New Jersey

Department of Transportation

Standard Specifications

for Road and Bridge Construction

2007


Division 400 – Pavements
       
  Section 401 – Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Courses
    401.01 Description
    401.02 Materials & Equipment
    401.03 Construction
      401.03.01 Preparing Existing Pavement
      401.03.02 Tack Coat and Prime Coat
      401.03.03 HMA Courses
      401.03.04 Sawcutting and Sealing of Joints in HMA Overlays
      401.03.05 Core Samples
    401.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 402 – HMA Friction Course
    402.01 Description
    402.02 Materials & Equipment
    402.03 Construction
      402.03.01 Installing OGFC and MOGFC
     

402.03.02 AR-OGFC

    402.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 403 – Ultra-Thin Friction Course
    403.01 Description
    403.02 Materials & Equipment
    403.03 Construction
      403.03.01 Ultra-Thin Friction Course
    403.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 404 – Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA)
    404.01 Description
    404.02 Materials & Equipment
    404.03 Construction
      404.03.01 SMA
    404.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 405 – Concrete Surface Course
    405.01 Description
    405.02 Materials & Equipment
    405.03 Construction
      405.03.01 Underlayer Preparation
      405.03.02 Concrete Surface Course
      405.03.03 Core Samples
      405.03.04 Diamond Grinding
    405.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 406 – High Performance Thin Overlay (HPTO)
    406.01 Description
    406.02 Materials
      406.02.01 Materials
      406.02.02 Equipment
    406.03 Construction
      406.03.01 High Performance Thin Overlay (HPTO)
    406.04 Measurement and Payment

 

Division 400 – Pavements

Section 401 – Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Courses

401.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing base course, intermediate course, and surface course of HMA.

401.02 Materials  back to top

401.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Tack Coat 64-22, PG 64-22 902.01.01
  Prime Coat, Cut-Back Asphalt, Grade MC-30 or MC-70 902.01.02
  Tack Coat:  
    Cut-Back Asphalt, Grade RC-70 902.01.02
    Emulsified Asphalt, Grade RS-1, CRS-1, SS-1, SS-1h, Grade CSS-1 or CSS-1h 902.01.03
  HMA 902.02
  Joint Sealer, Hot-Poured 914.02
  Polymerized Joint Adhesive 914.03
  Polymer Modified Tack Coat 902.01.04

Use HMA specified for the roadway surface as patching material for HMA pavement repair. The Contractor may use a commercial type of cold mixture as patching material for filling core holes if HMA surface course is not being placed when coring. The Contractor may use an approved HMA surface course to fill core holes, provided the material remains hot enough to compact.

401.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV) 1003.01
  HMA Paver 1003.03
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  Vibratory Drum Compactor 1003.06
  Bituminous Material Distributor 1003.07
  Sealer Application System 1003.08
  Milling Machine 1008.01
  Hot-Air Lance 1008.06
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02
  Mechanical Sweeper 1008.03

Provide a thin-lift nuclear density gauge according to ASTM D 2950.

When an MTV is used, install a paver hopper insert with a minimum capacity of 14 tons in the hopper of the HMA paver.

401.03 Construction  back to top

401.03.01 Preparing Existing Pavement

  1. Milling of HMA. Mill HMA to the specified depth, profile, and cross slope. Operate milling machine to produce milled material that passes a 3-inch sieve. Use automatic grade controls to control the line and grade of the milling machine. Use either a stringline or ski reference system. Replace teeth in the milling drum that become dislodged, broken, or unevenly worn. Perform milling operation, including removal of the milled material, in a manner that prevents dust and other particulate matter from escaping into the air.

    Ensure that the milled area is free from gouges, continuous grooves, ridges, and delaminated areas and has a uniform texture consisting of discontinuous longitudinal striations. Ensure that the striations do not deviate more than 1 inch in 200 feet from a line parallel to the center of the traveled way and do not exceed 3/8 inch in depth. Check at least every 25 feet to ensure that the depth of milling is within 1/4 inch of the indicated depth.

    Mill HMA to the depth specified without damaging underlying HMA. If HMA below the specified milling level becomes dislodged or delaminated, remove and replace.

    When profile milling, ensure the cutting depth is sufficient to remove ruts and corrugations and to scarify the remaining surface.

    Sawcut at the limit of paving in driveways and at other limits requiring a neat edge between new and existing HMA.

    Using a mechanical sweeper, clean the milled area before opening to traffic and before subsequent construction or resurfacing. Reuse millings and sweepings as specified in 202.03.07.A.

    If the milled area is opened to traffic, ensure that water can drain from the surface and does not become trapped. If the longitudinal edge height of a milled surface exceeds 2 inches, slope the edge to provide a smooth transition from the milled surface to the remaining pavement. At transverse edges of milled areas, provide a smooth transition from the milled surface to the remaining pavement.

    In areas inaccessible to the milling machine, remove HMA with other equipment.

    The Department will provide the time interval for resurfacing the milled areas in the Special Provisions.

  2. Milling of Concrete. Mill concrete pavement to 1-inch depth at the locations shown on the Plans without damaging the underlying pavement. Ensure that the milled area is free from gouges, continuous grooves, ridges, and delaminated areas and has a uniform texture consisting of discontinuous longitudinal striations. Ensure that the striations do not deviate more than 1 inch in 200 feet from a line parallel to the center of the traveled way and do not exceed 3/8 inch in depth. Perform milling operations, including removal of the milled material, in a manner that prevents dust and other particulate matter from escaping into the air.

    Mill 1 inch of concrete and any remaining HMA not removed by previous milling operations at locations shown on the Plans. Based on the condition of the remaining pavement, the RE may direct additional areas to be milled.

    If milling transition areas for HMA overlays, mill the transition from 0 to 1 inch in depth over a length of 100 feet. Construct a keyway at the terminal transverse limit of the area to be milled by sawcutting and removing the material within this area by hand methods so as to produce a vertical face.

    Using a mechanical sweeper, clean the milled area before opening to traffic and before subsequent construction or resurfacing. Reuse millings and sweepings as specified in 202.03.07.A.

    If the milled area is opened to traffic, ensure that water can drain from the surface and does not become trapped. If the longitudinal edge height of a milled surface exceeds 2 inches, slope the edge to provide a smooth transition from the milled surface to the remaining pavement. At transverse edges of milled areas, provide a smooth transition from the milled surface to the remaining pavement.

    In areas inaccessible to the milling machine, remove concrete with other equipment.

  3. Sealing Cracks in HMA Surface Course. Seal cracks that are 1/4 inch wide or wider. Clean cracks to a depth of 1 inch using a random crack saw, carbide-tipped, rotary-impact router, commercial power-driven wire brush, or by other RE approved means. Provide acceptable protective screening if the cleaning operation causes damage to or interference with traffic in adjacent lanes.

    Immediately before applying sealant, clean cracks and dry further with a hot-air lance.

    At least 10 day before beginning the work, submit to the RE a copy of the manufacturer’s recommendations for heating and applying the sealant. Seal cracks with hot-poured joint sealant according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Cut sealant into small pieces to facilitate slow and uniform melting with constant stirring. Ensure that the temperature of the sealant in the field application equipment does not exceed the recommended safe heating temperature. Do not heat sealant material at the pouring temperature for more than 6 hours and do not reheat.

    Pour sealant into the cracks so that, upon completion of the work, the surface of the sealant is flush with or not more than 1/4 inch lower than the surface of the adjacent HMA surface course. If the sealant subsides to a lower level, perform another pouring. When more than 1 pour is required to fill the cracks, perform succeeding pours immediately after shrinkage of the previous pouring. If spilling or overfilling occurs, immediately squeegee the crack. If the RE determines that the overfilled crack or spilled sealant creates a slippery, hazardous, or otherwise undesirable condition, initially correct the area by sprinkling a light application of abrasive (sand or grit material) to absorb the excess material, restore skid-resistance, and abate the condition caused by the overpour. After the excess material has been absorbed, hand sweep the area clean, and restore to its original condition or texture to the RE’s satisfaction.

    Do not allow traffic or construction equipment over the poured cracks until the sealant has hardened sufficiently to resist pickup. The RE may direct sprinkling of dry sand over poured areas to provide additional pickup resistance.

  4. Repairing HMA Pavement. If potholes are discovered, notify the RE immediately. The RE may immediately direct repairs of small areas.  The RE may require further evaluation of a large area to determine the need for additional milling and paving.

    Sawcut existing HMA pavement to a maximum depth of 10 inches, or to the full depth of bound layers, whichever is less.  Sawcut lines parallel and perpendicular to the roadway baseline and 3 inches away, at the closest point, from the damaged area to be repaired.

    Remove damaged and loose material to a depth of at least 3 and no more than 10 inches below the level of milling within the boundary of the sawcuts to form rectangular openings with vertical sides.  Shape and compact the underlying surface to produce a firm, level base.  Ensure that the remaining pavement is not damaged.

    Apply polymerized joint adhesive or tack coat to the vertical surfaces of the openings.  Spread and grade HMA in the opening as directed by the RE.  Ensure that the temperature of the HMA when placed is at least 250 °F, and compact as specified in 401.03.03.F.  Compact areas not accessible to rollers with a flat face compactor.  Compact until the top of the patch is flush with the adjacent pavement surface.

    Reuse removed material as specified in 202.03.07.A.

401.03.02 Tack Coat and Prime Coat

Clean the surface where the HMA is to be placed of foreign and loose material. Immediately before beginning paving operations, ensure that the surface is dry. Do not place tack coat or prime coat unless the weather restrictions, as specified in 401.03.03.B, are met.

Do not apply tack coat or prime coat to asphalt-stabilized drainage course.

For curbs, gutters, manholes, and other similar structures, do not apply tack coat or prime coat. Clean the exposed surfaces of these structures and apply a uniform coating of polymerized joint adhesive to contact surfaces before paving.

In areas inaccessible to distributor spray bars, use hand spraying equipment for tack and prime coat. Do not allow traffic on tack coated or prime coated surfaces. Treat surfaces as follows:

  1. Tack Coat. Uniformly spray tack coat when placing HMA on paved surfaces. Apply tack coat only to areas to be paved in the same day. Apply tack coat as specified in Table 401.03.02-1:


  2. Table 401.03.02-1 Tack Coat Application

    Material

    Spraying Temp, °F

    Gallons per Square Yard

    Season

    Cut-Back Asphalt:

     RC-70

    120 to 190

    0.05 to 0.15

    Oct 15 to Apr 15

    Emulsified Asphalt:

     RS-1

    70 to 140

    0.05 to 0.15

    All year

     CRS-1
    125 to 185
    0.05 to 0.15
    All year

     SS-1, SS-1h

    70 to 140

    0.05 to 0.15

    All year

     CSS-1, CSS-1h

    70 to 140

    0.05 to 0.15

    All year


    Correct uncoated or lightly coated areas. Blot areas showing an excess of tack coat with sand or other similar material. Remove blotting material before paving. Ensure that the material is not streaked or ribboned.

    Before paving, allow tack coat to cure to a condition that is tacky to the touch.

  3. Tack Coat 64-22. When precipitation has occurred within 24 hours before application, the RE will determine whether to allow the work to proceed, or to wait until the surface is completely dry. Only apply tack coat that can be paved over in the same day. Apply tack coat 64-22 at a rate of 0.06 to 0.14 gallons per square yard and at a spraying temperature of 325 °F. Adjust the spraying temperature and application rate to produce a uniform coating, with no excess material.

    Correct uncoated or lightly coated areas and remove excess tack coat from affected areas. Ensure that the material is not streaked or ribboned.

  4. Polymer Modified Tack Coat. Apply polymer modified tack coat with an ultra-thin paver at a temperature of 140 to 175 °F. Continuously monitor rate of spray, ensuring a uniform application rate over entire width to be overlaid. Apply at the rate of 0.20 ± 0.05 gallons per square yard. Do not allow traffic, equipment, tools, or any other disturbance to the polymer modified tack coat before placing the ultra-thin friction course.

  5. Prime Coat. Apply prime coat of cut-back asphalt on unpaved surfaces as follows:

  6. Table 401.03.02-2 Prime Coat Application

    Cut-Back Asphalt

    Spraying Temp, °F

    Gallons per Square Yard

    Season

      MC-30

    85 to 150

    0.1 to 0.5

    Oct 15 to Apr 15

      MC-70

    120 to 190

    0.1 to 0.5

    Oct 15 to Apr 15

    Emulsified Asphalt:
         
      CSS-1
    70 to 140
    0.1 to 0.50
    All year

    Apply prime coat at least 12 hours before placement of the HMA and when the base courses are not saturated or frozen. Unless the prime coat is under asphalt-stabilized drainage course, the RE may waive the application of prime coat if more than 5 inches of HMA is placed on the unbound aggregate course before the roadway is opened to traffic. Take measures to prevent prime coat from entering into the drainage system or extending beyond the area to be paved.

401.03.03 HMA Courses

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before beginning placing the HMA surface course, submit a detailed plan of operation to the RE for approval that includes the following:

    1. Asphalt paving construction technologist (APCT), certified by the Society of Asphalt Technologists of New Jersey, Inc. The Department will accept the equivalent certification by the Mid-Atlantic Regional Technician Certification Program.
    2. Size and description of crew.
    3. Number, type, and model of equipment.
    4. Lighting plan for nighttime operations as specified in 108.06.
    5. Method of locating and maintaining joint locations if sawing and sealing.
    6. Manufacturer’s recommendations for heating and applying joint sealant.
    7. Paving procedures for maintaining continuous operation as specified in 401.03.03.D.
    8. Manufacturer’s recommended laydown temperature for modified binders.
    9. Paving sequence. Ensure that the HMA surface course is constructed for the full width of the traveled way, shoulder, and auxiliary lanes as a single paving operation.
    10. Schedule, hours of operation, and production rates for the Project.
    11. Plant locations.
    12. Method of maintaining HMA temperature during transportation.
    13. Method of constructing and compacting joints as specified in 401.03.03.E.
    14. Quality control plan outlining the use of the thin lift nuclear density gauge, quality control cores, and the control of the compaction process.
    15. If applicable, the warm mix asphalt additive or process being used.


    Do not begin paving until the RE approves this plan. Submit an adjusted pavement plan before making adjustments to the paving operation.

  2. Weather Limitations. Do not place HMA if it is precipitating. Do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent. The Contractor may resume operations when the precipitation has stopped and the surface is free of water.

    When placing HMA, ensure that the base temperature meets the minimum temperature requirements specified in Table 401.03.03-1.

  3. Table 401.03.03-1 Minimum Base Temperature

    Lift Thickness, inches (t)

    Minimum Base Temperature, °F

    t ≤ 1

    50

    1 < t < 2

    41

    t ≥ 2

    32


  4. Test Strip. Construct a test strip for contracts with more than 5500 tons of HMA. Test strips are not necessary for temporary pavement. Ensure that the tack coat or prime coat has been placed as specified in 401.03.02, before placing HMA. Transport and deliver, spread and grade, and compact as specified in 401.03.03.D, 401.03.03.E, and 401.03.03.F, respectively, and according to the approved paving plan. Construct a test strip for the first 700 to 1200 square yards placed for each job mix formula. While constructing the test strip, record the following information and submit to the RE:

    1. Ambient Temperature. Measure ambient temperature at the beginning and end of each day’s paving operation.
    2. Base Temperature. Measure the surface temperature of the existing base before paving.
    3. HMA Temperature. Measure the temperature of the HMA immediately after placement.
    4. Roller Pattern. Provide details on the number of rollers, type, and number of passes used on the test strip.
    5. Nuclear Density Gauge Readings. Obtain the maximum density from the plant, and input it into the nuclear density gauge. Use the nuclear density gauge to read the bulk density and percent air voids.
    6. Quality Control Core Density Test Results. Take 5 randomly selected quality control cores to test for the bulk specific gravity and the maximum specific gravity.

      Use drilling equipment with a water-cooled, diamond-tipped, masonry drill bit that shall produce 6-inch nominal diameter cores for the full depth of the pavement. Remove the core from the pavement without damaging it. After removing the core, remove all water from the hole. Fill the hole with HMA or cold patching material, and compact the material so that it is 1/4 inch above the surrounding pavement surface.

      Compare the nuclear density gauge readings and the core test results to establish a correlation. Use this correlation as a guide for the continued use of the nuclear density gauge for density control.
    7. Warm Mix Asphalt. Note the warm mix asphalt additive or process, if used.

  5. Upon completion of the test strip, the Contractor may continue paving. If the Contractor does not continue paving, the Department will accept the test strip as 1 lot regardless of size.

    If the test strip does not meet requirements, make adjustments and construct a second test strip. If the second test strip does not meet requirements, suspend paving operations until written approval to proceed is received.

    Before making adjustments to the paving operations, notify the RE in writing.

  6. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Deliver HMA using HMA trucks in sufficient quantities and at such intervals to allow continuous placement of the material. Do not allow trucks to leave the plant within 1 hour of sunset unless nighttime lighting is provided as specified in 108.06. The RE will reject HMA if the HMA trucks do not meet the requirements specified in 1009.02. The RE will suspend construction operations if the Contractor fails to maintain a continuous paving operation. Before the truck leaves the plant, obtain a weigh ticket from a fully automatic scale. Before unloading, submit for each truckload a legible weigh ticket that includes the following:

    1. Name and location of the HMA plant.
    2. Project title.
    3. Load time and date.
    4. Truck number.
    5. Mix designation.
    6. Plant lot number.
    7. Tare, gross, and net weight.

  7. A certified weighmaster shall sign and affix a seal to the weigh tickets.

    In the event of breakdown of an automatic printer system, the RE will accept weigh tickets showing the tare, gross, and net weight of each truck, as entered and certified by a weighmaster for a period not exceeding the necessary repair time as certified by a licensed repairman.

    When using an automated batching plant, obtain weigh tickets from the printer used in conjunction with an automated batching and mixing system. The printed ticket shall show the individual weights of the various components of the HMA in a batch, the total weight of each batch, and the sum of all batch weights in the truckload. At the completion of each day’s work, a producer’s representative shall certify that the total net weight supplied to each Contract was correct.

  8. Spreading and Grading. If using a stringline reference system, ensure that the system is in place and approved by the RE before placing HMA. Ensure that the underlying surface meets line and grade as specified in 202.03.03.C. Before placing HMA, ensure that the tack coat or prime coat has been placed as specified in 401.03.02. Obtain RE approval of the underlying surface far enough in advance of spreading HMA to allow 1 day’s paving operations.

    Ensure that the certified APCT is present during paving operations.

    Ensure that an MTV independently delivers HMA from the HMA trucks to the HMA paver.

    Before beginning, ensure that the temperature of the screed on the HMA paver is heated to at least the laydown temperature of the HMA. Using the MTVs and HMA pavers, construct paving courses in lifts of at least 4 times the nominal maximum aggregate size of the HMA being constructed. Ensure that the grade and profile are maintained.

    Where directed, use HMA having a nominal maximum aggregate size of 3/8 inch or less in transition (run out) areas. On areas where irregularities or unavoidable obstacles make use of a paver impractical, spread, rake, and lute HMA with hand tools. For these areas, dump, spread, and screed the HMA to obtain the required compacted thickness.

    Construct joints as follows:

    1. Longitudinal Joints. Perform paving with the spring-loaded end plates of the paver in the “down” position. The longitudinal joint in 1 lift shall offset that in the lift immediately below by approximately 6 inches. Offset the joint in the surface course from the lane lines by 6 inches. When constructing a joint between lanes of opposing traffic, offset the joint by 6 inches into either lane.

      1. Echelon Paving. If a single paver does not spread the HMA the entire width of the roadway, use 2 or more pavers in echelon. Ensure that the trailing paver follows within 300 feet of the lead paver. Extend the screed and end gate of the trailing paver 1 inch over the uncompacted HMA placed by the lead paver. Ensure that the uncompacted HMA elevation from the trailing paver is equal to that from the lead paver at the joint. The Contractor may construct either a butt joint or a wedge joint. Do not rake the joint.

      2. Cold Joint Paving. If echelon paving is not possible, construct the pavement using cold longitudinal joints. When constructing the first lane, compact so the line and grade of the edges of the HMA are not displaced. Construct longitudinal joints parallel to the centerlines within a tolerance of ±3 inches per 100 linear feet. If this tolerance is not met, trim or mill the edge of the HMA mat as necessary. Before paving the abutting lane, ensure longitudinal joints are free from dust and debris.

        For surface course only, uniformly apply polymerized joint adhesive to longitudinal cold joint. Apply a 1/8-inch thick coating of polymerized joint adhesive over the entire joint face. Apply slowly to ensure an even coating thickness.

        When maintaining traffic with a lift thickness greater than 2-1/4 inches, construct a wedge joint. The RE will permit a butt joint for lift thickness 2-1/4 inches or less when maintaining traffic, or for lift thickness greater than 2-1/4 inches when maintaining traffic is not required. Maintain a uniform width and depth of overlapped material at all times. Position the paver so that the HMA overlaps the edge of the lane previously placed by 1 to 2 inches. Leave the material sufficiently high to allow for compaction. Lute back overlapped material, pushing the material off of the cold HMA and onto the hot HMA mat directly over the joint. Remove excess material instead of broadcasting it across the new lift.

        When compacted, ensure that the new mat at the joint is even or slightly higher (maximum 1/8 inch) than the previously placed adjoining mat. If the newly compacted mat results in a depression at the joint of 1/8 inch or more lower than the previously placed adjacent HMA lift, suspend all paving operations until corrective action is taken to prevent reoccurrence.

    2. Transverse Joints. Construct transverse joints to provide a smooth riding surface. When using a bulkhead to form the joint, ensure that the bulkhead forms a straight line and vertical face. If a bulkhead is not used to form the joint, make the joint by sawing the compacted HMA for a sufficient distance behind the end of the placement to ensure full thickness and a smooth surface at the joint. Remove the full lift thickness of HMA ahead of the sawed joint. In either case, paint the joint face with polymerized joint adhesive before the fresh material is placed against it. Unless prohibited by field conditions, cross roll to obtain thorough compaction of these joints.

  9. Compacting. Compact with the minimum number of rollers as specified in the Table 401.03.03-2.

  10. Table 401.03.03-2 Compaction Requirements

    Laydown Rate (r), yd2/day

    Minimum Number of Rollers

    r ≤ 2000

    1

    2000 < r < 4000

    2

    r ≥ 4000

    3


    Orient the drive axles of the roller towards the paver during compaction operation. Operate rollers at a slow, uniform speed not exceeding 2-1/2 miles per hour. If necessary to prevent adhesion of the HMA to the rollers, keep the wheels moistened with water mixed with very small quantities of detergent.

    Begin compacting at the sides and progress gradually to the center. On superelevated curves, compact from the lower to the upper edge parallel to the centerline and uniformly overlap each preceding track until the entire surface has been compacted.

    Continue rolling until roller marks are eliminated and the air voids conform to the specified requirements.

    Along forms, curbs, headers, walls, and other places not accessible to the rollers, compact the HMA by a vibratory drum compactor.

    Remove and replace HMA that becomes loose, broken, or otherwise defective or that shows an excess or deficiency of asphalt binder material.

    When paving in echelon, keep the rollers for the first lane approximately 6 inches from the unconfined edge adjacent to the second paving operation. After HMA from the second paver is placed against the uncompacted edge of the mat from the first paver, compact the HMA on both sides of the joint.

    Prevent lateral or vertical displacement of the unconfined edge during the compaction operation. Ensure that the edge of the drums of the rollers extends over the free edge of the mat by at least 6 inches.

    When compacting the butt or wedge joint, while paving the adjacent lane, place the roller on the newly placed HMA and overlap the joint by approximately 6 inches.

    If a test strip was not required, establish a correlation between the nuclear density gauge and the cores as specified in 401.03.03.C.6. To adjust correlation with the thin lift nuclear density gauge, take 1 additional core every week during the paving operation. The RE may approve additional coring with valid cause presented by the Contractor. On a weekly basis, provide results of both the nuclear density and core testing to the RE. Provide core and nuclear density results that include the bulk specific gravity, the maximum specific gravity according to AASHTO T 209, and the percent air voids. Failure to submit the core and nuclear density test results from the previous week’s paving will result in suspended paving operations.

  11. Opening to Traffic. Remove loose material from the traveled way, shoulder, and auxiliary lanes before opening to traffic. Open HMA courses to traffic or construction equipment, including paving equipment, only after the surface temperatures meet the following requirements:

    1. When using PG 64-22, do not allow traffic or construction equipment on the HMA course until the surface temperature is less than 140 °F.
    2. When using PG 64E-22, do not allow traffic or construction equipment on the HMA course until the surface temperature is less than 170 °F.
    3. When using Warm Mix Asphalt, do not allow traffic or construction equipment on the HMA course until the surface temperature is less than 120 °F.

  12. Air Void Requirements. Mainline lots are defined as the area covered by a day’s paving production of the same job mix formula for the traveled way and auxiliary lanes. The RE may combine daily production areas less than 1000 tons with previous or subsequent production areas. If a day’s production is greater than 4000 tons, the RE may divide the area of HMA placed into 2 lots with approximately equal areas.

    Ramp pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in ramps. The RE may combine ramps with less than the minimum area into a single lot. If 2 or more ramps are included in a single lot, the RE will require additional cores to ensure that at least 1 core is taken from each ramp.

    Other pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in shoulders and other undefined areas. Inside shoulders less than 6 feet in width will not be included in other lots unless requested by the RE.

    If areas of existing  shoulders are found to be insufficient to support the proposed HMA pavement and the required compaction cannot be achieved, notify the RE immediately.  The RE may either direct additional milling and paving to provide a suitable base to pave the proposed HMA or waive coring and air void requirements in such shoulder areas.

    The ME will calculate the percent defective (PD) as the percentage of the lot outside the acceptable range of 2 percent air voids to 8 percent air voids. The acceptable quality limit is 10 percent defective. For lots in which PD < 10, the Department will award a positive pay adjustment. For lots in which PD > 10, the Department will assess a negative pay adjustment.

    The ME will determine air voids from 5 cores taken from each lot in random locations. The ME will determine air voids of cores from the values for the maximum specific gravity of the mix and the bulk specific gravity of the core. The ME will determine the maximum specific gravity of the mix according to NJDOT B-3 and AASHTO T 209, except that minimum sample size may be waived in order to use a 6-inch diameter core sample. The ME will determine the bulk specific gravity of the compacted mixture by testing each core according to AASHTO T 166.

    The ME will calculate pay adjustments based on the following:

    1. Sample Mean () and Standard Deviation (S) of the N Test Results (X1, X2,..., XN).


    2. Quality Index (Q).


    3. Percent Defective (PD). Using NJDOT ST for the appropriate sample size, the Department will determine PDL and PDU associated with QL and QU, respectively. PD = PDL + PDU

    4. Percent Pay Adjustment (PPA). Calculate the PPA for traveled way and ramp lots as specified in Table 401.03.03-3.

    5. Table 401.03.03-3 PPA for Mainline Lots and Ramp Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      Surface

      PD < 10

      PPA =  4 − (0.4 PD)

      10 ≤ PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)

      Intermediate and Base

      PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)


      Calculate the PPA for other pavement lots as specified in Table 401.03.03-4.

      Table 401.03.03-4 PPA for Other Pavement Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      All Courses

      PD < 50

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 50

      PPA = 92 − (1.92 PD)


    6. Outlier Detection. The ME will screen all acceptance cores for outliers using a statistically valid procedure. If an outlier is detected, replace that core by taking an additional core at the same offset and within 5 feet of the original station. The following procedure applies only for a sample size of 5.

      1. The ME will arrange the 5 core results in ascending order, in which X1 represents the smallest value and X5 represents the largest value.

      2. If X5 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X5 - X 4

      X55 - X1

      1. If X1 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X2 - X1

      X5 - X1

      1. If R > 0.642, the value is judged to be statistically significant and the core is excluded.

    1. Retest. If the initial series of 5 cores produces a percent defective value of PD ≥ 30 for mainline or ramp lots, or PD ≥ 50 for other pavement lots, the Contractor may elect to take an additional set of 5 cores at random locations chosen by the ME. Take the additional cores within 15 days of receipt of the initial core results. If the additional cores are not taken within the 15 days, the ME will use the initial core results to determine the PPA. If the additional cores are taken, the ME will recalculate the PPA using the combined results from the 10 cores.

    2. Removal and Replacement. If the final lot PD ≥ 75 (based on the combined set of 10 cores or 5 cores if the Contractor does not take additional cores), remove and replace the lot and all overlying work. The replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

  13. Thickness Requirements. Thickness requirements will apply when full-depth, uniform-thickness HMA pavement construction is shown. The size and the assigned number of thickness lots will match those of the surface course air void lots. The RE will not include areas consisting of different HMA mixtures or thicknesses in the same lot.

    The ME will test for thickness using the full-depth cores taken for surface course air voids, evaluated according to NJDOT B-4. The ME will base acceptance on total thickness and thickness of the surface course.

    1. Total Thickness. The ME will calculate the percent defective (PD) as the percentage of the lot that is less than the design thickness. The ME will consider 10 percent defective as the acceptable quality limit. For lots where PD < 10, the Department will award a positive pay adjustment. For lots where PD > 10, the Department will assess a negative pay adjustment.

      The Department will base total thickness acceptance on the percentage of the lot estimated to fall below the specified thickness as follows:

      1. Sample Mean () and Standard Deviation (S) of the N Test Results (X1, X2,..., XN). Calculate as specified in 401.03.03.H.1.

      2. Quality Index (QI).

      3. QL = ( − Tdes)/S, and Tdes is the design thickness.

      4. Percent Defective (PD). Using NJDOT ST for the appropriate sample size, determine the percentage of material (PD) falling below the design thickness associated with QL (lower limit).

      5. Percent Pay Adjustment (PPA). The Department will determine the pay adjustment based on the quantity of the surface course × PPA.

      6. Table 401.03.03-5 Pay Equations for Thickness

        Quality
        PPA

        PD < 30

        PPA = 1   − (0.1 × PD)

        PD ≥ 30

        PPA = 40 − (1.4 × PD)


      7. Retest. If the initial series of 5 cores produces a percent defective value of PD ≥ 30, the Contractor may elect to take an additional set of 5 cores at random locations chosen by the RE. Take the additional cores within 15 days of receipt of the initial core results. If the additional cores are not taken within the 15 days, the ME will use the initial core results to determine the PPA. If the additional cores are taken, the ME will recalculate the PPA using the combined results from the 10 cores.

      8. Removal and Replacement. If the final lot PD ≥ 75 (based on the combined set of 10 cores or 5 cores if the Contractor does not take additional cores), remove and replace, or mill and overlay, the lot. The replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

    2. Surface Course Thickness. The ME will evaluate the surface course solely to determine whether a remove-and-replace or an overlay condition exists, not for pay adjustment. The ME will calculate the percent defective (PD) as the percentage of the lot that is less than the allowable thickness for the nominal maximum aggregate used in the surface course. The ME will accept pavement lots with PD ≤ 10 and will reject pavement lots with PD > 10.

      The ME will base surface thickness acceptance on the percentage of the lot estimated to fall below the allowable thickness as follows:

      1. Sample Mean () and Standard Deviation (S) of the N Test Results (X1, X2,..., XN). Calculate using the formula as specified in 401.03.03.H.1.

      2. Quality Index (Q).

      3. QL = ( – Tall)/S, where Tall is the minimum allowable thickness.

        Table 401.03.03-6 Surface Course Thickness Requirements

        HMA Mix Design Size Designation

        Minimum Allowable Compacted Lift Thickness (Tall)

        9.5 MM

        1.00 inch

        12.5 MM

        1.25 inches

        19 MM

        2.00 inches


      4. Percent Defective. Using NJDOT ST for the appropriate sample size, determine the percentage of material (PD) falling below the allowable thickness associated with QL (lower limit).

      5. Retest. If the initial series of 5 cores produces a percent defective value of PD > 10, the Contractor may take an additional 5 cores at random locations determined by the ME. Take the additional cores within 15 days of receipt of the initial core results. If the additional cores are not taken within the 15 days, the ME will use the initial core results to determine the PPA. When the additional cores are taken, the ME will recalculate the PPA using the combined results from the 10 cores to obtain the total PD.

      6. Removal and Replacement. If the surface course fails to meet the acceptance requirement, the Department will require removal and replacement of the lot. The replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

  14. Ride Quality Requirements. When the Project exceeds one mile in continuous length, the Department will evaluate the final riding surface using the International Roughness Index (IRI) according to ASTM E 1926. The final riding surface is defined as the last lift of the pavement structure where traffic will be allowed. The Department will use the measured IRI to compute the appropriate pay adjustment (PA). The PA will be positive for superior quality work or negative for inferior quality work.

    The Department will calculate the PA as specified in Table 401.03.03-7 and will base PA on lots of 0.01 mile length for each lane, ramp, and shoulder and 0.005 mile for each overlaid bridge structure.

    1. Smoothness Measurement. The Department will test the longitudinal profile of the final riding surface for ride quality with a Class 1 Inertial Profiling System according to AASHTO M 328 and NJDOT R-1. If project conditions preclude the use of the Class 1 Inertial Profiling System, the Department will use a Class 1 walking profiler or lightweight profiler.

      The IRI value reported for each lot is the average of 3 runs of each wheel path, unless otherwise directed by the Department.

    2. Quality Control Testing. Perform control testing during lift placement to ensure compliance with the ride quality requirements specified in Table 401.03.03-7.

    3. Preparation for IRI Testing. Provide traffic control when the Department performs IRI testing. Perform mechanical sweeping of the surface before IRI testing. To facilitate auto triggering on laser profilers, place a single line of preformed traffic marking tape perpendicular to the roadway baseline 300 feet before the beginning and after the end of each lane, shoulder, and ramp to be tested or at the direction of the Department. Submit the actual stationing for each traffic marking tape location to the RE.

    4. Quality Acceptance. The Department will determine acceptance and provide PA based on the following:

      1. Pay Adjustment. The pay equations in Table 401.03.03-7 express the PA in dollars per lot of 0.01 mile or 0.005 mile as shown in the table. The number of lots for final pay adjustment will be reduced by the number of lots excluded for each segment shown in Table 401.03.03-7. Lots excluded from final PA will be those with the highest recorded IRI numbers for respective roadway and bridge deck segments. IRI numbers are in inches per mile.

        Table 401.03.03-7 – Pay Equations for Ride Quality
         
        Excluded Lots
        Pay Equation(s)

        Route __

        from MP __._ to MP __._

        Lane 1 -__

        Lane 2 -__

        PA on lots of 0.01 mile length
        IRI < __ PA = $50
        __ ≤ IRI < __ PA = $___.__ – ($2.50 × IRI)
        __ ≤ IRI ≤ __ PA = $0
        __ < IRI ≤ __ PA = (IRI − __ ) x (−$7.1429)
        IRI > __ Remove & Replace

        Route __

        Ramps and Shoulders

        None
        PA on lots of 0.01 mile length
        IRI ≤ 120 PA = $0
        120 < IRI ≤ 170 PA = (IRI-120) x (-$10.00)
         IRI > 170 Remove & Replace

        Overlaid Bridge Decks on

        Route __

        Between MP __._ and MP __._

        None
        PA on lots of 0.005 mile length
        IRI ≤ 120 PA = $0
        120 < IRI ≤ 170 PA = (IRI − 120) x (−$5.00)
        IRI > 170 Remove & Replace

      2. Removal and Replacement. If the final IRI is greater than the Remove and Replace Value (RRV), remove and replace the lot. Replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

        If less than 8 percent of paving lots exceeds the RRV, submit a plan for corrective action. If the corrective action plan is not approved by the RE, remove and replace the designated lots. If the corrective action plan is approved and the lots are reworked, the lots are subject to the requirements of subpart 401.03.03.J Ride Quality Requirements except that the lots are not eligible for positive PA. The RE may allow the lots to remain in place and apply the pay adjustment as computed in Table 401.03.03-7.

401.03.04 Sawcutting and Sealing of Joints in HMA Overlays

This subpart is INTENTIONALLY left blank.

401.03.05 Core Samples

Upon completion of an HMA lot, drill cores at random locations determined by the RE at least 12 hours after paving. Take cores in the presence of the RE.

Use drilling equipment with a water-cooled, diamond-tipped, masonry drill bit that shall produce 6-inch nominal diameter cores for the full depth of the pavement. Remove the core from the pavement without damaging it. After removing the core, remove all water from the hole. Apply an even coating of tack coat to sides of the hole. Place HMA in maximum lifts of 4 inches in the hole and compact each lift. Ensure that the final surface is 1/4 inch above the surrounding pavement surface.

For test strip lots and the first traveled way lot, deliver cores within 48 hours of completing the lot. Deliver all other acceptance cores within 7 days of completing the lot.

After each air void lot is placed, drill cores so that the full depth of the course is recovered for air void acceptance testing. If thickness acceptance testing is required as specified in 401.03.03.I, drill the surface course air void cores for the full depth of pavement. The Department will test the full-depth cores for surface course air voids, surface course thickness, and total thickness.

Mark the Department assigned core number on the side of the sample. Place cores and corresponding forms in a ventilated container capable of being locked and sealed by the RE. Ensure that the container provides protection to prevent damage during transit. Before sealing the container, the RE will record the seal number on the laboratory form. Transport the sealed boxes to the Department Laboratory.

The Department will not accept damaged cores for testing. If the Department rejects any core, drill a replacement core at the same offset and within 5 feet of the original station and deliver to the laboratory within 48 hours.

401.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  hma MILLING, 3" OR LESS SQUARE YARD
  HMA MILLING, more than 3" TO 6" SQUARE YARD
  CONCRETE MILLING SQUARE YARD
  hma PROFILE MILLING SQUARE YARD
  HOT MIX ASPHALT PAVEMENT REPAIR SQUARE YARD
  SEALING OF CRACKS IN HOT MIX ASPHALT SURFACE COURSE LINEAR FOOT
  Polymerized joint adhesive LINEAR FOOT
  TACK COAT GALLON
  TACK COAT 64-22 GALLON
  PRIME COAT GALLON
  Hot Mix Asphalt ___ ___ ___ Surface Course TON
  Hot Mix Asphalt ___ ___ ___ Intermediate Course TON
  Hot Mix Asphalt ___ ___ ___ Base Course TON
  CORE SAMPLES, Hot Mix Asphalt UNIT
  POLYMER MODIFIED TACK COAT GALLON
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-401-1, CD-401-2

The specified depth of the milling is measured from the original surface to the top of the high spots of the textured surface.

The Department will measure HOT MIX ASPHALT PAVEMENT REPAIR before overlay by the square yard of area bounded by the sawcuts.

The Department will measure TACK COAT, TACK COAT 64-22, PRIME COAT and POLYMER MODIFIED TACK COAT by the volume delivered, converted to the number of gallons at 60 °F as calculated by the temperature-volume correction factors specified in 902.01.

The Department will measure HOT MIX ASPHALT ___ ___ ___ SURFACE COURSE, HOT MIX ASPHALT ___ ___ ___ INTERMEDIATE COURSE, AND HOT MIX ASPHALT ___ ___ ___ BASE COURSE by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material. When nominal maximum aggregate size 3/8-inch HMA surface course is directed for use in transition (run out) areas, the Department will include this weight with the weight for HOT MIX ASPHALT ___ ___ ___ SURFACE COURSE.

The Department will not include payment for polymerized joint adhesive in the various paving Items. The Department will make payment for polymerized joint adhesive under Polymerized Joint Adhesive.

The Department will not make payment for quality control cores or additional cores for retest under CORE SAMPLES, Hot Mix Asphalt.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA air void quality by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x  BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Air Void Lot Quantity.
  PPA = air void PPA as specified in 401.03.03H.
 
The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA thickness quality by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x  BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Thickness Lot Quantity.
  PPA = thickness PPA as specified in 401.03.03I.
 

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA ride quality, as specified in 401.03.03J.

The Department will measure POLYMER MODIFIED TACK COAT by the volume delivered, converted to the number of gallons at 60 °F as calculated by the temperature-volume correction factors specified in 902.01.

Section 402 – HMA Friction Course

402.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing open-graded friction courses (OGFC), modified open-graded friction courses (MOGFC) and asphalt-rubber open-graded friction courses (AR-OGFC).

402.02 Materials  back to top

402.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Tack Coat 64-22: PG 64-22 902.01.01
  Open-Graded Friction Course 902.03
  Modified Open-Graded Friction Course 902.03
  Asphalt-Rubber Open-Graded Friction Course 902.07

Use HMA specified for the roadway surface as patching material for HMA pavement repair. Use a commercial type of cold mixture as patching material for filling core holes. The Contractor may use an approved HMA surface course to fill core holes provided the material remains hot enough to compact.

402.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV) 1003.01
  HMA Paver 1003.03
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02
  Asphalt-Rubber Binder Blending Equipment 1009.03

Do not dust truck beds with mineral fillers, fine aggregates, slag dust, or other fine graded material.

402.03 Construction  back to top

402.03.0 Installing OGFC and MOGFC

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before the start of placing the HMA surface course, submit to the RE for approval a detailed plan of operation as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations. Do not place OGFC or MOGFC if it is precipitating.  Do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent.  The Contractor may resume operations when the precipitation has stopped and the surface is free of water.

    Do not pave if the ambient temperature is below 50°F.

  3. Test Strip. Construct a test strip as specified in 401.03.03.C. The Department will not require quality control cores or nuclear density testing.

  4. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D.

  5. Spreading and Grading. Apply tack coat 64-22 as specified in 401.03.02.2. Place OGFC at a laydown temperature of 225°F.  Place MOGFC at the laydown temperature recommended by the binder manufacturer.  Ensure that the OGFC and MOGFC meet the thickness and tolerance requirements specified in Tables 902.03.03-1 and 902.03.03-2.  Spread and grade OGFC and MOGFC as specified in 401.03.03.E.  Do not apply polymerized joint adhesive or tack coat to longitudinal joints.

  6. Compacting. Immediately after spreading and strike-off, compact friction courses with a minimum of 1 pass of a non-vibratory, 2-axle roller.  The RE may direct additional passes to eliminate roller marks.  The Contractor may use a vibratory roller if it is operated in static mode.

    Orient the drive axles of the roller towards the paver during the compaction operation.  Operate rollers at a slow, uniform speed not exceeding 2-1/2miles per hour.  If necessary to prevent adhesion of the OGFC or MOGFC to the rollers, keep the wheels moistened with water mixed with very small quantities of detergent.

    Remove and replace OGFC or MOGFC that becomes loose, broken, or otherwise defective or that shows an excess or deficiency of asphalt binder material.

    When paving in echelon, keep the rollers for the first lane approximately 6inches from the unconfined edge adjacent to the second paving operation.  After OGFC or MOGFC from the second paver is placed against the uncompacted edge of the mat from the first paver, compact the OGFC or MOGFC on both sides of the joint.

    Prevent lateral or vertical displacement of the unconfined edge during the compaction operation.  Ensure that the edge of the drums of the rollers extends over the free edge of the mat by at least 6inches.

    When compacting the butt or wedge joint, while paving the adjacent lane, place the roller on the newly placed HMA and overlap the joint by approximately 6 inches.

  7. Opening to Traffic.  Open to traffic as specified in 401.03.03.G.

  8. Thickness Requirements.  When required for thickness determination, drill cores as specified in 401.03.05.  The Department will calculate total thickness as specified in 401.03.03.I.  The Department will not evaluate surface thickness.

  9. Ride Quality Requirements.  The Department will evaluate the surface course placed in the traveled way as specified in 401.03.03.J.

402.03.02 AR-OGFC

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before beginning placing the AR-OGFC, submit to the RE for approval a detailed plan of operation as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations. If within the 12 hours before paving, the National Weather Service locally forecasts a 50 percent chance or greater of precipitation during the scheduled placement, postpone the placement of AR-OGFC. Do not place AR-OGFC if it is precipitating and do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent.  The Contractor may resume paving operations when the chance of precipitation is less than 50 percent and the surface is dry.

    Do not pave if the surface temperature of the underlying pavement is below 50 F.

  3. Test Strip. Construct a test strip as specified in 401.03.03.C. The Department will not require quality control cores or nuclear density testing.

  4. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver AR-OGFC as specified in 401.03.03.D.

  5. Spreading and Grading. Apply tack coat 64-22 as specified in 401.03.02. Place AR-OGFC at a laydown temperature not to exceed a maximum of 290 °F. Spread and grade AR-OGFC as specified in 401.03.03.E, except do not apply polymerized joint adhesive or tack coat to longitudinal joints.

  6. Compacting. Immediately after spreading and strike-off, compact AR-OGFC with a minimum of 1 pass of a non-vibratory, 2-axle roller.  The RE may direct additional passes to eliminate roller marks.  The Contractor may use a vibratory roller if it is operated in static mode.

    Orient the drive axles of the roller towards the paver during the compaction operation.  Operate rollers at a slow, uniform speed not exceeding 2-1/2 miles per hour.  If necessary to prevent adhesion of the AR-OGFC to the rollers, keep the wheels moistened with water mixed with small quantities of detergent or fabric softener.

    Remove and replace AR-OGFC that becomes loose, broken, or otherwise defective or that shows an excess or deficiency of asphalt-rubber binder material.

    When paving in echelon, keep the rollers for the first lane approximately 6 inches from the unconfined edge adjacent to the second paving operation.  After AR-OGFC from the second paver is placed against the uncompacted edge of the mat from the first paver, compact the AR-OGFC on both sides of the joint.

    Prevent lateral or vertical displacement of the unconfined edge during the compaction operation.  Ensure that the edge of the drums of the rollers extends over the free edge of the mat by at least 6inches.

    When compacting the butt joint, while paving the adjacent lane, place the roller on the newly placed AR-OGFC and overlap the joint by approximately 6 inches.

  7. Curing.  Following compaction, spray 1 to 3 applications of lime water (a minimum of 50 pounds of pulverized limestone per 2,000 gallons of water) to prevent material pick-up.  Apply lime water in a manner that uniformly covers the entire surface of the paving pass. Prior to applying the lime water, do not allow traffic on the AR-OGFC, including the lime water applicator.

  8. Opening to Traffic. Remove loose material from the traveled way, shoulder, and auxiliary lanes before opening to traffic. Before opening AR-OGFC to traffic or construction equipment, ensure that the lime water has been applied, the surface is tack free and the surface temperature is less than 140 °F.

  9. Ride Quality Requirements. The Department will evaluate the AR-OGFC as specified in 401.03.03.J.

402.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  OPEN-GRADED ___ FRICTION COURSE TON
  Modified open-graded ___ friction course TON
  Asphalt-Rubber OPEN-GRADED FRICTION COURSE TON
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure Open-Graded ___ Friction Course and Modified Open-Graded Friction ___ Course by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material.

The Department will make payment for tack coat as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make payment for Core Samples, Hot Mix Asphalt as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA thickness quality by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q  = Thickness Lot Quantity.
  PPA  = thickness PPA as specified in 401.03.03I.
 

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA ride quality, as specified in 401.03.03J.

The Department will measure Asphalt-Rubber Open-Graded Friction Course by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material.

The Department will make payment for TACK COAT 64-22 as specified in 401.04.

 

Section 403 – Ultra-Thin Friction Course

403.01 Description   back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing an ultra-thin friction course of gap-graded HMA placed on a polymer modified asphalt tack/seal coat.

403.02 Materials    back to top

403.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Polymer Modified Tack Coat 902.01.04
  Ultra-Thin HMA 902.04

403.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Ultra-Thin Paver 1003.04
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  Vibratory Drum Compactor 1003.06
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02
  Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV) 1003.01

403.03 Construction  back to top

403.03.01 Ultra-Thin Friction Course

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before the start of placing the ultra-thin friction course, submit a detailed plan of operation to the RE for approval as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations. Do not place ultra-thin friction course if it is precipitating. Do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent. The Contractor may resume operations when the precipitation has stopped and the surface is free of water.

    Do not pave if the base temperature is below 50 °F.

  3. Test Strip. Construct a test strip for the first 700 to 1200 square yards placed of ultra-thin friction course. Operate spray paver without mix to determine tack coat application rate for the project. Ensure that the polymer modified tack coat has been placed as specified in 401.03.02. Transport and deliver, spread and grade, and compact as specified in 403.03.02.D, 403.03.02.E, and 403.03.02.F, respectively, and according to the approved paving plan. While constructing the test strip, record the following information and submit to the RE:

    1. Ambient Temperature.  Measure ambient temperature at the beginning and end of each day’s paving operation.

    2. Base Temperature.  Measure the surface temperature of the existing base before paving.

    3. Polymer Modified Tack Coat. Measure to verify the proper application of tack coat and the rate for compliance.

    4. HMA Temperature. Measure the temperature of the ultra-thin HMA immediately after placement.

    5. Roller Pattern. Provide details on the number of rollers, type, and number of passes used on the test strip.

    6. Quality Control Cores for Yield and Thickness. Take 3 randomly selected quality control cores to test for compliance to the specified yield in 403.03.02.E.

      Use drilling equipment with a water-cooled, diamond-tipped, masonry drill bit that shall produce 6-inch nominal diameter cores for the full depth of the pavement. Remove the core from the pavement without damaging it. After removing the core, remove all water from the hole. Fill the hole with HMA or cold patching material, and compact the material so that it is 1/4 inch above the surrounding pavement surface.

      Submit test strip results to the RE. The RE will analyze the test strip results in conjunction with the ME’s results from the HMA plant to approve the test strip. Do not proceed with production paving until receiving written permission from the RE.

      If the test strip does not meet requirements, make adjustments and construct a second test strip. If the second test strip does not meet requirements, suspend paving operations until written approval to proceed is received.

      Before making adjustments to the paving operations, notify the RE in writing.

  4. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D. Use of an MTV is optional.

  5. Spreading and Grading. Ensure that the surface where the ultra-thin friction course is placed is clean of foreign and loose material. Clean the surface of existing pavement using a self-propelled power broom equipped with a vacuum collection system before placing the ultra-thin friction course. Ensure that the surface is dry when the paving operations are about to start.

    Apply polymer modified tack as specified in 401.03.02. Do not allow traffic, equipment, tools, or any other disturbance to the polymer modified tack coat before placing the ultra-thin friction course.

    Ensure that the temperature of the ultra-thin friction course behind the screed is between 280 °F and 325 °F. Within 3 seconds of applying the polymer modified tack coat, place ultra-thin friction course at a rate of 65 to 95 pounds per square yard.

    Construct longitudinal joints as specified in 401.03.03. E.1. If constructing a cold longitudinal joint, construct a butt joint and do not use polymerized joint adhesive. Construct transverse joints as specified in 401.03.03. E.2.

  6. Compacting. Compact ultra-thin friction course as specified in 403.03.03.F. Use a minimum of two 10-ton steel-wheel rollers. If vibratory compaction causes aggregate breakdown or forces liquid asphalt binder to the surface, operate rollers in static mode only.

  7. Opening to Traffic. Remove loose material from the traveled way before opening to traffic. Do not allow construction equipment or traffic on the ultra-thin friction course until the mat cools to a temperature of less than 140 °F.

  8. Thickness Requirements. When required for thickness determination, drill cores as specified in 401.03.05. The Department will calculate total thickness as specified in 403.03.03.I. The Department will not evaluate surface thickness.

  9. Ride Quality Requirements. The Department will evaluate the surface course placed in the traveled way as specified in 403.03.03.J.







1. Ambient Temperature. Measure ambient temperature at the beginning and end of each day’s paving operation.

  1. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D. Use of an MTV is required for the construction of the ultra-thin friction course.

  2. Spreading and Grading. Ensure that the surface where the ultra-thin friction course is placed is clean of foreign and loose material. Clean the surface of existing pavement using a self-propelled power broom equipped with a vacuum collection system before placing the ultra-thin friction course. Ensure that the surface is dry when the paving operations are about to start.

    Apply polymer modified tack at a temperature of 140 to 175 °F. Continuously monitor rate of spray, ensuring a uniform application rate over entire width to be overlaid. Apply at the rate of 0.20 ± 0.05 gallons per square yard. Do not allow traffic, equipment, tools, or any other disturbance to the polymer modified tack coat before placing the ultra-thin friction course.

    Ensure that the temperature of the ultra-thin friction course behind the screed is at least 280 °F. Within 3 seconds of applying the polymer modified tack coat, place ultra-thin friction course at a rate of 65 to 95 pounds per square yard.

    Construct longitudinal joints as specified in 401.03.03.E.1. If constructing a cold longitudinal joint, construct a butt joint and do not use polymerized joint adhesive. Construct transverse joints as specified in 401.03.03.E.2.

  3. Compacting. Compact as specified in 401.03.03.F. Use a minimum of two 10-ton steel-wheel rollers.

  4. Opening to Traffic. Remove loose material from the traveled way before opening to traffic. Do not allow construction equipment or traffic on the ultra-thin friction course until the mat cools to a temperature of less than 140 °F.

  5. Thickness Requirements. When required for thickness determination, drill cores as specified in 401.03.05. The Department will calculate total thickness as specified in 401.03.03.I. The Department will not evaluate surface thickness.

  6. Ride Quality Requirements. The Department will evaluate the surface course placed in the traveled way as specified in 401.03.03.J.

403.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  ultra-thin FRICTION COURSE TON
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure Ultra-Thin Friction Course by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material.

The Department will make payment for Core Samples, Hot Mix Asphalt as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA thickness, by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Thickness Lot Quantity
  PPA = thickness PPA as specified in 401.03.03I
 

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA ride quality, as specified in 401.03.03J

The Department will make payment for POLYMER MODIFIED TACK COAT as specified in 401.04.

Section 404 – Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA)

404.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing stone matrix asphalt (SMA) surface course.

404.02 Materials  back to top

404.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  SMA 902.05

404.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV) 1003.01
  HMA Paver 1003.03
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  Vibratory Drum Compactor 1003.06
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02

Provide a thin-lift nuclear density gauge according ASTM D 2950.

404.03 Construction  back to top

404.03.01 SMA

  1. Paving Plan. At least 20 days before the start of placing the SMA, submit to the RE for approval a detailed plan of operation as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations. Do not place SMA if it is precipitating. Do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent. The Contractor may resume operations when the precipitation has stopped and the surface is free of water.

    Do not pave if the base temperature is below 50 °F.

  3. Test Strip. Construct a test strip as specified in 401.03.03.C.

  4. Transportation and Delivery of HMA. Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D.

  5. Spreading and Grading. Place SMA at a laydown temperature of at least 285 °F. Spread and grade SMA as specified in 401.03.03.E. Ensure that the screed is operated in the vibratory mode. If constructing a cold longitudinal joint, construct a butt joint. Do not rake the joint.

  6. Compacting. Compact as specified in 401.03.03.F. Ensure that the compaction is completed before the mix cools down to 240 °F. If vibratory compaction causes aggregate breakdown or forces liquid asphalt binder to the surface, operate rollers in static mode only.

  7. Opening to Traffic. Open to traffic as specified in 401.03.03.G.

  8. Air Void Requirements. Drill cores as specified in 401.03.05.

    Mainline lots are defined as the area covered by a day’s paving production of the same job mix formula for the traveled way and auxiliary lanes. The RE may combine daily production areas less than 1000 tons with previous or subsequent production areas. If a day’s production is greater than 4000 tons, the RE may divide the area of HMA placed into 2 lots with approximately equal areas.

    Ramp pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in ramps. The RE may combine ramps with less than the minimum area into a single lot. If 2 or more ramps are included in a single lot, the RE will require additional cores to ensure that at least 1 core is taken from each ramp.

    Other pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in shoulders and other undefined areas.

    The ME will calculate the percent defective (PD) as the percentage of the lot outside the acceptable range of 1 percent air voids to 7 percent air voids. The acceptable quality limit is 10 percent defective. For lots in which PD < 10, the Department will award a positive pay adjustment. For lots in which PD > 10, the Department will assess a negative pay adjustment.

    The ME will determine air voids from 5 cores taken from each lot in random locations.  The ME will determine air voids of cores from the values for the maximum specific gravity of the mix and the bulk specific gravity of the core.  The ME will determine the maximum specific gravity of the mix according to NJDOT B-3 and AASHTO T 209, except that minimum sample size may be waived in order to use a 6-inch diameter core sample.  The ME will determine the bulk specific gravity of the compacted mixture by testing each core according to AASHTO T 166.

    The ME will calculate pay adjustments based on the following:

    1. Sample Mean ( ) and Standard Deviation (S) of the N Test Results (X1, X2,..., XN).


    2. Quality Index (Q).


    3. Percent Defective (PD). Using NJDOT ST for the appropriate sample size, the Department will determine PDL and PDU associated with QL and QU, respectively. PD = PDL + PDU

    4. Percent Pay Adjustment (PPA). Calculate the PPA for traveled way and ramp lots as specified in Table 401.03.03-3.

    5. Table 404.03.01-1 PPA for Mainline Lots and Ramp Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      Surface

      PD < 10

      PPA =  4 − (0.4 PD)

      10 ≤ PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)

      Intermediate and Base

      PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)


      Calculate the PPA for other pavement lots as specified in Table 401.03.01-4.

      Table 404.03.01-2 PPA for Other Pavement Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      All Courses

      PD < 50

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 50

      PPA = 92 − (1.92 PD)


    6. Outlier Detection. The ME will screen all acceptance cores for outliers using a statistically valid procedure. If an outlier is detected, replace that core by taking an additional core at the same offset and within 5 feet of the original station. The following procedure applies only for a sample size of 5.

      1. The ME will arrange the 5 core results in ascending order, in which X1 represents the smallest value and X5 represents the largest value.

      2. If X5 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X5 - X 4

      X5 - X1

      1. If X1 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X2 - X1

      X5 - X1

      1. If R > 0.642, the value is judged to be statistically significant and the core is excluded.

    1. Retest. If the initial series of 5 cores produces a percent defective value of PD ≥ 30 for mainline or ramp lots, or PD ≥ 50 for other pavement lots, the Contractor may elect to take an additional set of 5 cores at random locations chosen by the ME. Take the additional cores within 15 days of receipt of the initial core results. If the additional cores are not taken within the 15 days, the ME will use the initial core results to determine the PPA. If the additional cores are taken, the ME will recalculate the PPA using the combined results from the 10 cores.

    2. Removal and Replacement. If the final lot PD ≥ 75 (based on the combined set of 10 cores or 5 cores if the Contractor does not take additional cores), remove and replace the lot and all overlying work. The replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

  9. Thickness Requirements. When required for thickness determination, drill cores as specified in 401.03.05. The Department will evaluate thickness as specified in 401.03.03.I.

  10. Ride Quality Requirements. The Department will evaluate the surface course placed in the traveled way as specified in 401.03.03.J.

404.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  Stone matrix asphalt ___ surface course ton
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure Stone Matrix Asphalt ___ Surface Course by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material.

The Department will make payment for Core Samples, Hot Mix Asphalt as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make payment for Polymerized Joint Adhesive as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make payment for Tack Coat as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA air void quality by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Air Void Lot Quantity
  PPA = air void PPA as specified in 401.03.03H
 

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA thickness quality by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x BP x PPA

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Thickness Lot Quantity
  PPA = thickness PPA as specified in 401.03.03I
 
The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA ride quality, as specified in 401.03.03J

Section 405 – Concrete Surface Course

405.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing concrete surface courses.

405.02 Materials  back to top

405.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Sand 901.06.02
  Concrete 903.03
  Quick-Setting Patch Materials 903.07
  Epoxy Grout 903.08.02.B
  Curing Materials 903.10
  Tie Bars (epoxy-coated) 905.03.01
  Joint Ties (epoxy-coated) 905.03.01
  Tie Bolts (epoxy-coated) 905.03.02
  Dowel Bars (epoxy-coated) 905.03.03
  Preformed Joint Filler 914.01
  Joint Sealer (hot-poured) 914.02

405.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Sealer Application System 1003.08
  Pavement Forms 1005.01
  Spreading and Finishing Machine 1005.02
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Slip Form Paver 1005.05
  Grinding Machine 1006.08
  Straightedge 1008.02
  Mechanical Sweeper 1008.03
  Pavement Saw 1008.04
  Hot-Air Lance 1008.06
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

405.03 Construction    back to top

405.03.01 Underlayer Preparation

When placing concrete on an aggregate base or subbase, prepare the underlying surface to ±1/2 inch of the required elevation within 3 days of placing concrete. Do not grade and compact the underlying surface when the ambient temperature is below 34 °F, when frozen, or when it is unstable. Compact using the directed method, as specified in 203.03.02.C, to produce a firm and even surface. The RE will check the elevations as specified in 202.03.03.C. Correct damage to the underlying surface and maintain the corrected surface until the concrete is placed.

Immediately before placing concrete, spray the underlying surface with water to ensure that the underlying surface is damp to a depth of at least 1/2 inch without forming wet or unstable spots.

405.03.02 Concrete Surface Course

  1. Concreting Plan. At least 20 days before placing the concrete surface course, submit to the RE for approval a detailed plan of operation that includes the following:

    1. Certified Concrete Construction Technologist as certified by the NJACI.
    2. Size and description of crew.
    3. Number, type, and model of equipment.
    4. Lighting plan for nighttime operations as specified in 108.06.
    5. Method of setting forms. When using slipform paving, provide method for locating joints.
    6. Plant locations and hauling equipment.
    7. Paving procedures for maintaining continuous operation.
    8. Paving sequence, production, and schedule for the Project.
    9. Method of constructing joints including dowel, joint tie, and tie bar placement.
    10. Method of curing the concrete. If using wet burlap, provide the location where burlap will be presoaked.
    11. Method of sawcutting and sealing joints.
    12. Method for constructing and maintaining concrete washout system. Include placement location.

    Do not begin paving until the RE approves this plan. Submit an adjusted concreting plan before making adjustments to the paving operation.

  2. Weather Limitations. Comply with the limitations of placing as specified in 504.03.02.C, except do not place concrete when the ambient temperature is above 85 °F. If within the 12 hours preceding the scheduled concrete placement the National Weather Service locally forecasts a 40 percent chance or greater of precipitation during the scheduled concrete placement, postpone the placement of bridge decks and pavement.

  3. Installing Longitudinal Joint Ties. If paving adjacent to existing concrete pavement, drill 9-inch-deep holes into the side of the existing slab. Clean holes with a 150-pounds-per-square-inch water blast to remove remaining debris in the drilled cavity, and then blow out holes with a hot-air lance to provide a dry surface. Immediately after blowing, fill the hole with epoxy grout and insert the joint ties according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Support the joint ties in position until the grout has set.

  4. Concrete Placing Methods. Appoint sufficient number of personnel, who are certified by the NJACI as Concrete Construction Technologist or by ACI as Concrete Transportation Construction Inspectors, to monitor daily operations for concrete placement. The certified personnel are responsible for ensuring proper dimensions of forms; position of reinforcement steel; proper handling, placement, consolidation, and finishing of concrete; and proper curing of the concrete.

    When placing concrete on asphalt-stabilized drainage course, spread sand over the surface to ensure that the surface voids are filled.

    1. Fixed Form Method.

      1. Setting Forms, Ties Bars, and Joint Assemblies. Set forms, tie bars, and joint assemblies for the entire area to be paved at least 1 day before placing concrete. Set forms at grade in full contact with the underlying surface. Ensure that concrete does not seep beneath the form. Stake forms into place with at least 3 pins for each 10-foot section. Lock form sections together to prevent movement in any direction.

        Install longitudinal tie bars through the forms and secure in place. Ensure that concrete does not seep around the bar. If longitudinal joint ties cannot be installed before placing concrete, install joint ties as specified in 405.03.02.C or use tie bolts as an alternate.

        Install joint assemblies and secure in place with anchor stakes. Ensure that devices for contraction joint assemblies are capable of holding dowels firmly in place during the entire construction operation. Place dowels across joint assemblies, parallel to and level with the surface course.

        Place 1/2-inch preformed joint filler along curb and around structures and other objects protruding into the slab.

        Check the alignment and grade elevations of the forms and joint assemblies and make corrections before placing the concrete. Ensure that the forms do not deviate from the required alignment by more than 1/4 inch. Reset, or remove and replace, forms that settle or deflect under the spreading and finishing equipment. Clean the top and face of forms, and oil the face before placing concrete.

      2. Placing Concrete. Obtain RE approval of forms and joint placement before placing concrete. Place concrete across the formed area to minimize rehandling. Ensure that concrete is not discharged into windrows or piles. Continuously place concrete between transverse joints without the use of intermediate bulkheads. If a slab is not completed from transverse joint to transverse joint, remove the incomplete slab and replace. Terminate each day’s paving at a transverse joint. If concrete becomes segregated during placement, suspend operations and correct handling operations.

        To prevent bowing or misalignment of the transverse joints, place concrete simultaneously on both sides of transverse joints without disturbing the joints.

      3. Consolidation, Strike Off, and Finishing. Consolidate concrete using vibrators. Ensure that consolidating operations do not segregate the concrete or disturb the transverse joint assemblies, joint ties, the underlying surface, or side forms.

        Immediately after consolidating the concrete, strike off the surface to ensure that a uniform ridge of concrete, of between 2 and 6 inches, is maintained in front of the screed along the entire width of the pavement.

        Immediately after strike off, begin finishing operations to achieve the specified line and grade of the surface. Ensure that the finishing equipment is maintained true without lift, wobble, or other disturbances that could affect the specified line and grade. Use hand methods to finish variable-width areas or areas that would make the use of finishing equipment impractical. If the finishing equipment breaks down, the Contractor may use hand methods to screed and finish the concrete to the next joint assembly.

        At expansion joint assemblies, advance the finishing equipment, avoiding damage to or misalignment of joint assemblies. If advancing the finishing equipment over expansion joints causes concrete segregation or damage to, or misalignment of, the joint assemblies, stop the finishing equipment when the screed is approximately 8 inches from the joint assembly. Remove segregated concrete from the joint; lift the screed and set directly on top of the joint, and resume advancement of the finishing equipment.

        If screeding operations produce a surface containing voids, bubbles, or other imperfections, then hand finish the surface with a metal float. Do not add water to the surface of the concrete to assist in finishing operations.

        Texture the surface of shoulders with a broom after finishing the concrete.

      4. Control Testing and Surface Correction. After advancing finishing equipment, check the concrete surface with a straightedge parallel to the centerline of the traveled way. Correct surface deviations determined by control testing before the concrete sets. Correct major deviations using the finishing equipment. Correct minor deviations and any defects caused by the control testing using a metal float. Do not add water to the concrete surface to assist in surface correction.

      5. Removing Forms. Remove forms no sooner than 12 hours after completing concrete placement. If using mineral admixtures in the concrete, remove forms no sooner than 24 hours after completing concrete pavement. Repair voids and honeycombed areas.

    2. Slip-Form Method. The Contractor may construct concrete pavement using the slip-form paving method.

      To control the operation of the slip-form paver, 1 day before placing concrete, set string lines at least 25 feet beyond the length to be paved. Mark joint locations of the entire area to be paved 1 day before placing concrete.

      Install and anchor each joint assembly before placing concrete, and ensure that each joint assembly is sufficiently secured to the underlying surface to prevent movement during paving. Place 1/2-inch preformed joint filler along the curb and around structures and other objects protruding into the slab.

      Place the concrete for the full depth of the slab with a slip-form paver in 1 pass of the machine. Consolidate the concrete for the full width and depth of the concrete pavement. Before finishing the concrete, install longitudinal tie bars and joint ties. Ensure that surface deformations caused by the installation of longitudinal tie bars and joint ties is corrected by the finishing operation. Finish the concrete in such a manner that a minimum of hand finishing is necessary to provide a dense and homogeneous concrete pavement.

      Operate the slip-form paver with a continuous forward movement, and coordinate all operations of mixing, delivering, and spreading concrete to provide uniform progress and to minimize stopping and starting of the paver. Texture the surface of shoulders with a broom after finishing the concrete.

      Continuously place concrete between transverse joints without the use of intermediate bulkheads. If a slab is not completed from transverse joint to transverse joint, remove the incomplete slab and replace. Terminate each day’s paving at a transverse joint.

      Correct concrete edge deformities greater than 1/4 inch before the concrete has taken initial set. Modify operations to prevent recurrence.

  5. Curing. Ensure that the concrete is not exposed for more than 30 minutes after finishing. The RE will direct a suspension, as specified in 108.13, of concrete operations if the curing procedure is delayed or is not followed. Apply curing compound as specified in 504.03.02.F.1, or wet burlap and white polyethylene sheeting as specified in 504.03.02.F.2. Maintain the curing material for 7 days.

  6. Protecting Concrete Surface Course. Protect concrete, as specified in 504.03.02.I, for the duration of the curing period. Construct wood bridging for pedestrian crossovers at street intersections and at other established pedestrian crosswalks.

  7. Sawcutting Relief Joints. Relief joints are a preliminary step in the construction of transverse and longitudinal joints. The Contractor may begin sawcutting relief joints as soon as hardened concrete can support operations without spalling and must finish within 18 hours of placing concrete. Sawcut transverse relief joints above the joint assembly and sawcut longitudinal relief joints if more than 1 lane was paved in 1 paving operation. Sawcut 1/8-inch wide relief joints to a depth of 1/3 of the thickness of the concrete pavement. Do not sawcut expansion joints or butt joints created by 2 separate paving operations.

  8. Sawcutting and Sealing Joints. After completion of diamond grinding operations as specified in 405.03.04 and before opening to traffic as specified in 405.03.02.K, sawcut 3/8-inch-wide transverse and longitudinal joints to a depth of 1/2 inch at relief joints and butt joints. After sawcutting, immediately remove sawing slurry from the sawcut cavity and surrounding pavement surface. Clean sawcuts with a 150-pounds-per-square-inch water blast to remove remaining debris in the sawcut cavity, and then blow sawcuts with a hot-air lance to provide a dry surface. Seal sawcuts immediately after blowing.

    Seal joints with joint sealer before opening to traffic. Seal joints when the ambient temperature is between 50 and 80 °F. Pour joint sealer in the sawcuts, ensuring that joint sealer is not spilled on the surface of the concrete. If spillage occurs, immediately remove spilled joint sealer from the surface of the concrete. Fill joints to ensure that the joint sealer is 1/8 to 1/4 inch below the adjacent surface. Do not allow traffic over the poured joints until the joint sealer has hardened to resist pickup.

  9. Thickness Requirements. The ME will divide the concrete pavement into lots of approximately 5000 square yards. The ME will divide each lot into 5 equal sections. The RE will direct the Contractor to drill 1 core, as specified in 405.03.03, from a randomly selected location within each section. The ME will test these cores for thickness as specified in ASTM C 174.

    The Department will determine conformance with thickness requirements as follows and will either assess the greater of the pay reduction for average core thickness or individual core thickness, or the Department will direct the Contractor to remove and replace the lot:

    1. Average Core Thickness. If the average core thickness is greater than or equal to the specified core thickness, the Department will not apply a payment reduction. If the average thickness is less than the specified thickness, but is greater than or equal to the specified thickness minus 1/2 inch, the Department will determine payment reduction by the following formula:

    2.    Payment Reduction  =   Q x BP x PPR

      Where:      
        Q =   Thickness Lot Quantity  
        BP =  Bid Price  
        TS = Specified thickness.  
        TA = Average thickness  
        PPR = Percent payment reduction =
      TS - TA

      TS
       
       

    3. Individual Core Thickness. When more than 2 individual cores in the lot are less than the specified thickness minus 1/4 inch, the Department will determine the payment reduction using for the above noted formula and using a PPR = 2 percent.

    4. Remove and Replace. If the average thickness is less than the specified thickness minus 1/2 inch, the RE will require that the lot be removed and replaced.
  10. Ride Quality Requirements. Ensure that diamond grinding is completed before testing ride quality. The Department will evaluate ride quality acceptance as specified in 401.03.03.J using the Other Roadways equations.

  11. Opening to Traffic. Ensure that diamond grinding is completed before opening to traffic. The RE will determine when the concrete surface is to be opened to traffic or construction equipment. Do not allow construction vehicles or equipment on the concrete pavement within 10 days of placing, or until the concrete has achieved a compressive strength of 3000 pounds per square inch as determined by 2 test cylinders that are field cured according to AASHTO T 23. For concrete containing fly ash, opening to traffic is governed solely by the 3000-pounds-per-square-inch compressive strength requirement and not by time elapsed.

405.03.03 Core Samples

Drill cores before performing diamond grinding operations. Drill cores in the concrete pavement at locations as directed by the RE for thickness testing. Drill 3-inch diameter cores through the entire thickness of the concrete pavement. Use a water-cooled, diamond-tipped, masonry-type drill bit capable of obtaining a valid test sample through the entire pavement thickness. Identify each core by painting the RE supplied number on the side of the sample, and accompany each with a laboratory form supplied by the RE. Transport samples to the Department Laboratory.

After removing the core from the pavement, pump water from the hole, and use a quick-setting patch to fill the hole flush with the adjacent pavement surface.

405.03.04 Diamond Grinding

Perform wet grinding operations in a longitudinal direction that is parallel to the pavement centerline. Do not overlap longitudinal passes more than 2 inches. Continuously remove grinding slurry from the pavement surface.

Ensure that the surface of the ground pavement has a corduroy texture consisting of grooves between 1/16 and 1/8 of an inch in width. Ensure that the peaks of the ridges are between 1/32 and 1/8 of an inch in width and are approximately 1/16 of an inch higher than the bottoms of the grooves.

Using a mechanical sweeper, clean the area before opening to traffic and before subsequent construction or resurfacing. Dispose of slurry and sweepings as specified in 201.03.09.

405.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  UNDERLAYER PREPARATION SQUARE YARD
  CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE, ___ " THICK SQUARE YARD
  Contraction JOINT ASSEMBLY UNIT
  EXPANSION JOINT ASSEMBLY UNIT
  CORE SAMPLES, CONCRETE UNIT
  DIAMOND GRINDING OF CONCRETE SURFACE COURSE SQUARE YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-405-1, CD-405-2, CD-405-3

The Department will not include payment for contraction joint assemblies and expansion joint assemblies in Concrete Surface Course, ___" Thick. The Department will pay for contraction joint assemblies and expansion joint assemblies under Contraction Joint Assembly and Expansion Joint Assembly, respectively.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for Concrete Surface thickness quality, as specified in 405.03.02.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for HMA ride quality, as specified in 401.03.03J

Section 406 – High Performance Thin Overlay (HPTO)

 

406.01  Description

This Section describes the requirements for constructing high performance thin overlay (HPTO).

406.02  Materials

 

406.02.01  Materials

Provide materials as specified:
 

Tack Coat:

  Emulsified Asphalt, Grade RS-1, SS-1, SS-1h, Grade CSS-1 or CSS-1h 902.01.03
  HPTO 902.08


406.02.02  Equipment

 

Provide equipment as specified:
  Materials Transfer Vehicle (MTV) 1003.01
  HMA Paver 1003.03
  Ultra-Thin Paver 1003.04
  HMA Compactor 1003.05
  HMA Plant 1009.01
  HMA Trucks 1009.02

406.03  Construction

406.03.01  High Performance Thin Overlay (HPTO)

  1. Paving Plan.  At least 20 days before the start of placing the HPTO, submit a detailed plan of operation to the RE for approval as specified in 401.03.03.A.

  2. Weather Limitations.  If within the 3 hours before paving the National Weather Service locally forecasts a 50 percent chance or greater of precipitation during the scheduled placement, postpone the placement of HPTO.  Do not place HPTO if it is precipitating and do not allow trucks to leave the plant when precipitation is imminent.  The Contractor may resume paving operations when the chance of precipitation is less than 50 percent and the surface is dry.

    Do not pave if the surface temperature of the underlying pavement is below 50 °F.

  3. Test Strip.  At least 14 days prior to production of the HPTO, construct a test strip as specified in 401.03.03.C except for the allowance to continue paving.  Submit test strip results to the RE.  The RE will analyze the test strip results in conjunction with the ME’s results from the HMA plant to approve the test strip.  Do not proceed with production paving until receiving written permission from the RE.

    If paving HPTO only on a bridge deck, then the test strip is not required.

  4. Transportation and Delivery of HMA.  Transport and deliver HMA as specified in 401.03.03.D.

  5.  Spreading and Grading.  Do not start paving of the HPTO until the RE has approved the underlying surface.  Apply tack coat as specified in 401.03.02.  Place HPTO at the laydown temperature recommended by the supplier of the asphalt binder or the supplier of the asphalt modifier without exceeding 330 ºF maximum discharge temperature.  Spread and grade HPTO as specified in 401.03.03.E. Do not exceed the maximum lift thickness of 1 ¼”.

  6. Compacting.  Compact as specified in 401.03.03.F.  If vibratory compaction causes aggregate breakdown, forces liquid asphalt to the surface or creates a surface with undesirable ride quality, then operate rollers in static mode only. If compacting HPTO on a bridge deck, then operate rollers in static mode only.

  7. Opening to Traffic.  Remove loose material from the traveled way before opening to traffic.  Do not allow construction equipment or traffic on the HPTO until the mat cools to a temperature of less than 140 °F.

  8. Air Void Requirements on Roadway.  Drill cores as specified in 401.03.05. Mainline lots are defined as the area covered by a day’s paving production of the same job mix formula for the traveled way and auxiliary lanes. The RE may combine daily production areas less than 500 tons with previous or subsequent production areas. If a day’s production is greater than 2000 tons, the RE may divide the area of HMA placed into 2 lots with approximately equal areas.

    Ramp pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in ramps.  The RE may combine ramps with less than the minimum area into a single lot.  If 2 or more ramps are included in a single lot, the RE will require additional cores to ensure that at least 1 core is taken from each ramp.

    Other pavement lots are defined as approximately 10,000 square yards of pavement in shoulders and other undefined areas.

    The ME will calculate the percent defective (PD) as the percentage of the lot outside the acceptable range of 2 percent air voids to 7 percent air voids.  The acceptable quality limit is 10 percent defective.  For lots in which PD<10, the Department will award a positive pay adjustment.  For lots in which PD > 10, the Department will assess a negative pay adjustment.

    The ME will determine air voids from 5 cores taken from each lot in random locations.  The ME will determine air voids of cores from the values for the maximum specific gravity of the mix and the bulk specific gravity of the core.  The ME will determine the maximum specific gravity of the mix according to NJDOT B-3 and AASHTO T 209, except that minimum sample size may be waived in order to use a 6-inch diameter core sample.  The ME will determine the bulk specific gravity of the compacted mixture by testing each core according to AASHTO T 166.

    The ME will calculate pay adjustments based on the following:

    1. Sample Mean ( ) and Standard Deviation (S) of the N Test Results (X1, X2,..., XN).


    2. Quality Index (Q).


    3. Percent Defective (PD). Using NJDOT ST for the appropriate sample size, the Department will determine PDL and PDU associated with QL and QU, respectively. PD = PDL + PDU

    4. Percent Pay Adjustment (PPA). Calculate the PPA for traveled way and ramp lots as specified in Table 401.03.03-3.

    5. Table 406.03.01-1 PPA for Mainline Lots and Ramp Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      Surface

      PD < 10

      PPA =  4 − (0.4 PD)

      10 ≤ PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)

      Intermediate and Base

      PD < 30

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 30

      PPA = 40 − (1.4 PD)


      Calculate the PPA for other pavement lots as specified inTable 401.03.03-4.

      Table 406.03.01-2 PPA for Other Pavement Lots

       

      Quality

      PPA

      All Courses

      PD < 50

      PPA =  1 − (0.1 PD)

      PD ≥ 50

      PPA = 92 − (1.92 PD)


    6. Outlier Detection. The ME will screen all acceptance cores for outliers using a statistically valid procedure. If an outlier is detected, replace that core by taking an additional core at the same offset and within 5 feet of the original station. The following procedure applies only for a sample size of 5.

      1. The ME will arrange the 5 core results in ascending order, in which X1 represents the smallest value and X5 represents the largest value.

      2. If X5 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X5 - X 4

      X5 - X1

      1. If X1 is suspected of being an outlier, the ME will calculate:

         R  =  
      X2 - X1

      X5 - X1

      1. If R > 0.642, the value is judged to be statistically significant and the core is excluded.

    1. Retest. If the initial series of 5 cores produces a percent defective value of PD ≥ 30 for mainline or ramp lots, or PD ≥ 50 for other pavement lots, the Contractor may elect to take an additional set of 5 cores at random locations chosen by the ME. Take the additional cores within 15 days of receipt of the initial core results. If the additional cores are not taken within the 15 days, the ME will use the initial core results to determine the PPA. If the additional cores are taken, the ME will recalculate the PPA using the combined results from the 10 cores.

    2. Removal and Replacement. If the final lot PD ≥ 75 (based on the combined set of 10 cores or 5 cores if the Contractor does not take additional cores), remove and replace the lot and all overlying work. The replacement work is subject to the same requirements as the initial work.

  9. Air Void Requirements on Bridge Deck.  The RE may waive the coring of HPTO constructed on a bridge deck or may require that the Contractor to test bridge decks with the thin lift nuclear density gauge.  If required by RE, perform nuclear density gauge testing according to ASTM D 2950 at 5 random locations per bridge deck.  Use the maximum specific gravity determined at the HMA plant according to AASHTO T 209 to determine percent air voids.  If the average air voids for the bridge deck are 8 percent or greater, the RE will require a revised paving plan for any subsequent bridge deck placement of HPTO and may require the HPTO to be removed and replaced.

  10. Ride Quality Requirements.  The Department will evaluate the HPTO as specified in 401.03.03.J.

 

406.04  Measurement and Payment

The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN OVERLAY TON

The Department will measure high performance thin overlay by the ton as indicated on the certified weigh tickets, excluding unused material.

The Department will make payment for Tack Coat as specified in 401.04.

The Department will make payment for Core Samples, Hot Mix Asphalt as specified in 401.04.

Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details  

 


Last Document Correction:
October 21, 2014