Section 5

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MAPPING


 

 

 

5-01     COMPILATION

5-01.1  General

The Contractor shall compile one or more maps consisting totally or in part of map manuscripts, base plans, profiles, cross sections, or such comparable engineering documents as may be stipulated for the Project by the NJDOT.  Unless stipulated otherwise by mutual agreement between the NJDOT and the Contractor, compilation shall be accomplished by employing a precise stereoscopic plotting instrument in which sequential exposures of aerial photographs are precisely oriented to form a three-dimensional optical model.  From this model, the Contractor’s photogrammetrist shall sight on and trace planimetric and/or topographic features which the plotting instrument shall then render automatically onto a map manuscript at the horizontal and/or vertical scale (s) specified by the NJDOT.

5-01.2     Digital Map Compilation (see Section 6)

5-02     AREA

The area to be mapped shall be as outlined on the Project key map and shall include any revisions or increases, or exclude any decreases, as may be subsequently specified by the NJDOT while the mapping is in progress.

5-03     MAP MANUSCRIPT

Map manuscripts shall be drawn on sheets made from a dimensionally stable polyester-type plastic transparent film having a minimum thickness of one tenth of a millimeter (0.10 MM).  All map detail shall be clearly and accurately depicted so that the manuscript shall be capable of producing finished maps which fulfill all specification requirements.  All manuscripts prepared under this Project shall be available for inspection by the NJDOT at all times.  Reproducible sepia or mylar copies of the manuscripts shall be submitted to the NJDOT prior to finalizing by the Contractor for such field editing and selection of additional labeling of planimetric detail as the NJDOT may require.  The manuscript scale and the scale of the finished maps shall be the same.

5-04     TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS FOR DESIGN

5-04.1  Plane Coordinate Grid Lines

Grid lines representing the New Jersey State Plane Coordinate System shall be delineated on all map manuscripts and finished maps.  Grid lines shall be drawn as solid lines at a spacing of one hundred millimeters (100 MM).

Numerical values (coordinates) for grid lines shall be labeled at the top, bottom and sides of each sheet, approximately twenty five millimeters (25 MM) inside the border and immediately adjacent to their corresponding grid lines.

Whenever the NJDOT stipulates that ground control surveys shall not be tied to survey monuments of the New Jersey State Plane Coordinate System, an alternate system for plane coordinates shall be established by the Contractor, subject to approval by the NJDOT, and it shall be made readily distinguishable from the New Jersey State Plane Coordinate System.

5-04.2  Match Lines, Title Blocks and North Arrows

Match lines shall be provided on all map sheets so that each sheet may be joined accurately to those adjacent.

A title block shall be placed on each map sheet to the size and layout required by the NJDOT.

A New Jersey State Plane  Coordinate north arrow shall be suitably placed and oriented on each map sheet.

5-04.3  Current Data

All maps prepared by the Contractor shall be up-to-date with regard to planimetric and topographic features as of sixty (60) days prior to the acknowledgment date of delivery to the NJDOT.

5-04.4  Planimetry

Subject to the guidelines specified in Table 5-1, all finished maps shall contain the planimetric features which are identifiable on and interpretable from corresponding aerial photographs. Such features shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following:  buildings, commercial agricultural fields, orchards, cemeteries, parks, golf courses and other recreational areas; utility transmission lines, poles, towers, fence lines and logged-off areas, roads, railroads, billboards, underground cables, pipelines, sewers and other utility facilities; quarries, borrow pits, ledge rocks, cliffs, wooded areas, individual trees and decorative shrubs that can be recognized as such at the specified scale, rock and other walls; swales, creeks, rivers, tributary systems, pools, wells, falls, aqueducts, lakes, the ocean, bays wetlands, fords, ferry slips and any other pertinent details of land features.

Each water course and drainage way shown on the map shall be an accurate depiction of its counterpart in the field.  All such water courses shall be denoted by a dash-and-three-dot symbol in all well-defined drainage features as indicated by the contours.  Streams and drainage ditches averaging more than two and one half millimeters (2.5 MM) wide at map scale shall be shown by two symbolized lines spaced and properly delineated in correct position to represent the respective water edges; all other streams and ditches shall be represented by a single symbolized line.  All water courses shall be stopped at a distance of thirty meters (30 M) from the ridge lines, [and water courses under sixty meters (60 M)] in length or which measure less than twenty five millimeters (25 MM) at map scale, need not be shown.

Buildings, bridges and similarly dimensionable objects shall be correctly outlined and oriented, and they shall be drawn to actual scale size except for those horizontal dimensions that are smaller than  representable by two and one half millimeters (2.5 MM) in size. Minor irregularities in building outlines not representable by one and three tenths of a millimeter (1.3 MM) at map scale shall be ignored.  Large buildings such as schools, institutions, barns, warehouses, factories and industrial plants should be crosshatched for clarity.

Structures such as bridges, trestles, tunnels, piers, wharves, smokestacks, silos, towers, abutments and wingwalls, retaining walls, viaducts, dams, power plants, transformer and other substations terminals and airfields, oil, water and other storage tanks, petroleum refineries and any other such items, shall be shown.

All corporate (city, township, county, state and any other political subdivision) lines shall be shown.  The Contractor shall be responsible for ascertaining the current and correct locations of these lines and accurately delineating them onto their corresponding maps.  The same responsibility shall apply to rivers, streams, railroads, all State, Federal, Interstate and County roadways, principal streets and other features of comparable importance.

Curbed roadways shall be shown with pairs of solid lines spaced at  sixty-four hundredths of a millimeter (0.64 MM) at map scale, representing the curbing, and defining each roadway edge where curbing exists.  All uncurbed paved roadways without shouldering shall be shown with single solid lines defining each pavement edge.

Uncurbed roadways with shoulders shall be represented with uniformly dashed lines denoting the pavement edge wherever shoulder pavement is encountered.  Trails shall be indicated by a single uniformly dashed line representing the centerline of each trail.

On maps scaled to 1:500 or larger, there shall be shown where they occur, in addition to all the aforementioned land use features, parking strips and lots, driveways, hydrants, gasoline pumps and islands, manholes, inlets and catch basins, water and gas meter box covers, culverts, wells, distinct hedges, ornamental bushes and shrubs, trees, signs, steps, lamp posts, luminaires, traffic signals and their corresponding control boxes, junction boxes, below-ground pools and fountains, large permanent-type above-ground pools, and any other such features identifiable on aerial photographs.

The outlines of wooded areas shall be carefully and accurately delineated and shown in correct position.  Special care shall be given to show tree lines adjacent to roads, railroads and prominent water courses.  The cleared widths of overhead transmission line Rights-Of-Way shall also be shown in correct position.

Table 5-1        Map Scale Standards (Planimetry to be shown except as noted)

PLANIMETRIC DETAIL

1:500 & LARGER

1: 1000

1: 2 000

Airports and Runways

 

 

 

Athletic Fields

 

 

 

Billboards

 

 

 

Borrow Pits

 

(7)

(1)

Boulders and Rocks

(5)

(3)

(1)

Bridges and Viaducts

 

 

 

Buildings

 

 

(8)

Bushes and Shrubs

 

(6)

(1)

Canals and Creeks

 

 

 

Catch Basins and Inlets

 

(1)

(1)

Cemeteries

 

 

 

Churches

 

 

 

Crib and other Retaining Walls

 

(2)

(3)

Culverts

 

(9)

(9)

Curbs

 

(1)

(1)

Dams

 

 

 

Ditches and Channels

 

 

(4)

Drains

 

 

 

Drives

 

 

 

Fences

 

(11)

(11)

Ferry Slips

 

(2)

(4)

Field Roads

 

 

 

Flood Plains (Boundaries)

 

 

(2)

Fords

 

 

 

Foundations

 

 

 

Gas Pumps and Islands

 

 

 

Golf Courses

 

(1)

(1)

Greenhouses

 

 

 

Guiderails and Attenuators

 

(2)

(1)

Hedges

 

(2)

(4)

High Tension Lines

 

 

 

House Trailers (Permanent)

 

 

(8)

Hydrants

 

(1)

(1)

Lakes and Ponds

 

(1)

(1)

Lamp Posts (Private)

 

 

 

Light Poles

 

(1)

(1)

Mailboxes

 

(1)

(1)

Manholes

 

(1)

(1)

Marshes and Swamps

 

 

 

Mines

 

 

 

Table 5-1        Map Scale Standards (Planimetry to be shown except as noted) (cont.)

PLANIMETRIC DETAIL

1:500 & LARGER

1: 1000

1: 2 000

Nurseries and Orchards

 

 

(2)

Parking Areas and Lots

 

 

 

Parking Meters

 

 

(2)

Patios and Porches

 

(1)

(1)

Piers, Wharves and Docks

 

(1)

(1)

Pipe Lines (Utility)

 

 

 

Poles (Utility)

 

 

(4)

Pools (In-ground)

 

(4)

(4)

Quarries

 

 

 

Radio Towers

 

 

 

Railroads - Rails

 

(12)

(12)

Railroads: Switches, Signal Boxes,

   Power Stantions, Bumpers

 

(1)

(1)

Rapids

 

 

 

Recreation Areas and Parks

 

 

 

Reservoirs

 

 

 

Rivers and Tributaries

 

 

 

Roads

 

 

 

Road Shoulders

 

(1)

(1)

Rock Outcrop

 

(2)

(2)

Ruins

 

 

 

Schools

 

 

 

Sidewalk

 

(2)

(1)

Signs

 

(7)

(3)

Silos

 

 

 

Smokestacks

 

 

 

Springs

 

 

 

Steps

 

(10)

(1)

Storage Tanks

 

 

 

Streams

 

 

 

Substations (Transformers)

 

 

 

Towers

 

 

 

Traffic Lights

 

(1)

(1)

Trails

 

 

(11)

Transportation Terminals

 

 

 

Trees (Individual)

 

 

 

Trestles

 

(5)

(3)

Tunnels

 

 

 

Utility Valve and Meter Caps

   (As Specified)

 

 

 

Walls

 

(3)

(3)

Waterfalls (Wells)

 

(2)

(3)

Woods (Boundaries)

 

(1)

(1)

Notes::

(1)     Details not to be shown at this scale.

(2)     Prominent only.

(3)     Landmark only.

(4)     Cross country only.

(5)     Shown if over 3 meters in diameter.

(6)     Ornamental only.

(7)     Large only.

(8)     Larger than a one car garage.

(9)     On drainage plan only.

(10)  For Large Public Buildings only.

(11)  Prominent:  Over 25 millimeters long at map scale.

(12)  Centerline of track only.

5-04.5  Topographic Details

When topographic maps are required by the NJDOT, such maps shall contain all representable topographic features so designated by the NJDOT which are identifiable of or interpretable from the corresponding aerial photographs.

Where they occur, such features shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the following: all drainage ways of draws, creeks, rivers, and tributary streams, springs, falls and rapids, ponds and lakes, floodplains, swamps, marshes, bogs and other sites that  can be considered as wetlands;  also any ledge rock cliffs and other topographic features which the NJDOT may require for layout and design purposes shall be represented on the maps.

On maps scaled at 1:1 000 or larger, they shall be shown and identified as such where they occur, large surface boulders and rock outcrops protruding from the ground, correctly located and outlined, whose minimum representable plan view dimensions at map scale are no less than two and one half millimeters (2.5 MM) in size.  Their heights above ground shall also be indicated.

  1. Contours:  Within accuracy requirements, contours shall be delineated to represent the exact shape of the ground and its true elevation above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988.  Solid line contours shall be shown on the final maps in all areas where the ground can be clearly seen on the  three-dimensional optical (stereoscopic) model.  When the ground is obscured, the Contractor either shall show the corresponding contours with dashed lines, or he shall utilize spot elevations as determined photogrammetrically in locations where the ground is visible.
  2.  

  3. Spot Elevations:  Photogrammetrically ascertained spot elevations shall be shown on the final maps in proper position at water level on the shorelines of pertinent bodies of water, on hilltops, in saddles, at the low point of depressions, the at-grade intersections of principal traveled ways such as highways, main streets, railroad crossings and the like, and on the centerline at each end of bridges and other comparable structures.  Where contours  are more than seventy six millimeters (76 MM) apart at final map scale, spot elevations shall be shown at sufficient intervals so that they are not separated by more than fifty one millimeters (51 MM) at final map scale from the nearest spot elevation or contour.
  4.  

  5. Underground Utilities:  When required by the NJDOT, the Contractor shall research all data on any underground utilities within the project limits and shall show them on the corresponding maps as to type, size and location.

     

    Such utilities may include, but not necessarily be limited to, cables and conduits, drainage basins, pipelines, subway systems, underground septic, fuel and other storage tanks, runoff and sewer systems whose recorded invert elevations shall be accurate to the nearest ten (10) millimeters and any springs, wells and reservoirs, denoting type, size and location.  A reference providing the source of data of all underground utilities shown on each sheet shall be reported along the lower edge and inside the border of that sheet.
  6.  

  7. Drainage:  The following data shall be obtained in the field and shown on the maps for all drainage system structures:  type, size, material, and inlet and outlet invert elevations.  With the exception of flowline data, the same data shall be obtained for all pertinent bridge and drainage system structures situated beyond the project limits which would still influence the design of the proposed roadway structures.  All invert elevations shall be accurately ascertained and recorded on the maps to the nearest ten (10) millimeters.

5-04.6  Plan Production Specifications

All maps required by the NJDOT shall be rendered on reproducible sheets consisting of plastic film as described in Section 5-03.

  1. Layout Prerequisites:  On projects with east-west flights, the corresponding map sheets shall begin at the western terminus of the project and be numbered consecutively from west to east.  On projects with north-south flights, the corresponding map sheets shall begin at the southern terminus and be numbered consecutively from south to north.

     

    The Contractor shall prepare the map manuscript stipulated by the NJDOT in such a way that all weights and gauges of symbols, size and style of lettering and/or type arrangement, and all treatment of marginal annotations, sketches and diagrams incorporated thereon, shall conform to the prerequisites set forth in these Specifications.  Such compliance maps shall serve as source documents for the preparation of base maps which shall be sufficiently lucid and reliable and which otherwise shall fulfill all Specification requirements so that all subsequent contact prints made therefrom shall contain neat, legible nomenclature and precise symbol definition at the prescribed scale.
  2.  

    Professional standards of draftsmanship shall be maintained throughout the preparation of all map and plan sheets.  Each line, whether solid or symbolized in format, shall be uniform in width and tone for its entire length.  The width of fine lines shall not be less than thirteen hundredths of a millimeter (0.13 MM), and that of heavy lines shall not be greater than one and three tenths  of a millimeter (1.3 MM).  All ground features representable with lines and symbols shall be drawn or scribed with the aid of a straight-edged, curved or other specialized template where appropriate.  All graphic representations employed to denote major ground features shall employ the standard and supplemental NJDOT map symbols and plan nomenclature according to Figures 1-1A, 1-1B, 1-1C, and 1-2.
  3. Contours:  Where required by the NJDOT, all contour lines shall be uniformly drawn or scribed as a solid line except for those areas where the ground is obscured on the aerial photographs.  In such ground-hidden places, the contours shall be represented by uniformly dashed lines having the same thickness as solid line contours.

     

    In addition, the Contractor shall make use of photogrammetrically ascertained spot elevations at any locations where the ground is visible in the aerial photographs.  Contours shall not be drawn or scribed through letters or numbers which are smaller than six and four tenths of a millimeter (6.4 MM) in height at map scale.

     

    To render index contours distinguishable from intermediate contours, every fourth or fifth contour, depending on map scale used, shall be drawn or scribed as heavier line, solid or dashed where appropriate.  Each resulting index contour shall be identified and labeled according to its actual elevation above the North American Vertical Datum of 1988.  Whenever index contours are closer to each other than six and four tenths of a millimeter (6.4 MM) at map scale and the ground between them is a uniform slope, intermediate contours may be omitted. Where the intermediate slope is not uniform, such an omission will not be permissible unless the contours are shown at changes in ground slope.
  4.  

  5. Lettering:  The current and correct names of corporate and political entities,  prominent water courses, principal roadways and streets, railroads, government offices, major schools and institutions, parks, cemeteries and other ground features of like importance, shall all be ascertained by the Contractor.

     

    All such names, numbers and any accompanying notes and references shall be professionally lettered onto the maps.  The same care shall be given in lettering all official highway designations, existing utility lines, invert elevations, grid line coordinates, baselines, monuments, bench marks and related station markers.  All lettering shall be neat and clear in meaning and shall not obstruct any map features or symbols.
  6.  

  7. Inspection and Editing:  All map manuscripts and finished maps shall be available for inspection by the NJDOT at all times.  When required by the NJDOT, said maps shall be delivered to the NJDOT for field-editing.  The size and type of all planimetric features identifiable from aerial photographs and the size, type and location of such features not identifiable on nor discernible from aerial photographs, shall then be furnished by the NJDOT for incorporation onto the maps prior to finalization by the Contractor.

5-04.7  Finished Maps

All finished maps shall be rendered on plastic film as described in Section 5-03.  Such maps shall be reproducible by any of the standard printing processes so that all lines and all other map details and descriptive texts and symbols will be neat, clear and  legible.  These map sheets shall be approximately 540 MM  long by 775 MM wide between the inside  border lines unless prescribed otherwise by the NJDOT.  On the other hand, for a given project, the NJDOT may direct that the maps be prepared in rolls of various lengths with a 762 MM maximum width.

On the top, bottom and right edges, there shall be not less than a fifteen millimeters (15 MM) margin; on the left edge, not less than fifty-one millimeters (51 MM) unless the marginal dimensions are specified otherwise by the NJDOT.  Where practical, on large projects where the finished maps are numerous, the sheets shall be oriented on a block layout according to the format specified in Section 5-04.6a.

The NJDOT shall provide the information that is to appear in the title box of each sheet.  In turn, the Contractor shall submit a sample sheet to the NJDOT for review containing all margin borders and title box data.  The Contractor shall also submit an overall sheet layout of the entire Project for review showing the orientation and location of each final map prior to the commencement of work on the final map sheets.

5-04.8  Index Maps

An index map shall be prepared to show the position and orientation of each map sheet in the Project with respect to all other map sheets.  All map sheets shall be diagrammatically represented by the Contractor on one index sheet at the scale specified by the NJDOT.

The index map shall show all main roadways, coordinate grid lines, and sufficient information to permit a visual recognition of the location and orientation of the entire Project with respect to the surrounding terrain.  Data shall also be adequate thereon to permit the selection of individual sheets.

The index map shall be rendered on plastic film as described in Section 5-03.  It shall be reproducible by any of the standard printing processes so that lines and all other map detail and descriptive material will be neat, clear and legible.

On the top, bottom and right edges, there shall be not less than fifteen millimeters (15 MM) margin; on the left edge, not less than fifty-one millimeters (51 MM) unless the marginal dimensions are specified otherwise by the NJDOT.

5-05     MAP ACCURACY SPECIFICATIONS

5-05.1  Horizontal Accuracies

  1. Planimetry:  Ninety percent (90%) of all planimetric features which are well defined on the aerial photographs shall be plotted so that their positions on the completed map manuscripts shall be accurate to within at least sixty-four hundredths of a millimeter (0.64 MM) of their true positions, and none of the features shall be misplaced on the finished maps by more than  one and three tenths of a millimeter (1.3 MM) from their true positions.  Such true positions shall be ascertained by executing precise field surveys which originate and close on station markers established from  the primary ground control survey(s).
  2.  

  3. Grid Lines:  The plotted position of each plane coordinate grid line shall not vary by more than three tenths of a millimeter (0.3 MM) from its true location on the corresponding map manuscript.
  4.  

  5. Horizontal Control:  Each horizontal control point shall be plotted within the plane coordinate grid in which it should lie to an accuracy of three tenths of a millimeter (0.3 MM) of its true position as pinpointed by the corresponding plane coordinates.

5-05.2 Vertical Accuracies

  1. Contours - Ninety percent (90%) of all elevations derived from solid line contours shall not deviate from true elevation by more than half a contour interval.  The remaining ten percent (10%) shall be accurate to within a whole contour interval.  In checking elevations taken from the contour map, the apparent vertical error may be decreased by assuming a horizontal displacement of sixty-four hundredths of a millimeter (0.64 MM).

     

    In areas where the ground is obscured when consecutive aerial photographs are viewed stereoscopically through a photogrammetric instrument, contours shall be plotted as accurately as conditions permit.  In places where the ground is visible, any photogrammetrically measured spot elevations shall be fully utilized in establishing such contours whenever possible.  Contours generated under these conditions shall be represented by uniformly dashed lines.
  2.  

  3. Spot Elevations - Ninety percent (90%) of all plotted spot elevations shall be accurately positioned to within one fourth a contour interval.  The remaining ten percent (10%) shall be accurate to within half a contour interval.

5-05.3  Special Requirements

The NJDOT may require that all stipulated planimetric and topographic features be delineated and otherwise plotted on the maps, regardless of whether they can or cannot be seen on the aerial photographs when viewed through a photogrammetric instrument.  In this case, the Contractor shall complete compilation of the required maps by executing ground field surveys and utilizing the notes therefrom in order to comply with the contract specifications.