Test Results as of 4/8/02
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New In This Update

  • The last pending potential human case of the 2001 season - and two cases previously listed as "Patient Not Tested" - have now been listed as "Indeterminate." This new status category means insufficient specimens were obtained to confirm diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Individuals listed as "Patient Not Tested" met the testing criteria but no specimens were sent to the department for analysis.

Human Testing

  • In total, 110 residents were approved for WNV testing and 102 accepted in 2001. (Click here to view list). Blood and/or spinal fluid samples from these individuals were or are in the process of being tested for the presence of WNV. These individuals either had symptoms or signs that met the established WNV testing criteria or exhibited most of the symptoms and are from counties where dead crows and/or mosquitoes with the virus have been discovered.
  • For the season, 12 tests were positive, 87 were negative, and 3 were indeterminate.
  • Human testing for WNV is being conducted at the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services' Public Health and Environmental Laboratory in Trenton and at public health labs in other states. Testing results are sent to the CDC for confirmation.

Crow, Hawk & Falcon and Other Bird and Small Mammal Testing

  • In 2001, 1,553 birds, mostly crows, were accepted for testing by the Department of Health and Senior Services' Public Health and Environmental Laboratory. Of those tested, 1,073 crows found in 20 counties have been confirmed positive for the presence of WNV. Positive crows have been found in Atlantic (3), Bergen (118), Burlington (115), Camden (179), Cape May (7), Cumberland (6), Essex (38), Gloucester (30), Hudson (18), Hunterdon (11), Mercer (17), Middlesex (142), Monmouth (183), Morris (37), Ocean (17), Passaic (41), Salem (7), Somerset (45), Union (53), and Warren (6) Counties. Sussex, which submitted only 4 birds for testing, is the only county where the virus was not detected in birds this season.

  • The department also received 1,152 bird samples (mostly crows) deemed unsatisfactory for testing and was notified of 2,067 dead or ill birds (mostly crows) not submitted for testing due to their condition.

  • Monmouth County maintained a sentinel chicken program this season. A total of 31 chickens tested positive for WNV in testing conducted by the Center for Vector-Borne Diseases at the University of Rhode Island.

  • The Division of Fish and Wildlife, Department of Environmental Protection, also conducting avian and small mammal testing for WNV. The division tested 169 animals, with 5 positive (3 red-tailed hawks, 1 merlin, and 1 kestrel).

Mosquito Testing

  • In 2001, 357 mosquito pools collected in Atlantic (9), Bergen (81), Burlington (17), Camden (50), Cape May (5), Essex (6), Hudson (8), Hunterdon (7), Mercer (1), Middlesex (24), Monmouth (54), Morris (16), Ocean (6), Passaic (31), Salem (2), Somerset (8), Sussex (8), Union (16), and Warren (8) Counties tested positive for the presence of WNV. In total, 4,937 mosquito pools were tested.

  • The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine-North's testing lab tested 186 mosquito pools collected on military property in New Jersey. All tests were negative for the presence of WNV.
Horse Testing
  • Equine testing is conducted by the New Jersey Department of Agriculture's animal health laboratory in Trenton and positive results are sent to the National Veterinary Services Lab (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa for confirmation. To date in 2001, 30 horses have tested positive for the presence of WNV. For more information, visit the Department of Agriculture website at

Additional Information & Advisories

  • The risk of WNV infection will increase in the spring and people can take steps now to eliminate mosquito breeding areas around their homes and protect themselves and their families from infection.

  • Among the personal precautions residents can take now are such measures as eliminating standing water on their own property (such as clearing clogged gutters, draining flower pots, recycling old car tires, etc.), and repairing window and door screens. In the spring, summer, and fall residents can spray insect repellent on their clothing and exposed skin in accordance with labeling directions, wear long sleeved shirts and pants when outdoors, or curb outdoor activities at dawn, dusk and during the evening.

  • The West Nile virus, an arboviral disease, is transmitted through the bite of a mosquito that has picked up the virus by feeding on an infected bird. WNV is not directly transmitted from birds to humans or from person to person. WNV infection generally causes no symptoms or just mild, flu-like symptoms; however, the elderly are at higher risk of more severe disease.

  • In 2000, a total of six New Jersey residents became ill and one died due to WNV infection. The virus was also detected in mosquitoes, horses, crows and other birds in 20 of the state's 21 counties. The virus was detected for the first time in the Western Hemisphere in September 1999, in birds found in New York City and Westchester County.

  • New Jersey's WNV surveillance, control and prevention activities involve the coordinated efforts of a number of federal, state and local agencies. These include the New Jersey Departments of Health and Senior Services, Environmental Protection, and Agriculture, the CDC, the State Mosquito Control Commission, the Rutgers Mosquito Research and Control Unit, and local health and mosquito control agencies.


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