Cancer By County
Ovarian Cancer3,5

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Risk Factors

The risk of ovarian cancer is greater among women whose mothers or sisters had ovarian cancer and among women with a history of breast cancer. Some rare genetic syndromes are associated with ovarian cancer, including one characterized by colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and ovarian cancer.

Women who have never had children and women who have had difficulty becoming pregnant are at greater risk for ovarian cancer. Conversely, the more full-term pregnancies and the more incomplete pregnancies women have had and the more time spent breast feeding, the lower their risk of ovarian cancer. Oral contraceptive use also reduces the risk; the longer they are taken the more the risk is reduced. Tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer.

Age at first birth, age at first menstruation, age at menopause, and estrogen replacement therapy do not appear to affect the risk of ovarian cancer. Several studies found dietary fat to be associated with a small increased risk, but this needs to be studied more. Alcohol, coffee, and tobacco appear not to affect the risk of ovarian cancer.

Prevention and Control

At present there are no known methods of preventing ovarian cancer. Early detection of ovarian cancer can be achieved by periodic thorough pelvic examinations. The American Cancer Society recommends that women over age 40 have this type of checkup every year.

Incidence and Mortality in the U.S.

An estimated 25,400 new cases of ovarian cancer are expected to occur in the U.S. in 1998. It is about twice as common among white women as among black women. Since 1973, the incidence rate of ovarian cancer has increased slightly. The incidence of ovarian cancer increases with age until age 75 and then decreases. One year after diagnosis of ovarian cancer 76 percent of patients are still alive; the five-year survival rate is 46 percent. For 1998, approximately 14,200 deaths due to ovarian cancer are expected to occur in the U.S. Since 1973 mortality due to ovarian cancer has declined.

Incidence in New Jersey - 1986-1996

Tables 41 through 43 show the incidence data by county for ovarian cancer for the years 1986 through 1996. Figure 14 depicts the statewide trends which are that white women had higher rates than black women. The counties followed the same pattern, except that in Morris, Ocean, Salem, and Somerset black women had higher rates than white women (see Table 41). However, the rates for black women in these counties should be interpreted cautiously because they are based on small numbers. In general, the statewide rates have decreased since 1991, though not as consistently for black women as for white women (see Figure 14).

Conclusion

The best public health measure to address ovarian cancer is early detection through periodic thorough pelvic exams. Decreased fat in the diet may reduce the chances of ovarian cancer.

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Table 41.
Ovarian Cancer Incidence
By County1, White Females, New Jersey - 1986-1996

COUNTY 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996
(Prelim.)

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

No.

Rate

Atlantic

19

12.9

15

12.9

18

15.3

17

16.0

19

14.4

22

16.1

29

21.9

26

20.9

24

16.5

22

15.4

18

14.4

Bergen

106

18.6

109

20.2

103

18.7

115

19.6

119

21.6

109

19.1

92

15.5

112

20.0

93

15.9

92

16.0

97

16.9

Burlington

29

16.2

26

14.1

30

15.6

43

22.3

40

21.0

36

18.8

36

16.7

31

14.1

37

18.1

37

17.5

34

15.8

Camden

41

15.4

35

13.5

40

15.1

46

17.3

44

16.6

52

18.5

62

23.7

42

17.3

42

16.4

42

15.6

30

12.3

Cape May

7

13.5

---

---

8

13.1

12

18.3

15

22.7

12

14.8

16

20.4

14

25.0

9

13.6

11

12.3

7

8.6

Cumberland

11

15.9

11

16.0

15

20.2

14

18.8

15

22.4

15

18.5

16

20.5

11

16.0

10

11.3

9

11.3

17

24.3

Essex

64

17.5

72

21.8

53

15.5

55

15.3

64

20.2

68

22.4

80

24.5

52

17.2

46

14.9

56

19.7

53

15.5

Gloucester

22

20.6

18

15.7

19

18.8

21

18.3

12

9.6

20

16.5

22

18.4

19

14.9

20

15.8

14

10.5

20

15.3

Hudson

39

12.4

47

15.2

50

16.1

57

18.9

50

17.5

56

18.2

42

13.2

46

16.3

57

19.7

39

13.7

34

12.0

Hunterdon

11

19.5

8

15.3

8

13.8

6

10.6

10

17.7

9

16.2

14

24.3

15

24.0

11

19.7

16

24.3

12

18.9

Mercer

30

16.2

33

21.2

29

18.8

33

19.1

27

16.2

34

19.8

27

15.0

38

22.6

22

9.6

24

14.0

25

15.3

Middlesex

56

15.9

59

16.7

71

19.6

62

17.2

58

17.0

51

14.0

69

19.7

63

17.2

75

20.8

60

17.2

65

17.0

Monmouth

53

17.9

48

15.1

56

17.3

58

19.0

44

13.7

61

18.9

60

18.7

65

20.0

61

18.6

63

20.5

52

16.7

Morris

56

25.0

40

16.1

46

19.6

37

16.1

50

20.7

38

15.3

42

17.2

41

17.1

43

16.7

43

17.0

38

15.0

Ocean

51

18.5

53

16.6

60

19.2

61

16.2

62

15.2

74

19.6

58

19.2

48

13.2

79

20.4

67

18.8

71

18.5

Passaic

36

14.3

55

21.6

45

18.1

44

16.1

43

16.0

47

17.9

35

14.1

48

18.5

45

17.9

40

16.3

39

15.9

Somerset

25

20.2

17

13.1

19

14.4

13

10.4

24

18.1

20

14.6

20

14.7

24

17.0

22

16.0

19

12.6

17

12.6

Sussex

17

28.7

13

21.3

13

20.8

14

24.4

13

19.8

9

12.1

14

17.5

12

15.0

10

14.9

12

18.3

12

16.7

Union

41

13.7

50

16.4

64

21.9

55

17.9

49

17.6

72

25.2

56

20.1

50

16.5

52

19.6

53

17.6

46

15.3

Warren

11

20.4

13

20.2

11

16.4

13

21.1

9

15.4

9

15.6

13

19.1

14

24.4

17

25.4

10

13.8

9

15.3

STATE

727

16.8

730

17.0

763

17.7

782

17.7

771

17.8

820

18.3

806

18.2

779

17.6

779

17.3

732

16.4

700

15.5


1Incidence rates - per 100,000 females, age-adjusted to the 1970 U.S. standard population. Cases of unknown county are included in the State numbers and rates. Counties with six or more years of fewer than five cases each year were removed from the table - Salem county. The dashes indicate fewer than five cases. Source: New Jersey State Cancer Registry.

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Table 42.
Ovarian Cancer Incidence
By County, Black Females, New Jersey - 1986-1990 And 1991-19961

COUNTY

1986-1990

1991-1996

Number

Rate2

Number

Rate2

Atlantic

7

5.3

25

16.0

Bergen

10

8.9

20

12.2

Burlington

10

8.8

13

9.5

Camden

15

8.6

26

9.6

Cumberland

---

---

9

14.2

Essex

93

11.2

129

12.4

Gloucester

7

12.7

10

13.0

Hudson

18

10.2

28

11.3

Mercer

15

10.7

26

13.1

Middlesex

15

16.0

16

11.2

Monmouth

12

8.9

17

10.0

Morris

6

23.8

9

22.9

Ocean

7

31.0

6

19.7

Passaic

20

13.9

20

8.5

Somerset

5

21.2

8

18.4

Union

30

12.7

31

9.7

STATE

280

11.1

398

11.7


1Incidence rates - per 100,000 females, age- adjusted to the 1970 U.S. standard population. Cases of unknown county are included in the State numbers and rates. The dashes indicate fewer than five cases. Source: New Jersey State Cancer Registry.
2Average annual rate.

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Table 43.
Ovarian Cancer Incidence
By County And Race, Females, New Jersey - 1986-1996 Combined1

COUNTY

WHITE

BLACK

Number

Rate2

Number

Rate2

Atlantic

229

16.0

32

11.4

Bergen

1147

18.4

30

10.8

Burlington

379

17.4

23

9.1

Camden

476

16.6

41

9.2

Cape May

115

15.4

---

---

Cumberland

144

17.9

13

11.6

Essex

663

18.6

222

11.9

Gloucester

207

15.9

17

13.0

Hudson

517

15.7

46

10.8

Hunterdon

120

18.5

---

---

Mercer

322

17.0

41

12.1

Middlesex

689

17.5

31

13.2

Monmouth

621

17.8

29

9.6

Morris

474

17.7

15

23.4

Ocean

684

17.9

13

24.2

Passaic

477

16.9

40

10.7

Salem

48

11.1

8

13.3

Somerset

220

14.9

13

19.6

Sussex

139

18.9

---

---

Union

588

18.4

61

11.0

Warren

129

18.6

---

---

STATE

8389

17.3

678

11.5


1Incidence rates - per 100,000 females, age-adjusted to the 1970 U.S. standard population. Cases of unknown county are included in the State numbers and rates. The dashes indicate fewer than five cases. Source: New Jersey State Cancer Registry.
2Average annual rate.

Figure 14.

Figure 14

*1996 data are preliminary. Source: New Jersey State Cancer Registry.