and contrast free market capitalism, Western European democratic socialism, and Soviet communism.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.c Assess the impact of the international arms race, the space race, and nuclear proliferation on international politics from multiple perspectives.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.d Determine the challenges faced by developing nations in their efforts to compete in a global economy.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.e Assess the reasons for and consequences of the growth of communism and shift toward a market economy in China.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.f Assess the impact of the European Union on member nations and other nations.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.5.g Evaluate the role of the petroleum industry in world politics, the global economy, and the environment.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.5.a Relate the lingering effects of colonialism to the efforts of Latin American, African, and Asian nations to build stable economies and national identities.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.5.b Assess the impact of Gandhi’s methods of civil disobedience and passive resistance in India, and determine how his methods were later used by people from other countries.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.5.c Assess the influence of television, the Internet, and other forms of electronic communication on the creation and diffusion of cultural and political information, worldwide.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.D.5.d Analyze how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women in different parts of the world, and evaluate women’s progress toward social equality, economic equality, and political equality in various countries.                                                                                                                          

Content Area Social Studies
Standard 6.2 World History/Global Studies All students will acquire the knowledge and skills to think analytically and systematically about how past interactions of people, cultures, and the environment affect issues across time and cultures. Such knowledge and skills enable students to make informed decisions as socially and ethically responsible world citizens in the 21st century.
Era Contemporary Issues
Grade Level By the end of grade 12
Content Statement Strand CPI# Cumulative Progress Indicator (CPI)
6. Contemporary Issues

Technological innovation, economic interdependence, changes in population growth, migratory patterns, and the development, distribution, and use of natural resources offer challenges and opportunities that transcend regional and national borders.
A. Civics, Government, and Human Rights
6.2.12.A.6.a Evaluate the role of international cooperation and multinational organizations in attempting to solve global issues.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.6.b Analyze the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interest in matters such as territory, economic development, use of natural resources, and human rights.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.6.c Analyze why terrorist movements have proliferated, and evaluate their impact on governments, individuals, and societies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.A.6.d Assess the effectiveness of responses by governments and international organizations to tensions resulting from ethnic, territorial, religious, and/or nationalist differences.                                                                                                                          
B. Geography, People, and the Environment
6.2.12.B.6.a Determine the global impact of increased population growth, migration, and changes in urban-rural populations on natural resources and land use.                                                                                                                          
C. Economics, Innovation, and Technology
6.2.12.C.6.a Evaluate efforts of governmental, nongovernmental, and international organizations to address economic imbalances and social inequalities.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.6.b Compare and contrast demographic trends in industrialized and developing nations, and evaluate the potential impact of these trends on the economy, political stability, and use of resources.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.6.c Assess the role government monetary policies, central banks, international investment, and exchange rates play in maintaining stable regional and global economies.                                                                                                                          
6.2.12.C.6.d Determine how the availability of scientific, technological, and medical advances impacts the quality of life in different countries.                                                                                                                          
D. History, Culture, and Perspectives
6.2.12.D.6.a Assess the role of increased personal and business electronic communications in creating a “global” culture, and evaluate the impact on traditional cultures and values.                                                                                                                          

Social Studies Skills Table

Essential Question: What are effective strategies for accessing various sources of information and historical evidence, determining their validity, and using them to solve a problem or find a solution to a public policy question?
Social Studies Skill K-4 5-8 9-12
Chronological Thinking
  • Place key historical events and people in historical eras using timelines.
  • Construct timelines of the events occurring during major eras.
  • Compare present and past events to evaluate the consequences of past decisions and to apply lessons learned.
  • Explain how the present is connected to the past.
  • Explain how major events are related to one another in time.
  • Analyze how change occurs through time due to shifting values and beliefs as well as technological advancements and changes in the political and economic landscape.
Spatial Thinking
  • Determine locations of places and interpret information available on maps and globes.
  • Select and use various geographic representations to compare information about people, places, regions, and environments.
  • Construct various forms of geographic representations to show the spatial patterns of physical and human phenomena.
  • Use thematic maps and other geographic representations to obtain, describe, and compare spatial patterns and information about people, places, regions, and environments.
  • Use maps and other documents to explain the historical migration of people, expansion and disintegration of empires, and growth of economic and political systems.
  • Relate current events to the physical and human characteristics of places and regions.
Critical Thinking
  • Distinguish fact from fiction.
  • Compare and contrast differing interpretations of current and historical events.
  • Distinguish valid arguments from false arguments when interpreting current and historical events.
  • Identify and use a variety of primary and secondary sources for reconstructing the past (i.e., documents, letters, diaries, maps, photos, etc.).
  • Assess the credibility of sources by identifying bias and prejudice in documents, media, and computer-generated information.
  • Evaluate sources for validity and credibility and to detect propaganda, censorship, and bias.
Presentational Skills
  • Use evidence to support an idea in a written and/or oral format.
  • Select and analyze information from a variety of sources to present a reasoned argument or position in a written and/or oral format.
  • Take a position on a current public policy issue and support it with historical evidence, reasoning, and constitutional analysis in a written and/or oral format.

Social Studies Timeframe Table (PDF)