New Jersey

Department of Transportation

Standard Specifications

for Road and Bridge Construction

2007


Division 300 – Subbase and Base Courses
       
  Section 301 – Subbase
    301.01 Description
    301.02 Materials & Equipment
    301.03 Construction
      301.03.01 Subbase
    301.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 302 – Aggregate Base Course
    302.01 Description
    302.02 Materials & Equipment
    302.03 Construction
      302.03.01 Aggregate Base Course
    302.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 303 – Asphalt-Stabilized Drainage Course
    303.01 Description
    303.02 Materials & Equipment
    303.03 Construction
      303.03.01 Asphalt-Stabilized Drainage Course
    303.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 304 – Concrete Base Course
    304.01 Description
    304.02 Materials & Equipment
    304.03 Construction
      304.03.01 Concrete Base Course
    304.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 305 – Rubblizing Concrete Pavement
    305.01 Description
    305.02 Materials & Equipment
    305.03 Construction
      305.03.01 Rubblizing
    305.04 Measurement and Payment

Division 300 – Subbase and Base Courses

Section 301 – Subbase

301.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing 1 or more courses of subbase.

301.02 Materials  back to top

301.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Soil Aggregate (I-3) 901.11

301.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Pneumatic-Tired Compactor 1002.01
  Dynamic Compactor 1002.02
  Steel Wheel Roller 1002.03
  Padfoot Roller 1002.04

301.03 Construction  back to top

301.03.01 Subbase

  1. Preparing Subgrade. Before placing subbase, ensure that the subgrade has been graded and compacted to within a tolerance of ±1/2 inch of the required elevation. The RE will check elevations of the roadbed subgrade as specified in 202.03.03.C. Do not prepare the subgrade during freezing weather, when frozen, or when it is unstable. Correct damage to the subgrade caused by construction activities and maintain the corrected subgrade until the subsequent course is placed.

  2. Spreading and Grading. Do not place subbase material when the subgrade is frozen or unstable. Notify the RE if the finished subgrade is unstable and obtain RE approval before removing unstable material. Backfill the area with suitable material and compact using the directed method as specified in 203.03.02.C.

    Spread the subbase material with equipment except in limited or restricted areas where the use of hand spreading is allowed. If approved by the RE, end-dump the subbase material. Spread the subbase material in a manner that does not break down material and eliminates segregation, ruts, and ridges.

  3. Compacting. Place the subbase in 8-inch maximum lifts and compact within a tolerance of ±1/2 inch of the required elevation. For subbase courses greater than 8 inches thick, construct the subbase course in 2 or more lifts of approximately equal thickness.

    Begin compacting at the sides and gradually progress to the center. On superelevated curves, compact from the lower to the upper edge, parallel to the centerline, and uniformly overlap each preceding track until the entire surface has been compacted.

    If constructing concrete base or surface courses directly on subbase, the ME will measure the compaction using the density control method as specified in 203.03.02.D. If constructing aggregate base course or HMA on the subbase, the ME will measure compaction using the control fill method as specified in 203.03.02.B.

    Correct damage to the subbase caused by construction activities, and maintain the corrected subbase until the subsequent course is placed. Do not allow traffic on the subbase. Remove all standing storm water and obtain the RE’s approval before constructing subsequent courses.

    The RE will check elevations of the roadbed subbase as specified in 202.03.03.C to ensure that subbase elevations are within a tolerance of ±1/2 inch.

301.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  SUBBASE CUBIC YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

Section 302 – Aggregate Base Course

302.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing aggregate base courses.

302.02 Materials  back to top

302.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  DGA 901.10
  Soil Aggregate (I-5) 901.11

Where I-5 soil aggregate is specified, the Contractor may substitute DGA with the approval of the RE.

302.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Pneumatic-Tired Compactor 1002.01
  Dynamic Compactor 1002.02
  Steel Wheel Roller 1002.03
  Padfoot Roller 1002.04

302.03 Construction  back to top

302.03.01 Aggregate Base Course

  1. Preparing Subgrade or Subbase. Before placing base course on subgrade or subbase, prepare surfaces as specified in 301.03.01.

  2. Density Control Strip. Obtain RE approval of the underlying surface before constructing the density control strip. Before constructing the aggregate base course, construct a density control strip using the same type of material from the same source as the aggregate base course. Construct additional density control strips if a change is made in the type or source of material, if a significant change occurs in the composition of the material from the same source, or if a change is made in the type of compaction equipment used, as determined by the ME. Provide at least 400 square yards for each density control strip. Construct a density control strip for each thickness specified for the aggregate base course. Ensure that the moisture content for the test strip material is within 2 percent of its optimum moisture content according to AASHTO T 99, Method C, including replacement option.

    Place and spread aggregate base course as specified in 301.03.01.B. Place the base course and compact within a tolerance of ±1/2 inch of the required elevation. Ensure that no compacted lift exceeds a thickness of 8 inches. For base courses greater than 8 inches thick, construct the base course in 2 or more lifts of approximately equal thickness.

    Compact the density control strip using the same type and weight of equipment that will be used for compaction of the aggregate base course. Compact the density control strip with a minimum of 2 passes of the compaction equipment. A pass is defined as 1 passage of each compacting element in use of the compaction equipment over the entire surface of the course. After each pass of the compaction equipment transverses the density control strip, the ME will make 3 density determinations according to AASHTO T 310. Continue compacting until no appreciable increase in density is obtained by additional passes.

    After the Contractor completes compaction of the control strip, the ME will take at least 10 density tests at random locations to determine the average in-place dry density of the density control strip. If the average density of the material in the density control strip is equal to or greater than 95 percent of its maximum density, as determined according to AASHTO T 99, Method C, including replacement option, then use the value of this average as the reference maximum density for courses of the same materials and thickness. Establish a density control strip satisfying the 95 percent density requirement, according to AASHTO T 99, Method C, before constructing additional base courses. If this density level in the density control strip is not achieved, the RE will reject the compaction equipment, its method of use, or both. If approved by the RE, the density control strips may remain in place and become a portion of the completed base course.

    The RE will check elevations, as specified in 202.03.03.C, of the roadbed base course to ensure that base course elevations are within ±1/2 inch.

  3. Aggregate Base Course Placement. Construct the aggregate base course in the same manner as the approved density control strip.

    If less than 500 contiguous square yards of aggregate base course is being constructed, place and spread the aggregate base course as specified in 301.03.01.B. Place the base course and compact within a tolerance of ±1/2 inch of the required elevation. Compact the base course areas as specified in 203.03.02.D and ensure that no compacted lift exceeds a thickness of 8 inches. For base courses greater than 8 inches thick, construct the base course in 2 or more lifts of approximately equal thickness.

  4. Thickness Requirements. The RE will measure thickness, by test holes or by calculating the difference in elevations between the base course and the underlying layer. Refill test holes with base course material and recompact using the directed method as specified in 203.03.02.C.

    If the total thickness of base course differs from specified thickness by more than 1/2 inch, correct deficient areas as follows:

    1. Scarify the base course to a depth of 3 to 4 inches.
    2. Ensure that remaining material is contaminant free.
    3. Add or remove base course material to obtain the required grade while the existing surface is in a loose, scarified condition.
    4. Compact using the same method used for the density control strip.

  5. Compaction Acceptance Testing. The ME will divide the base course into lots of approximately 5000 square yards or 1000 cubic yards. The ME will test each lot of completed base course for compliance. The ME will determine the 5 locations for density tests using a table of random numbers. The ME will make 1 density determination at each of the selected locations. To determine acceptability, use the following procedure:

    1. Formula. Calculate Q using the following formula:


    2.    Q = 
      Average Lot Density - 0.95 of the Reference Maximum Density  

      Range of Lot Density  

      Where average lot density is the average dry density of 5 randomly selected locations in the lot and the range of lot density is the absolute difference between the lowest and highest dry density values recorded at these same 5 locations. The reference maximum density is determined by the method specified in 302.03.01.B.

    3. Criteria. Q must be equal to or greater than 0.36.


    If a lot is unacceptable, rework or recompact the lot.

302.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  SOIL AGGREGATE BASE COURSE, ___" THICK SQUARE YARD
  SOIL AGGREGATE BASE COURSE, VARIABLE THICKNESS CUBIC YARD
  DENSE-GRADED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE, ___" THICK SQUARE YARD
  DENSE-GRADED AGGREGATE BASE COURSE, VARIABLE THICKNESS CUBIC YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

Section 303 – Asphalt-Stabilized Drainage Course

303.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing asphalt-stabilized drainage course.

303.02 Materials  back to top

303.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Asphalt-Stabilized Drainage Course 902.06

303.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  HMA Paver 1003.03
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  Vibratory Drum Compactor 1003.06
  Bituminous Material Distributor 1003.07
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02

303.03 Construction  back to top

303.03.01 Asphalt-Stabilized Drainage Course

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before the start of placing the asphalt-stabilized drainage course, submit a detailed plan of operation to the RE for approval as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations. Comply with the weather limitations as specified in 401.03.03.B.

  3. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D.

  4. Spreading and Grading. Ensure that the prime coat has been applied as specified in 401.03.02.3. Place asphalt-stabilized drainage course at a laydown temperature between 210 °F and 275 °F. Spread and grade asphalt-stabilized drainage course in 1 lift as specified in 401.03.03.E.

  5. Compacting. Compact as specified in 401.03.03.F. Ensure that the temperature is 210 ± 40 °F before beginning compacting.

  6. Thickness Requirements. Ensure that the thickness of the drainage course is within ±1/4 inch of the specified thickness and that the elevation of the compacted course is within ±1/4 inch of the required elevation. The RE will check elevations of the asphalt-stabilized drainage course as specified in 202.03.03.C.

  7. Protecting. Protect the drainage course from damage and contamination. Remove and replace damaged and contaminated areas. Only allow equipment on the drainage course that is necessary for the construction of the subsequent pavement course.

303.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  ASPHALT-STABILIZED DRAINAGE COURSE TON
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure ASPHALT-STABILIZED DRAINAGE COURSE by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets excluding unused material and material used to replace damaged or contaminated.

The Department will make payment for prime coat as specified in 401.04.

Section 304 – Concrete Base Course

304.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing concrete base course.

304.02 Materials  back to top

304.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Curing Materials 903.10
  Epoxy Grout 903.08.02.B
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Tie Bars (epoxy-coated) 905.03.01
  Joint Ties (epoxy-coated) 905.03.01
  Dowel Bars (epoxy-coated) 905.03.03
  Joint Sealers 914.02

304.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Sealer Application System 1003.08
  Pavement Forms 1005.01
  Spreading and Finishing Machine 1005.02
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Slip Form Paver 1005.05
  Straightedge 1008.02
  Pavement Saw 1008.04
  Hot-Air Lance 1008.06
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

304.03 Construction  back to top

304.03.01 Concrete Base Course

Prepare the underlying material as specified in 405.03.01. At least 20 days before placing the concrete base course, submit a detailed plan of operation to the RE for approval as specified in 405.03.02.A. Comply with the concrete placing limitations as specified in 504.03.02.C. When shown on the Plans, install longitudinal joint ties, tie bars, and contraction joint assemblies as specified in 405.03.02. When shown on the Plans, install dowel bars as specified in 453.03.01.C. When shown on the Plans, install reinforcement steel as specified in 504.03.01.

Place concrete for concrete base course as specified in 405.03.02.D. Ensure that the concrete is not exposed for more than 30 minutes after finishing. The RE will direct a suspension, as specified in 108.13, of concrete operations if the curing procedure is delayed or is not followed. Apply wet burlap and white polyethylene sheeting as specified in 504.03.02.F.2. Maintain the curing material for 7 days. Protect concrete, as specified in 504.03.02.I, for the duration of the curing period. Construct wood bridging for pedestrian crossovers at street intersections and at other established pedestrian crosswalks.

Sawcut relief joints as specified in 405.03.02.G. Saw and seal contraction joints as specified in 405.03.02.H.

The RE may randomly test thickness by taking 1 core, as specified in 405.03.03, per slab. If the thickness of any core measures less than the value of the design thickness minus 1/2 inch, remove and replace the deficient area between transverse joints using RE approved methods.

304.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  CONCRETE BASE COURSE, ___ " THICK SQUARE YARD
  CONCRETE BASE COURSE, REINFORCED, ___ " THICK SQUARE YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will make payment for underlayer preparation as specified in 405.04.

When concrete curb is constructed monolithically with the base course, the Department will make payment for concrete curb under the various curb Items scheduled in the Proposal.

Section 305 – Rubblizing Concrete Pavement

305.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for rubblizing existing concrete pavement and seating before placing a HMA overlay.

305.02 Materials  back to top

305.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  DGA 901.10

305.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Resonant Method  
    Breaking Equipment 1006.01.A
    Smooth Drum Vibratory Roller 1006.02.B
  Multi-Head Method  
    Breaking Equipment 1006.01.B
    Z-Grid Roller 1006.02.A
    Smooth Drum Vibratory Roller 1006.02.B

Provide breaking equipment, as required by the TCP, capable of operating within 1 foot of barrier curbs and structures.

305.03 Construction  back to top

305.03.01 Rubblizing

  1. Existing Subsurface Facility Investigation. Obtain RE approval of the method of inspecting existing subsurface facilities for existing conditions. Inspect the existing subsurface facilities within the limits of rubblization.

  2. Installing Drainage System. Ensure that the entire underdrain system is installed at least 15 days before beginning rubblization.

  3. Removing Existing HMA Surfaces. Before beginning rubblization, remove existing HMA overlays and HMA surface patches from the concrete pavement surfaces to be rubblized. Remove existing full-depth HMA repairs and fill the void with DGA.

  4. Sawcutting Joints. If the limit of the rubblization is not at an existing joint, or if the concrete being rubblized abuts concrete pavement to be rubblized in a subsequent stage, sawcut the concrete full-depth.

  5. Rubblization Plan. Submit a rubblization plan to the RE 15 days before beginning rubblizing operations that includes the following:

    1. Condition of existing subsurface facilities as determined in 305.03.01.A.
    2. Rubblization method and associated equipment.
    3. Seating method and associated equipment.
    4. Rubblizing and paving sequence for the Project.
    5. Method for locating grade corrections and placing DGA as specified in 305.03.01.J.
    6. Method for protecting subsurface facilities.
    7. Dust mitigation measures.
    8. Method for performing a survey of the condition of the existing subsurface facilities after the rubblization operations.

  6. Do not begin test strip until the RE accepts this plan. Submit an adjusted rubblization plan before making adjustments to the operation.

  7. Test Strip. Before beginning rubblization, the RE will designate a 500-foot long, full lane width, or an area of approximately 600 square yards, for the test strip. Rubblize the test strip using varying intensities of energy until a technique is established that will rubblize the pavement as specified. At a location determined by the RE, excavate a full depth, 3-foot wide test pit for the full width of the test strip to determine that the breaker is producing pieces of the specified sizes. The RE may require additional test holes. Use DGA to backfill excavated areas. Place DGA in lifts and compact using the density control method as specified in 203.03.02.D.

    If required results are not being obtained, cease rubblizing operations and submit an alternate rubblization plan capable of obtaining the specified results to the RE. Resume rubblizing operations upon acceptance of the alternate plan. Repeat this procedure as necessary to obtain the specified results.

  8. Rubblizing. Rubblize the pavement full-depth in a manner that eliminates all slab action by fracturing into pieces 3 inches or less in any dimension in the top third of the pavement and 12 inches or less in any dimension in the bottom two-thirds of the pavement. Prevent rubblized debris from entering an active traffic lane.

    Rubblize in partial widths when necessary to maintain traffic as shown on the plans. In areas where the roadway must be overlaid 1 lane at a time, extend initial rubblization a minimum of 6 inches beyond the width of the pavement to be overlaid.

    For the resonant method begin at a free edge or previously broken edge and progress toward the opposite shoulder or longitudinal centerline of the road. When necessary, overlap passes to achieve rubblization.

    Continuously monitor rubblization to ensure that the operation is achieving the specified results. Notify the RE of adjustments that may be required. The RE may require additional test holes to ensure that pieces are free of bond with reinforcement and to ensure that the pavement is being rubblized to the specific dimensions.

  9. Seating. Seat rubblized pavement with rollers operating at a speed not exceeding 2-1/2 miles per hour. Seat rubblized pavement using the applicable method:

    1. Resonant Method. Roll the rubblized pavement with a minimum of 3 passes over the entire width of the rubblized pavement with a vibratory roller.
    2. Multi-Head Method. Roll the entire width of the rubblized pavement with 2 passes of a “Z-Grid” roller, followed by 2 passes of a smooth drum vibratory roller.

  10. The RE may require additional passes in order to seat the rubblized pavement and provide a smooth surface that is ready for the HMA overlay. If the rubblized pavement becomes unstable due to excess moisture, cease rolling until the RE allows the operation to resume.

  11. Removing Exposed Reinforcement Steel and Transverse Joint Assemblies. For reinforced concrete pavement, leave debonded reinforcement steel in place unless exposed. Cut exposed reinforcement steel 1 inch below the surface and remove. Remove exposed transverse joint assemblies. Remove exposed joint filler, expansion materials, or other similar items. Patch deficiencies left by removing joint assemblies as specified in 305.03.01.J.

  12. Patching and Leveling with DGA. At the direction of the RE, remove unstable material full depth and replace with DGA. Compact DGA in lifts using the directed method as specified in 203.03.02.C.

    If the seated rubblized pavement is more than 1-1/2 inch below grade, correct with DGA as approved by the RE. Place DGA and compact using the directed method as specified in 203.03.02.C.

  13. Repairing Subsurface Facilities. If damage occurs to subsurface facilities during rubblization, immediately cease operations, notify the RE, and repair the damage as directed by the RE.

  14. Final Subsurface Facility Survey. Perform a final survey of the subsurface facilities after completion of rubblization and submit to the RE. Repair damage as directed by the RE.

  15. Protecting Rubblized Pavement from Damage. Protect the rubblized pavement from contamination and damage. Correct areas of the rubblized pavement damaged by construction operations or contamination before placing HMA. Only allow equipment on the rubblized pavement that is necessary for the construction of the subsequent pavement course.

    Ensure that no more than 48 hours elapse between rubblizing the pavement and the placement of the first lift of the HMA overlay. If precipitation occurs before placing the HMA overlay, the RE may extend the time restriction to allow the rubblized pavement to dry.

305.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  rubblization SQUARE yard
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure EXCAVATION, Unclassified in unstable areas by the cubic yard of material actually excavated in the work. The Department will make payment for Excavation, Unclassified as specified in 202.04.

The Department will measure DGA used for DGA patching and leveling by the cubic yard of material actually used in the work. The Department will make payment for Dense Graded Aggregate Base Course, variable thickness ___ as specified in 302.04.


Last Document Correction:
April 5, 2011