New Jersey

Department of Transportation

Standard Specifications

for Road and Bridge Construction

2007


Division 500 – Bridges and Structures
 
  Section 501 – Sheeting and Cofferdams
    501.01 Description
    501.02 Materials
    501.03 Construction
      501.03.01 Temporary Sheeting
      501.03.02 Permanent Sheeting
      501.03.03 Temporary Cofferdams
      501.03.04 Permanent Cofferdams
    501.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 502 – Load Bearing Piles
    502.01 Description
    502.02 Materials & Equipment
    502.03 Construction
      502.03.01 Furnishing Pile Driving Equipment
      502.03.02 Preboring Holes
      502.03.03 Driving Piles
      502.03.04 Splicing Piles
      502.03.05 Pile Shoes
    502.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 503 – Drilled Shaft Foundations
    503.01 Description
    503.02 Materials & Equipment
    503.03 Construction
      503.03.01 Installation Plan
      503.03.02 Demonstration Drilled Shaft Installation
      503.03.03 Load Tests
      503.03.04 Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL)
      503.03.05 Core Drilling of Drilled Shaft Concrete
      503.03.06 Constructing Drilled Shafts
    503.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 504 – Structural Concrete
    504.01 Description
    504.02 Materials & Equipment
    504.03 Construction
      504.03.01 Reinforcement Steel
      504.03.02 Constructing Concrete
      504.03.03 Epoxy Waterproofing
    504.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 505 – Precast and Prestressed Structural Concrete
    505.01 Description
    505.02 Materials & Equipment
    505.03 Construction
      505.03.01 Prestressed Concrete Structures
      505.03.02 Precast Concrete Culverts
      505.03.03 Precast Concrete Arch Structures
    505.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 506 – Structural Steel
    506.01 Description
    506.02 Materials
    506.03 Construction
      506.03.01 Structural Steel
      506.03.02 Bearings
      506.03.03 Shear Connectors
      506.03.04 Steel Pedestrian Bridges
      506.03.05 Steel Grid Flooring
      506.03.06 Repair Galvanizing
    506.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 507 – Concrete Bridge Deck and Approaches
    507.01 Description
    507.02 Materials & Equipment
    507.03 Construction
      507.03.01 Joint Assemblies
      507.03.02 Constructing Bridge Decks
      507.03.03 Date Panel
      507.03.04 Concrete Bridge Sidewalk
      507.03.05 Concrete Parapet and Barrier Curb
      507.03.06 4-Bar Open Steel Parapet
      507.03.07 Concrete Bridge Approach
    507.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 508 – Bridge Drainage
    508.01 Description
    508.02 Materials
    508.03 Construction
      508.03.01 Inlet Frames, Grates, and Scuppers
      508.03.02 Steel Alloy Pipe
    508.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 509 – Bridge Railing and Fence
    509.01 Description
    509.02 Materials
    509.03 Construction
      509.03.01 Bridge Railing
      509.03.02 Chain-Link Fence for Bridge
    509.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 510 – Timber Structures
    510.01 Description
    510.02 Materials
    510.03 Construction
      510.03.01 Timber Structures
      510.03.02 Sheeting and Wales
    510.04 Method of Measurement
  Section 511 – Bulkhead, Fender, and Dolphin Systems
    511.01 Description
    511.02 Materials
    511.03 Construction
      511.03.01 Bulkhead, Fender, and Dolphin Systems
    511.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 512 – Sign Support Structures
    512.01 Description
    512.02 Materials & Equipment
    512.03 Construction
      512.03.01 Sign Structures
    512.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 513 – Retaining Walls
    513.01 Description
    513.02 Materials & Equipment
    513.03 Construction
      513.03.01 Proprietary Retaining Walls
      513.03.02 Cast-in-place Retaining Walls
    513.04 Measurement and Payment
  Section 514 – Temporary Structures
    514.01 Description
    514.02 Materials
    514.03 Construction
      514.03.01 Temporary Structures
    514.04 Measurement and Payment

Division 500 – Bridges and Structures

Section 501 – Sheeting and Cofferdams

501.01 Description   back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing and removing cofferdams and sheeting.

501.02 Materials   back to top


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Structural Steel 906.01
  Steel Sheet Piles 906.02
  Bolts 908.01

501.03 Construction   back to top

501.03.01 Temporary Sheeting

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning work, submit working drawings for approval. Include the following:

    1. Size, cross-section, section modulus, and physical properties of the sheeting that will provide the maximum longitudinal bending moment for proper functioning.
    2. Bracing design to protect workers, adjoining properties, and the public.
    3. The combined stress calculations to determine the maximum effect of the principal stresses on the sheeting. Include a check for the principal stresses against the appropriate material yield point.
    4. The effects of bending stresses in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction.
    5. The maximum forces that the sheeting is subjected to during construction operations.
    6. The Contractor may use the Hencky-von Mises (Yield Distortion Energy) criterion to combine stresses and relate the principal stresses to a failure criterion (Material Yield Point).
    7. Method for removing obstructions.
    8. Method for addressing underground facilities and utilities that coincide with sheeting.
    9. If required, dewatering plan, including method of dewatering and controlling sediment and contaminants from entering adjacent waterbodies, wetlands and environmentally sensitive areas. Do not use earthen berms as a method of dewatering.

  2. Construction. Excavate and remove materials that obstruct the installation as specified in 202.03. Do not install within 200 feet of concrete that is being placed or has been placed within the previous 24 hours unless approved by the RE. Ensure that the sheeting has no gaps and is continuous for its entire length.

  3. Dewatering. If required, dewater as specified in the approved dewatering plan. Continue dewatering operations until the temporary sheeting is removed or as directed by the RE.

  4. Removal. Remove temporary sheeting when it is no longer required. Backfill voids left from temporary sheeting to provide uniform finish grades. Except for timber, the RE may approve leaving the temporary sheeting in place. When temporary sheeting is left in place, remove the upper portion to at least 3 feet below finish ground.

501.03.02 Permanent Sheeting

Construct permanent sheeting as shown on the Plans. Ensure that the sheeting has no gaps and is continuous for its entire length.

At least 15 days before constructing sheeting, submit to the RE for approval a dewatering plan including method of dewatering and controlling sediment and contaminants from entering adjacent waterbodies, wetlands, and environmentally sensitive areas. Dewater according to the approved dewatering plan. Continue dewatering operations until no longer required.

501.03.03 Temporary Cofferdams

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning work, submit working drawings for approval. Include the following:

    1. Size, cross-section, section modulus, and physical properties of the cofferdam that will provide the maximum longitudinal bending moment for proper functioning.
    2. Bracing design to protect workers, adjoining properties, and the public.
    3. The combined stress calculations to determine the maximum effect of the principal stresses on the cofferdam. Include a check for the principal stresses against the appropriate material yield point.
    4. The effects of bending stresses in the longitudinal direction and the transverse direction.
    5. The maximum forces that the cofferdam is subjected to during construction operations.
    6. The Contractor may use the Hencky-Von Mises (Yield Distortion Energy) criterion to combine stresses and relate the principal stresses to a failure criterion (Material Yield Point).
    7. A complete description of the proposed cofferdam, including brochures or other literature that indicates a proven performance history of the proposed system.
    8. Dewatering plan, including method of dewatering and controlling sediment and contaminants from entering adjacent waterbodies, wetlands, and environmentally sensitive areas. Do not use earthen berms as a method of dewatering.

  2. Construction. Construct cofferdams to ensure the stability of the excavation and to keep the excavation free of water. Construct the cofferdam with interior dimensions that allow clearance for the construction and inspection of forms and for the handling and pumping of water outside of the footing area. Extend the cofferdam below the bottom of the footings and brace cofferdams in all directions and ensure that they are maintained free of water until the subsequent work has been completed.

    The Contractor may only extend timber or bracing of a cofferdam into or through the proposed substructure with RE approval. Ensure that vertical structural members supported on rock are toed-in to ensure stability.

  3. Dewatering. Continue dewatering operations until the temporary cofferdam is removed or as directed by the RE.

  4. Removal. Remove temporary cofferdams when no longer required. Restore disturbed areas, including watercourse beds, to original conditions.

    The Contractor may request that the temporary cofferdam be left in place. If approved, the RE will designate the limits of the cofferdam to be left in place.

501.03.04 Permanent Cofferdams

  1. Construction. Construct cofferdams to protect the foundation and the construction against damage and water. Ensure that vertical structural members supported on rock are toed-in sufficiently to provide stability against movement.

  2. Placing Concrete Seal. When concrete seals are shown, submit a plan of operation to the RE for approval at least 30 days before placing concrete. Include the following in the plan:

    1. Method of placing concrete.
    2. Methods of controlling water and sediment intrusion.
    3. Equipment models and quantity. Include backup equipment within the Project Limits at all times.
    4. Size and description of crew.
    5. Corrective action plan for equipment breakdown or cofferdam failure.

  3. Maintain still water at the point of deposit. Do not place concrete in running water. Ensure that plastic concrete does not come in contact with water outside of the confines of the cofferdam. Place concrete in 1 continuous operation. To prevent segregation, place the concrete in a compact mass in its final position. Do not disturb the concrete after placement. Place concrete under water using 1 of the following methods:

    1. Tremie Method. When using a tremie, ensure that the tube is at least 10 inches in diameter, and constructed in sections having flanged couplings fitted with gaskets. Support the tremie to allow free movement of the discharge end over the entire placement area and to allow its being lowered rapidly to choke off or retard the flow. Ensure that the discharge end is completely submerged in concrete at all times and the tremie tube contains sufficient concrete to prevent water entry.

    2. Bottom-Dump Bucket Method. When using a bottom-dump bucket to place concrete, ensure that the bucket has a capacity of at least 1/2 cubic yard and loose fitting top covers. Gradually lower the bucket until it rests upon the prepared foundation or upon concrete already placed. Then gradually raise the bucket while discharging the concrete, to maintain as near still water as possible at the point at discharge.

    Ensure that depressions in the top of the seal are less than 6 inches below the specified elevation and peaks are less than 6 inches above the specified elevation. The RE will take soundings during placement of the final lift of each seal, before initial set. Cut areas exceeding the 6-inch tolerance to within the permissible height above the theoretical top of the seal.

  4. Dewatering. If required, submit a dewatering plan to the RE for approval. Include the method of dewatering and controlling sediment and contaminants from entering adjacent waterbodies, wetlands, and environmentally sensitive areas. Do not use earthen berms as a method of dewatering. Before placing the tremie seal, clear the bottom of excavation of objectionable material. Do not dewater while placing concrete and for at least 24 hours after completion of the tremie seal.

    Do not begin dewatering a sealed cofferdam until the seal has cured to withstand the hydrostatic pressure. Dewater the cofferdam and clean the seal of laitance.

  5. Removal. Remove the cofferdam to the limits shown on the Plans after completion of the substructure. Restore disturbed areas, including watercourse beds, to original conditions.

501.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  TEMPORARY SHEETING SQUARE FOOT
  PErmanent SHEETING SQUARE FOOT
  Temporary Cofferdam Lump sum
  Permanent Cofferdam Lump sum
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will measure the square footage of temporary sheeting and Permanent Sheeting by multiplying the average height and length of sheeting that is driven. The Department will determine the average height by extending a line from the bottom of the excavation to a vertical plane of the top of sheeting.

Section 502 – Load Bearing Piles

502.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for furnishing and installing concrete, steel, and timber piles.

502.02 Materials  back to top

502.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Structural Precast Concrete 904.03
  Prestressed Concrete 904.04
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Steel Castings for H-Pile Tips (Medium Strength) 906.02
  Steel Piles 906.02
  Coal Tar Epoxy Paint 912.01.03
  Round Timber Piling 915.02
  Timber Treatment 915.05

502.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Impact Hammers 1004.01
  Vibratory Hammers 1004.02
  Leads and Followers 1004.03

502.03 Construction  back to top

502.03.01 Furnishing Pile Driving Equipment

Perform a wave equation analysis program (WEAP) for each pile type and hammer combination. Ensure that the number of required hammer blows at the ultimate pile resistance indicated by the WEAP analysis is between 3 and 10 blows per inch. Also ensure that the compressive and tensile pile stresses are within the allowable limits.

Submit 4 copies of the WEAP analysis, signed and sealed by a Professional Engineer, and 4 copies of the NJDOT Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form to the Department for approval 30 days before delivery of the equipment to the Project Limits. Submit a separate WEAP analysis and NJDOT Pile and Driving Equipment Data Form for each pile type and hammer combination.

502.03.02 Preboring Holes

When preboring holes for round piles, use an auger with a diameter that is between 2 inches smaller than the average nominal diameter of piles. When preboring holes for steel H-piles, use an auger with a diameter that is 4 to 6 inches less than the nominal diagonal dimension of the piles. Backfill the void between the piles and the prebored holes with granular material.

502.03.03 Driving Piles

  1. Wave Equation Analysis Program (WEAP). When Dynamic Pile Load Tests will not be performed, the RE will determine the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile, the anticipated number of hammer blows per inch, and the anticipated compressive and tensile pile stresses at the required ultimate pile capacity using the wave equation analysis.

  2. Methods of Driving. Do not drive piles in embankments until the embankment work, including placement, compaction, and removal of surcharge has been completed. Do not drive piles within 200 feet of concrete that is being placed or has been placed within the previous 24 hours unless approved by the RE. When driving piles in groups, start from the center of the group and proceed outward in both directions, or start from the end of the group and proceed to the opposite end of the group.

    When using followers in driving, drive 1 long pile in each group of 10 without a follower as a test pile to determine the average bearing capacity of the group.

    Do not install precast and prestressed concrete piles for at least 21 days after fabrication. If at any point precast and prestressed concrete piles are cured at 40 °F or below, the RE may require additional curing time before the installation of the piles. Additionally, do not install precast and prestressed concrete piles in seawater, brackish water, or sulfate soils for at least 30 days after fabrication.

    The Contractor may use vibratory pile drivers, with the approval of the RE, to advance steel bearing piles. Obtain RE approval before jetting piles. The RE will require use of an impact pile driver for at least the final 10 feet of penetration.

    Drive piles as follows:

    1. Accuracy of Driving. Ensure that piles are driven within 1/4 inch per foot from the vertical or batter. Ensure that the driven piles are within 6 inches of the specified position. Ensure that piles for trestle bents are driven within 1/2 inch per foot from the vertical or batter. Ensure that the driven trestle bent piles are within 2 inches of the specified position.

      The RE will prohibit excessive manipulation of the piles to force them into proper position.

    2. Penetration. At least 10 days before beginning the work, submit a plan to the RE for approval for the types of piles, including those whose tip elevation is noted, for jetting, blasting, or the use of spuds and other work necessary to obtain the penetration required.

    3. Rock Bearing Piles. Drive steel H-piles or other steel piles that are intended to bear on rock to the refusal necessary to penetrate the rock sufficiently to provide uniform and adequate bearing. The pile is considered as reaching refusal when a penetration of not less than 5 blows per 1/4 inch has been achieved.

    4. Cast-In-Place Piles.  Ensure that reinforcement steel is installed as specified in 504.03.01.  Place concrete as specified in 504.03.02.  Clean out open end piles to the elevation shown on Plans.  Weld closure plates for closed-end pipe piles as shown on Plans.

  3. Test Piles. The RE will determine the length of the test pile. Excavate the ground at each footing location to the elevation of the bottom of the footing before the pile is driven. Drive the test piles with the same type of equipment that will be used for driving production piles. Drive the test piles at the designated locations to the specified bearing capacity or hammer blow count, and tip elevation. Perform the following tests when shown on the Plans:

    1. Static Pile Load Test. Obtain the services of a professional testing laboratory, or Professional Engineer with satisfactory pile load test experience, to conduct the load test, to record data, and to provide reports of the test results to the RE.

      Determine the top elevation of the test piles immediately after driving and again just before static load testing to check for heave. Redrive or jack piles that heave more than 1/4 inch relative to the original elevation prior to testing. Allow at least 3 days to pass between the driving of any anchor piles or the load test pile and the commencement of the load test.

      If pipe walls are not of adequate strength to sustain the static test loading when empty, place the required reinforcement and concrete before loading. Do not apply loads for static load tests for cast-in-place concrete piles until the concrete in the test pile has set at least 7 days. Refer to the Special Provisions to determine the total static test load to be applied to piles.

      Perform static load tests according to ASTM D 1143, using the quick load test method for individual piles, except perform the test to plunging failure or the capacity of the loading system. Provide testing equipment and measuring systems according to ASTM D 1143, except ensure that the loading system is capable of applying 150 percent of the ultimate pile capacity or 1000 tons, whichever is less. At least 20 days before beginning the work, submit detailed plans of the proposed loading apparatus, prepared by a Professional Engineer, to the RE for approval. Construct the apparatus to allow the various increments of the load to be placed gradually without causing vibration to the test pile. When the approved method requires the use of anchor piles that will be used as production piles, drive anchor piles of the same type and diameter as the production piles in the location of the production piles when feasible.

      Remove the loads after the completion of the tests. The RE may allow the test piles to become part of the structure if approved. If any pile is found unsatisfactory for use in the structure, the RE will direct removal of the pile or cutoff of the pile below the ground line or footing.

      Upon completion of each test, submit to the RE for approval 4 copies of the static load test records/reports signed and sealed by a Professional Engineer.

    2. Dynamic Pile Load Tests. At least 30 days before beginning the work, submit verification to the RE that the components of the apparatus for obtaining dynamic measurements and the apparatus for recording, reducing, and displaying data have been calibrated by the equipment manufacturer within the past 12 months. Submit the name, qualifications, and previous experience of the person performing the dynamic pile load tests to the RE for approval.

      Perform dynamic testing according to ASTM D 4945. Take dynamic measurements while driving the piles specified as dynamic load test piles. Using pile analyzer instruments, determine the ultimate capacity of the pile. Monitor the stresses in the pile during driving operations to ensure that the pile is not damaged by excessive compressive or tensile stresses. Monitor the driving of test piles during the full length of driving and during restriking. Drive piles to the depth at which the dynamic equipment indicates that the required ultimate bearing capacity has been achieved and to the required tip elevation. If needed to maintain acceptable stresses in the piles, modify the driving method. If the dynamic test equipment measurements indicate non-axial driving, immediately realign the driving system.

      If restrike is specified in the Special Provisions or directed by the RE, wait a minimum of 24 hours and then reattach the instruments before restriking the dynamic load test pile. Warm up the hammer by applying at least 20 blows to another pile before restriking. Terminate the restrike when the ultimate capacity of the pile is reached; when the amount of penetration reaches 6 inches; or when the total number of hammer blows reaches 50, whichever occurs first. If the established hammer blow count is not attained on restrike, the RE may direct the Contractor to drive a portion of or all of the remaining test pile length and repeat the restrike procedure. After restrike, the RE will determine whether additional pile penetration and testing is required. The RE may require splicing of a test pile driven to plan grade that does not meet the required hammer blow count. Drive the spliced pile until the required bearing is obtained.

      Within 48 hours of the completion of each test, submit 4 copies of the pile dynamic monitoring report to the RE. Include the Pile Dynamic Analyzer (PDA) test results, the Case Pile Wave Analysis Program (CAPWAP) results, and an interpretation of the data that is signed and sealed by a Professional Engineer.

  4. Production Pile Lengths. When test piles or load tests are specified, the RE will use the data obtained in conjunction with other available geotechnical information to determine the lengths of production piles to be furnished. The RE will not prepare the order list for any portion of the foundation until the required test data has been completed.

    The Contractor may increase the length of the production piles to be furnished to provide fresh heading or to suit the Contractor’s method. Complete test piles before driving any production piles unless approved by the RE.

  5. Cut-Offs and Cappings. Ensure that the tops of foundation piles are embedded in the concrete footing at least 1 foot. At locations where tremie concrete is used, ensure the piles project at least 12 inches above the top of the tremie concrete. Ensure that the length of pile cut-off is sufficient to allow the removal of all injured material. Ensure that the distance between the edge of a pile to the nearest edge of the footing is at least 9 inches. When the cut-off elevation for a precast concrete pile is below the elevation of the bottom of the cap, build up the pile from the butt of the pile to the elevation of the bottom of the cap with a reinforced concrete extension.

    Cut-off piles at right angles to the axis of the pile at the designated elevation. Make the cuts in clean, straight lines.

  6. Painting Steel Piles and Pipe Shells. When steel piles or pipe shells in the completed structure extend above the original ground line or finished ground surface, protect the piles or pipe with coal tar epoxy paint as specified in 511.03.01.C. Ensure the coating extends from an elevation 3 feet below the bed of waterbody or finished ground surface to the top of the exposed steel.

  7. Defective Piles. Ensure that the pile driving procedure does not subject the piles to excessive and undue abuse, producing crushing and spalling of the concrete, injurious splitting, splintering and brooming of the wood, or deformation of the steel. Correct damaged or defective piles using 1 of the following methods:

    1. Withdraw the pile and replace it with a new and, if necessary, longer pile.
    2. Drive a second pile adjacent to the defective pile. Remove the defective pile to at least 24 inches below cut-off elevation, and fill the hole with sand if it is a cast-in-place pile.
    3. Splice, build up the pile, or extend a sufficient portion of the footing to properly embed the pile.

  8. Re-drive piles that heave by more than 1/4 inch as a result of the driving of adjacent piles or any other cause. If a pile cannot be driven as specified due to an obstruction, the RE will determine when adequate penetration has been achieved.

502.03.04 Splicing Piles

Use full length steel piles, pipes, shells, precast concrete piles, and prestressed concrete piles. Do not splice partial pile lengths to achieve the production pile length unless directed. At least 10 days before beginning the work, submit the method of splicing, splice location for each pile, and name of certified welder to the RE for approval. Do not splice timber piles.

502.03.05 Pile Shoes

Attach pile shoes as shown on the Plans.

502.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  FURNISHING EQUIPMENT FOR DRIVING PILES LUMP SUM
  PREBORED HOLE LINEAR foot
  TEST PILE, furnished LINEAR foot
  TEST PILE, DRIVEN LINEAR foot
  STATIC PILE LOAD TEST UNIT
  DYNAMIC PILE LOAD TEST UNIT
  CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILE, FURNISHED, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILE, DRIVEN, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  PRECAST CONCRETE PILE, FURNISHED, ___ x ___" LINEAR FOOT
  PRECAST CONCRETE PILE, DRIVEN, ___ x ___ " LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE, FURNISHED, ___ x ___" LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE, DRIVEN, ___ x ___" LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE, furnished, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PILE, driven, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  STEEL H-PILE, FURNISHED, HP ___ x ___ LINEAR FOOT
  STEEL H-PILE, DRIVEN, HP ___ x ___ LINEAR FOOT
  TIMBER PILE, FURNISHED, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  TIMBER PILE, DRIVEN, ___" DIAMETER LINEAR FOOT
  SPLICE (___) UNIT
  PILE SHOE UNIT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will pay 75 percent of the lump sum price bid for furnishing equipment for driving piles when the equipment necessary for driving piles is furnished and driving of test piles has started on an individual structure basis. The Department will pay the remaining 25 percent when the work of driving piles is completed on an individual structure basis.

The Department will measure prebored holes that are specified or directed by the RE by the linear foot from the bottom of the foundation excavation elevation to the bottom of the hole elevation.

The Department will make payment for the length of pile furnished based on the RE’s order list. The Department will not make payment for the additional length of furnished pile to provide fresh heading, to drive through water, or to meet the Contractor’s driving method. If the required penetration for any pile is greater than the length in the order list, the Department will include, for measurement in furnished piles, the additional length directed by the RE.

The Department will measure the length of piles driven by total length of linear foot installed and accepted, from the tip to the cut off elevation.

The Department will not include static pile load tests under driving piles. The Department will make payment for static pile load tests under STATIC PILE LOAD TEST.

The Department will not include dynamic pile load tests under driving piles. The Department will make payment for dynamic pile load tests under Dynamic PILE LOAD TEST. The Department will not make separate payment for dynamic pile load tests and CAPWAP analysis performed on piles that require restriking. The Department will include restriking and a CAPWAP analysis of a dynamic pile load test in the Dynamic Pile Load Test. When dynamic pile load tests (Dynamic or PDA Monitoring) are used, the Department will not make payment for installation of test piles until recorded data is submitted to the RE.

The Department will make payment for splices within the pile order length if the order length is greater than 80 feet under SPLICE (___). The Department will not make payment for splices in piles that are less than 80 feet unless directed by the RE.

Section 503 – Drilled Shaft Foundations

503.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for installing and testing drilled shafts.

503.02 Materials  back to top

503.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Self Consolidating Concrete 903.06.01
  Grout 903.08.02
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01.01
  Drilled Shaft Casing 906.03
  Structural Steel Paint (Organic Zinc) 912.01.01
  Water 919.08

Provide clay-mineral based slurry (processed attapulgite or bentonite) for mineral slurry. Ensure that the mineral slurry has a mineral grain size that will remain in suspension and has sufficient viscosity and gel characteristics to transport excavated material to a suitable screening system. Ensure that the percentage and specific gravity of the material used to make the mineral suspension is sufficient to maintain the stability of the excavation and to allow proper concrete placement.

Provide polymer slurry as recommended by the manufacturer.

503.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

Ensure that equipment does not introduce uncontrolled exhaust fumes into the surrounding areas, or other occupied areas adjacent to the work site. Crane and drilling engine exhaust fumes will require their own separate exhaust systems adequately vented to the atmosphere away from any confined work sites.

Ensure that equipment used for final bottom cleaning does not have a centralizing guide at the tip.

Use excavation and drilling equipment having adequate capacity, including power, torque, and down thrust to excavate a hole of both the maximum specified diameter and to a depth of 20 percent beyond the depths shown on the plans when operated at rated capacity.

Provide Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) test equipment that includes the following components:

  1. A microprocessor-based CSL system for display of individual CSL records, analog-digital conversion and recording of CSL data, analysis of receiver responses, and printing of CSL logs.
  2. Ultrasonic source and receiver probes for 1.5-or 2-inch inner diameter pipe, as appropriate.
  3. An ultrasonic voltage pulser to excite the source with a synchronized triggering system to start the recording system.
  4. A depth measurement device to determine and record depths.
  5. Appropriate filter/amplification and cable systems for CSL testing.

503.03 Construction  back to top

503.03.01 Installation Plan

No later than 30 days after the date of the Notice to Proceed, submit to the RE for approval an installation plan that includes the following:

  1. Names and descriptions of the last 3 drilled shaft construction projects completed, including the names and telephone numbers of owner’s representatives.
  2. Type, size, and number of equipment to be used.
  3. Details of the overall construction operation sequence and the proposed sequence of shaft construction.
  4. Details of planned shaft excavation methods.
  5. Details of the methods to ensure shaft stability during excavation and concrete placement. Include a review of method suitability to the anticipated work site and subsurface conditions. If casings are proposed or required, provide casing dimensions, detailed procedures for permanent casing installation, and procedures for temporary casing installation and removal.
  6. When slurry is specified or proposed, provide details of the methods for mixing, placing, circulating, and desanding the slurry. Also include the method of monitoring and continuously maintaining the slurry level. Provide the method of disposal.
  7. Details of methods to clean and maintain the shaft excavation, including removal of loose rock and sediment from the shaft bottom.
  8. Details of steel reinforcement lifting, splicing if necessary in a hanging position, insertion and securing, including support and centralization methods.
  9. Mix design of the concrete and documentation showing that the mix design meets the approved mix and strength requirements.
  10. The method used to fill or eliminate voids between the plan shaft diameter and excavated shaft diameter, or between the shaft casing and surrounding soil, if permanent casing is specified.
  11. Methods to determine drilled shaft dimensions and the deviation from vertical for the entire depth of the drilled shaft.
  12. Details of proposed methods to check shaft bottom cleanliness.
  13. Procedures for control and removal of spoils on land, over water, or both.
  14. Details of concrete batching and/or delivery to the work site, and concrete placement, including proposed operational procedures for concrete pump or tremie. Discuss the initial placement, raising tremie pipe(s) during placement, overfilling of the shaft concrete, the proposed method to accurately monitor the volume of concrete being placed at all times during the pour, and provisions to prepare the completed shaft top at its final shaft top elevation.
  15. The qualification records of the testing organization to perform the O-Cell Load Test and the CSL.
  16. Details of procedures, materials, and equipment for performing the O-Cell Load Test and the CSL. Provide a certificate of calibration for the load cell from an approved testing laboratory. Ensure that the calibration was performed for all ranges of proposed loading within the 2 months preceding the load tests. Ensure that the certified accuracy of the load cell is within 1 percent of the true load.
  17. Concrete core drilling equipment and procedures to retrieve the core specimens that may be required to determine the integrity of concrete placed in the drilled shaft.

The RE will schedule a review meeting between the Contractor, designer, and the Department after reviewing the installation plan and at least 15 days before the start of work.

Within 30 days after receipt of the plan, the RE will notify the Contractor of any additional information required and changes that may be necessary.

If the RE rejects the plan or a part of the plan, submit revisions to the RE for reevaluation. The RE will notify the Contractor within 10 days after receipt of proposed changes of their acceptance or rejection.

503.03.02 Demonstration Drilled Shaft Installation

The Department will require a demonstration drilled shaft to verify the Contractor’s methods. Locate the demonstration shaft as shown on the Plans or as directed by the RE. Excavate the demonstration shaft to the depth of the deepest production shaft shown on the Plans. Construct the demonstration shaft as specified in 503.03.06. Include CSL as specified in 503.03.04.

Cut-off the concreted demonstration shafts 2 feet below finished grade or 3 feet below the mudline if in water. Restore disturbed areas at demonstration shaft holes to their original condition.

Once approval has been given to construct production shafts, do not change the personnel, methods, or equipment that were used to construct the approved demonstration shaft without written approval of the RE.

503.03.03 Load Tests

  1. O-Cell Installation. Ensure that the installation and execution of the O-cell load tests are supervised by a Professional Engineer. Ensure that the O-cell, vibrating wire strain gauges, hydraulic supply, and other attachments are assembled according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Provide a reinforcement steel cage, as specified in 503.03.06.K, to attach the O-cell. Excavate using the approved method at the location shown on the Plans. After excavating a test drilled shaft, and obtaining approval from the RE, place a seating layer of concrete in the base of the drilled shaft. While the seating concrete is still plastic, install the reinforcement steel cage with the O-cell in the test shaft so that the O-cell rests firmly in the concrete.

    After seating the O-cell assembly, place concrete in the drilled shaft as specified in 503.03.06.M. The ME will take at least 6 concrete compression test cylinders from the concrete used in the test shaft. At least 1 day before the load test, the ME will test at least 1 of the cylinders. The ME will test at least 2 cylinders on the day of the load test. Do not perform the O-cell test until 7 days after placing the concrete and the concrete achieves the specified compressive strength.

  2. Load Testing and Reporting. Perform load tests according to ASTM D 1143. If the test apparatus shows signs of negative effects due to the construction activities, immediately cease testing and do not resume until the conditions are favorable for testing. Apply loads in increments equaling 10 percent of the maximum test load for the drilled shaft.

    Take direct movement indicator measurements of the following:

    1. Downward drilled shaft end-bearing movement (1 indicator required).
    2. Upward top-of-drilled shaft movement (minimum of 3 indicators required).
    3. Vibrating wire strain gauges (minimum of 8 per test required).

  3. Apply loads at the specified intervals until the maximum test load shown on the Plans is reached in either end bearing or side shear or until the maximum capacity or maximum stroke of the O-cell is reached. In addition to the requirements of ASTM D 1143, at each load increment, or decrement, take readings of the movement indicators at 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 minute intervals while holding the load constant. Ensure that strain gauge readings are concurrent with shaft movement readings. The RE may direct additional cycles of loading and unloading using similar procedures following the completion of the test cycle.

    Ensure that dial gauges or Linear Variable Displacement Transducers (LVDTs) used to measure end bearing, side shear movement, and shaft compression have a minimum travel of 8 inches and are capable of being read to the nearest 0.0001 inch division. The Contractor may alternately monitor end bearing movement using LVDTs capable of measuring the expansion of the O-cell (6 inches). Ensure that the reference beam has a minimum length equal to 6 times the drilled shaft diameter. Monitor the reference beam for movement during load testing using a surveyor’s level.

    Provide the performance results of each load test to the RE the day after performing the load tests. Provide a report of the load test results to the RE within 10 days of completing the test. Ensure that the report includes data readings and plots of the readings, the details of the load test and set-up, and a determination of the end bearing and friction/adhesion of the rock and soil. Within 20 days, the Department will notify the Contractor if revisions to the foundation lengths and installation procedures will be made based on the results of the load tests. Do not begin construction of production drilled shafts without the Department’s approval.

  4. Post-Test Grouting Procedures. Grout the interior of the O-cell and annular space around the outside of the O-cell according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. The Contractor does not have to grout test shafts that will not be used as production shafts.

503.03.04 Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL)

  1. CSL Tube Installation. Begin Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) on all production and demonstration drilled shafts 48 hours after placing concrete in the shaft. Ensure that the testing is completed within 20 days after placing concrete.

    Ensure that the CSL tubes are watertight and have a round, regular, internal diameter free of defects or obstructions, including any at tube joints, to allow the free, unobstructed passage of 1.3-inch diameter source and receiver probes.

    Ensure that each pipe is fitted with a watertight shoe at the bottom and a removable cap at the top. Attach the pipes securely to the interior of the reinforcement cage with a minimum cover of 4 inches. Install the tubes as near to parallel as possible.

    Ensure that the tubes extend from 6 inches above the shaft bottoms to at least 3 feet above the shaft tops. If the shaft top is sub-surface, extend the tubes at least 2 feet above the ground surface. Ensure that joints required to achieve full-length tubes are watertight.

    Ensure that the tubes are not damaged during reinforcement steel cage installation. As the cage is being lowered into the shaft, monitor the tubes to ensure that they are vertical and parallel, and that connections are watertight. After installing the reinforcement cage, immediately fill the tubes with clean water. After the tubes are filled with water, cap or seal the tube tops.

    Before placing concrete, plumb at least 1 tube per shaft and record the tube length. Note the stickup of the tubes above the shaft tops.

    Do not remove the seals or caps until the concrete in the shaft has set. Remove the caps or plugs after installation and ensure not to apply excess torque, hammering, or other stresses that could break the bond between the tubes and the concrete.

  2. CSL Testing and Reporting. Perform CSL tests between pairs of tubes. Perform the CSL tests with the source and receiver probes in the same horizontal plane, unless the tests indicate potential defects. Take CSL measurements at depth intervals of 2 inches or less, from the bottom of the tubes to the top of each shaft. Pull the probes simultaneously, starting from the bottoms of the tubes, over a depth measuring device. Remove slack from the cables before pulling to provide for accurate depth measurements of the CSL records. Test 2 principle diagonals through the center and between each tube pair around the perimeter of tested shafts.

    If the tests indicate potential defects, the RE may direct the Contractor to evaluate questionable zone using tomography (source and receiver vertically offset in the tubes). Report defects indicated by longer pulse arrival times and significantly lower amplitude/energy signals to the RE, and conduct additional tests as required to evaluate the extent of such defects.

    The RE will reject a shaft based on conclusive evidence that a defect exists in the shaft that will result in inadequate or unsafe performance under service loads. If the CSL records are complex or inconclusive, the RE may require additional testing to confirm the location of the defect. The RE may require coring to verify shaft conditions.

    Submit to the RE a report, signed and sealed by a Professional Engineer, that includes recommendations as to the acceptability, unacceptability, and soundness of the drilled shaft. Include in the report a CSL log for each tube pair tested with analyses of:

    1. Initial pulse arrival time versus depth.
    2. Pulse energy/amplitude versus depth.
    3. Defect zones.

  3. The Department will evaluate the CSL test results and determine whether or not the drilled shaft construction is acceptable. If the Department determines that the drilled shaft is acceptable, dewater the CSL tubes and grout.

503.03.05 Core Drilling of Drilled Shaft Concrete

The Contractor may core drill drilled shafts that are determined to be unacceptable based on the CSL tests. The RE will determine the number and depth of cores required. Drill cores at a minimum diameter of 3 inches.

Keep an accurate coring log, properly mark cores with the depth at each interval of core recovery, and place the cores in a crate. Deliver the cores and 3 copies of the coring log to the Department Laboratory.

If the RE determines that the drilled shaft is acceptable, dewater and grout the core holes and the CSL tubes.

If the Department determines that the drilled shaft is unacceptable, submit working drawings for approval proposing corrective measures. Do not begin corrective measures until the Department approves the working drawings.

Do not proceed with construction above a drilled shaft until the quality of the shaft, as represented by the core samples, is determined to be acceptable and the RE provides notification to continue construction.

503.03.06 Constructing Drilled Shafts

  1. Installation Plan. Submit the installation plan, as specified in 503.03.01. Do not begin constructing drilled shafts until the RE approves the plan.

  2. Location and Alignment. Construct drilled shafts within 3 inches of plan position in the horizontal plane at the elevation of the top of the shaft. Ensure that the vertical alignment of a shaft excavation does not vary from the plan alignment by more than 1/4 inch per foot of depth. Ensure that the alignment of a battered shaft excavation does not vary from the plan alignment by more than 1/2 inch per foot of depth.

  3. Construction Sequence Limitations. Excavate to the bottom of the footing elevation before beginning shaft construction. When constructing drilled shafts and placing embankment, construct drilled shafts after the placement of embankment. Repair disturbances caused by shaft installation to a subsequent drilled shaft area before beginning shaft construction.

    Do not excavate a shaft if an adjacent shaft in the same substructure unit is open unless the RE’s written approval is obtained. Do not perform blasting or vibrate to place casings until the concrete in adjacent shafts has reached 80 percent of the required 28-day compressive strength. Once the excavation of a shaft has begun, do not stop the excavation until the excavation is completed. If the excavation is stopped for more than 24 hours, maintain shaft stability as detailed in the installation plan.

  4. Excavation Log. Maintain an excavation log during shaft excavation that includes the following:

    1. Description and approximate top and bottom elevation of each soil or rock material encountered during shaft excavation.
    2. Elevations at which seepage or groundwater flow are encountered, and remarks.
    3. The type of tools used for the excavation.
    4. Changes in the type of tools used for excavation.


    Ensure that discrepancies noted on the log by the RE are resolved by the end of each day. Provide 2 copies of the final log to the RE within 24 hours after a shaft excavation is completed and approved.

    Reuse excavated material as specified in 202.03.07.A.

  5. Excavating. Use the appropriate method for constructing drilled shafts as follows:

    1. Dry Method. Only use the dry method where the groundwater level and soil conditions allow construction of the drilled shaft in a relatively dry excavation, and where the sides and bottom of the shaft may be visually inspected by the RE before placement of reinforcement and concrete. The dry method will consist of drilling the shaft excavation, removing any accumulated water and loose material from the excavation, placing the reinforcement cage, and concreting the shaft in less than 3 inches of water.

    2. Wet Method. Construct drilled shafts using the wet method where dry excavation cannot be maintained. The wet method will consist of using water or slurry, as specified in 503.03.06.G, to maintain stability of the drilled shaft perimeter while excavating to finished depth, placing the reinforcement cage, and concreting the shaft. The Contractor may use the static or circulation process of the wet method.


    When the material encountered cannot be drilled using conventional earth drilling tools and equipment, provide rock drilling equipment, including air tools, approved blasting materials, and other equipment as necessary to construct the shaft excavation to the size and depth required. Obtain the RE’s approval before switching from earth to rock drilling tools and equipment. Obtain the RE’s approval before blasting.

    The Contractor may overream with a grooving tool, overreaming bucket, or other RE approved equipment. The RE will direct the thickness and extent of sidewall overreaming.

    The Department will require sidewall overreaming between 1/2 and 3 inches when the sidewall of the hole has either softened due to excavation methods, swollen due to delays in concreting, or degraded because of slurry cake buildup.

    Immediately remove drilling tools that are lost in the excavation.

  6. Constructing Using Casings. Construct drilled shafts using casings where shown on the Plans or where the dry or wet construction methods are inadequate to prevent caving or excessive deformation of the hole. The Contractor may either place casings in a predrilled hole or advance casings through the ground by twisting, driving, or vibrating. When installing casings that are left in rock for the purpose of shielding voids, ensure that the predrilled hole is not more than 2 inches bigger than the casing diameter. When downsizing of permanent casing is required, do not overlap more than 6 feet of casing. .03.06

    When constructing drilled shafts in open water, extend the exterior casings from above the water elevation into the ground to protect the shaft concrete from water action during placement and curing of the concrete. Install the casing to ensure a positive seal at the bottom of the casing so that no seepage of water or other materials occurs into or from the shaft excavation.

    When casings are not shown on the Plans, but the Contractor believes that casings are necessary, the Contractor shall submit, in the installation plan, details of the proposed casing method (including casing lengths and diameters) and the proposed procedures of casing installation to the RE for review. If the Contractor does not determine the need for casings until after work on the shafts has begun, the Contractor shall submit to the RE for review a revised installation plan proposing the casing installation method for review.

    Ensure that casings are clean, round, straight, and free of weld breaks and holes that would allow passage of water or plastic concrete. With RE approval, the Contractor may provide casings larger in diameter than shown on the Plans.

    1. Temporary Casings. Casings are temporary unless shown as permanent casings on the Plans. Telescoping, predrilling with slurry, and overreaming to beyond the outside diameter of the casing may be required to install casing.

      Remove temporary casing before completing concrete placement in the drilled shaft. Before withdrawing the casing, ensure that the level of plastic concrete in the casing is at least 5 feet above either the hydrostatic water level in the formation or the level of drilling fluid in the annular space behind the casing, whichever is higher. As the casing is withdrawn, maintain an adequate level of concrete within the casing so that fluid trapped behind the casing is displaced upward and discharged at the ground surface without contaminating or displacing the shaft concrete.
      50
      If the Contractor removes a specified diameter or length of casing and substitutes a longer or larger diameter casing through caving soils, the Contractor shall stabilize the excavation using a slurry or backfill before the new casing is installed.

      If temporary casings become bound or fouled during shaft construction and cannot be practically removed, the Department will designate the drilled shaft defective. Submit working drawings for approval proposing corrective measures. Do not begin corrective measures until the Department approves the working drawings.

    2. Removable Casing. When the shaft extends above ground or through a body of water, the Contractor may use suitable, removable casing for the portion exposed above ground or through a body of water except when permanent casing is specified. Strip removable casing from the shaft and ensure that the concrete is not damaged.

      The Contractor may remove casings when the concrete has attained a strength of at least 2800 pounds per square inch as determined from 2 concrete cylinders field cured according to AASHTO T 23, provided that curing of the concrete is maintained, as specified in 504.03.02.F. Do not expose the shaft concrete to salt water or moving water for 7 days.

    3. Permanent Casings. When not shown on the Plans, the Contractor may use permanent casing if approved by the RE. Ensure casings are continuous between the top and bottom elevations shown on the Plans. After installation is complete, cut off the permanent casing at the specified elevation.

      After installing the casings, repair damage to coated surfaces of the casings exposed to the air by applying an organic zinc prime coat from the same manufacturer as the shop-applied inorganic zinc prime coat.

  7. Constructing Using Slurries. When using slurry to construct drilled shafts, the Contractor may use mineral or polymer slurries. During construction, maintain the level of the slurry at a height sufficient to prevent caving of the shaft excavation. Use a temporary surface casing in the upper soils. Maintain the slurry level inside the shaft above the groundwater level during installation and cleaning out. In the event of a sudden significant loss of slurry to the hole, cease the construction until either a method to stop slurry loss or an alternate construction procedure has been approved by the RE.

    Pump slurry into holding tanks to ensure that no slurry spills or contaminates the site. Provide physical or chemical treatment of the slurry according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    During construction, maintain the level of mineral slurry in the shaft at least 4 feet above the highest expected piezometric pressure head that is along the depth of the shaft. Maintain the level of polymer slurry at least 5 feet above the highest expected piezometric pressure head that is along the shaft. If the selected slurry construction method fails, in the opinion of the RE, to produce the desired final results, cease this method and propose an alternate method to the RE for approval.

    Ensure that a heavily contaminated slurry suspension, which could impair the free flow of concrete, has not accumulated in the bottom of the shaft. Before placing concrete for shaft excavation, take slurry samples using a sampling tool approved by the RE. Take slurry samples from the bottom of the shaft and at intervals not exceeding 10 feet up the slurry column in the shaft, until 2 consecutive samples produce acceptable values for density, viscosity, sand content, and pH at each sampling depth.

    When slurry samples are unacceptable, take corrective actions. Do not place concrete until the slurry is re-sampled and test results are approved.

    If the slurry remains in the shaft for more than 12 hours or if caking develops, roughen or re-ream the shaft with appropriate new bottom cleaning and slurry testing before concreting. Place concrete on the same day as the completion of the excavation of the drilled shaft to the bottom elevation.

    1. Mineral Slurry. Premix mineral slurry with water and allow time for hydration according to the manufacturer’s recommendations before using during shaft excavation. Provide slurry tanks of adequate capacity for slurry circulation, storage, and treatment. Do not substitute excavated slurry pits with slurry tanks without obtaining approval from the RE. Do not mix the slurry in the shaft.

      Monitor the properties of the pre-mixed slurry as it is introduced into the borehole and periodically thereafter, including a final check of a bottom sample before placing concrete to verify that the density and sand content are within the limits for the proper slurry displacement during concreting. Use desanding equipment to control slurry sand content to less than 4 percent by volume at any point in the borehole at the time the slurry is introduced.

      Perform control tests on the mineral slurry in the presence of the RE to determine density, viscosity, and pH. Adjust the slurry to meet the requirements shown in Table 503.03.06-1:


    2. Table 503.03.06-1 – Mineral Slurry3
      Property Range Test
      Density at time of slurry introduction 64.3 – 69.11 lbs/ft3 API 13B, Bentonite Slurry Section (Mud Balance)
      ASTM D 4380
      Density in hole at time of concreting 64.3 – 75.01 lbs/ft3 API 13B, Bentonite Slurry Section (Mud Balance)
      ASTM D 4380
      Viscosity at time of slurry introduction 28 – 452 sec/quart API 13B, Section 2 (Marsh Funnel and Cup)
      Viscosity in hole at time of concreting 28 – 452 sec/quart API 13B, Section 2 (Marsh Funnel and Cup)
      Sand content by volume 4% max API 13B, Section 4 (Sand Screen Set)
      ASTM D 4381
      pH at time of slurry introduction 8 – 11 API 13B, Section 6
      (Paper Test Strips or Glass-Electrode pH Meter)
      pH in hole at time of concreting 8 – 11 API 13B, Section 6
      (Paper Test Strips or Glass-Electrode pH Meter)
      1 Increase by 2 lbs/ft3 in salt water.
      2 Standard measurements are in seconds per quart. One sec/quart = 1.06 sec/liter.
        a. Perform tests when the slurry temperature is above 40 °F.
        b. Ensure that the sand content does not exceed 4 percent (by volume) at any point in the borehole as determined by the API sand content test when the slurry is introduced.
      3 Perform tests to determine density, viscosity and pH value during the shaft excavation to establish a consistent working pattern. Perform a minimum of 4 sets of tests during the first 8 hours of slurry use. When the results show consistent behavior, the Contractor may decrease the testing frequency to 1 set per every 4 hours of slurry use.


    3. Polymer Slurry. Provide a slurry management plan to the RE that includes a set of the slurry manufacturer’s written recommendations and results of the following tests, as a minimum:

      1. Density Test (API 13B-1, Section 1).
      2. Viscosity Test (Marsh funnel and cup, API 13B-1), Section 2.2 or approved viscometer.
      3. pH Test (pH meter, pH paper).
      4. Sand Content Test (API sand content kit, API 13B-1, Section 5).

      Also include the tests to be performed, the frequency of those tests, the test methods, and the maximum and minimum property requirements that must be met to ensure that the slurry meets its intended functions. Ensure that all test reports are signed, and provide them to the RE on completion of each drilled shaft.

  8. Removing Obstructions. The RE will determine if an object is considered an obstruction. Remove surface and subsurface obstructions at drilled shaft locations. The Contractor may need to use special procedures and tools when the drilled shaft excavation cannot be advanced using conventional augers fitted with soil or rock teeth, drilling buckets or underreaming tools. Special procedures and tools may include: chisels, boulder breakers, core barrels, air tools, hand excavation, temporary casing, and increasing the hole diameter. Do not blast without obtaining written approval from the RE.

  9. Rock Socketing. The RE will determine the top of rock sound enough for the Contractor to begin the socket based on the existing borings and observations during shaft drilling. The RE will not consider weathered or highly fractured rock as the top of rock socket.

    Prepare rock socket for concrete placement by roughening with drilling tools or by overreaming as directed by the RE. Rotate roughening tools against the rock socket area to remove accumulated slurry cake, to scale off loose rock fragments, and to roughen the finished rock socket surface.

  10. Excavation Cleaning and Verification. Unless otherwise approved by the RE, ensure that at least 50 percent of the base of each shaft has less than 1/2 inch of sediment at the time of concrete placement. Ensure that the maximum depth of sediment or debris at any place on the base of the shaft does not exceed 1-1/2 inches.

    In the presence of the RE, determine the cleanliness of the bottom of the shaft by the use of sounding, probe data, video camera, tape with weight, or other methods approved by the RE. After final cleaning, determine the dimensions, depth, and alignment as directed by the RE.

  11. Constructing Reinforcement Steel Cages. Immediately after the shaft excavation has been inspected and approved, assemble and place the reinforcement steel cage, consisting of longitudinal and transverse bars, ties, cage stiffeners, spacers, centralizers, and other necessary appurtenances before placing concrete. Remove internal stiffeners as the cage is placed in the drilled shaft hole before placing concrete.

    Use concrete spacers or other approved noncorrosive spacing devices at sufficient intervals near the bottom, and at intervals not exceeding 10 feet up the shaft, to ensure concentric spacing for the entire cage length. If the size of the spacers is not shown on the Plans, provide spacers that will create a minimum 3-inch annular space.

    Provide cylindrical concrete supports to ensure that the bottom of the cage is maintained at the specified distance above the base.

  12. Concrete Placement Time Limitations. Place concrete according to the limitations specified in 504.03.02.C. Continuously place concrete from the bottom to the top elevation of the shaft.

    Ensure that the concrete placement is completed within 2 hours. The RE may allow the concrete placement time to exceed 2 hours if the Contractor demonstrates that the slump of the concrete will not be less than 4 inches during the entire time of concrete placement.

  13. Concrete Placement Methods. The Contractor may request 1 additional set of cylinders to be taken for determining strength for early form removal as specified in 504.03.02.G. If additional cylinders are requested, notify the RE at least 24 hours before placing.

    When using SCC to construct drilled shafts, only place SCC using the tremie method.

    When using a concrete pump to place concrete for the drilled shaft, provide a standby pump that is immediately available if there is a pump failure.

    Check the elevation of the top of the steel cage before, during, and after concrete placement. If the final upward displacement of the rebar cage exceeds 2 inches or if the downward displacement exceeds 6 inches per 20 feet of shaft length, the RE will reject the drilled shaft. Correct the shaft to the satisfaction of the RE. Do not construct additional shafts until the rebar cage support system is corrected.

    1. Tremie Method. Ensure that tremie tubes are of sufficient length, weight, and diameter to discharge concrete at the shaft base elevation. Ensure that the inside and outside surfaces of the tremie are clean and smooth to allow the flow of concrete during concrete placement and an unimpeded withdrawal of the tremie tube after concrete placement. Ensure that the tremie tube’s inside diameter is at least 6 times the maximum size of aggregate used in the concrete mix. Do not use tremie tubes less than 10 inches in diameter. Ensure that the tremie tube thickness is adequate to prevent crimping or sharp bends. Do not use tremie tubes that have aluminum parts that will come in contact with concrete. Ensure that the tremie tube is watertight.

      Do not begin placing concrete underwater until the tremie is placed to the shaft base elevation. The Contractor may use valves, bottom plates, or plugs to ensure concrete discharge begins within one tremie diameter of the base. Remove plugs from the excavation or construct them using a material that will not cause a defect in the shaft if not removed. Construct the discharge end of the tremie to allow the free radial flow of concrete during placement operations.

      Ensure that the tremie tube discharge end is immersed at least 5 feet in concrete at all times after starting the flow of concrete. Maintain a continuous flow of the concrete at a positive pressure differential to prevent water or slurry intrusion into the shaft concrete.

      If the tremie tube discharge end is removed from the plastic concrete and discharges concrete above the rising concrete level, the RE will consider the drilled shaft defective. To correct this defect, the Contractor may: remove the reinforcement cage and concrete, complete necessary sidewall removal directed by the RE, and replace the shaft; or, the Contractor may replug the tremie tube, recharge with concrete, and insert a minimum of 5 feet below the existing top level of concrete before continuing placing concrete.

    2. Pumped Method. Ensure that pump lines have a minimum diameter of 4 inches and are constructed with watertight joints.

      Ensure that the discharge end remains at least 5 feet below the surface of the plastic concrete. When lifting the pump line during concreting, temporarily reduce the line pressure until the discharge end has been repositioned at a higher level in the excavation.

      If at any time during the concrete pour the pump line discharge end is removed from the fluid concrete column and discharges concrete above the rising concrete level, consider the shaft defective. In such case, remove the reinforcement cage and concrete, complete any necessary sidewall removal directed by the RE, and replace the shaft.

    Ensure that waste concrete overflows the full top circumference of the casing evenly. Waste concrete is the top 24 inches of the initial concrete placed, plus the height of additional volume of waste concrete deposited in the shaft where concrete placement was halted and restarted, plus any additional amount necessary to produce full strength, non-segregated concrete at the plan shaft top level. Continue placing concrete until the waste concrete is pushed upward and ejected completely out of the top of the casing and wasted; or, place an additional 24 inches of concrete above the planned shaft top level and allow to cure in place for removal later. Remove waste concrete at the top of the shaft to maintain a uniform appearance and to meet the specified dimensions of the shaft.

    Do not channel or bleed off waste concrete using notches, holes, or cuts in the casing top. The Contractor may remove or pump out plastic concrete in the casing that is above the top elevation of the drilled shaft after ejecting waste concrete to the top elevation.

  14. Approval. Compare the computed theoretical volume of the excavation with the actual volume of concrete placed, and create a plot of depth versus volume. Provide results to the RE.

    After placing the concrete, ensure that the top of the reinforcement steel cage is within −3 inches and +6 inches of the Plan elevation. Ensure that the top elevation of the completed drilled shaft is within −3 inches and +1 inch of the Plan elevation.

    The RE may reject drilled shafts because of damage; failure to advance through; mislocation, misalignment, or failure to install the drilled shaft to the proper bearing stratum; or results of CSL testing indicating defects.

    For each rejected drilled shaft, submit to the RE for approval a plan showing how to correct the problem and prevent its reoccurrence. Repair, augment, or replace the drilled shaft. If the RE rejects a drilled shaft, the Contractor shall cease the construction of all other drilled shafts until the Contractor demonstrates the ability to construct an approved drilled shaft.

    Within 10 days after completing the installation of all drilled shafts, and before removing the drilled shaft installation equipment from the Project Limits, provide the RE with a plan certified by a land surveyor registered in the State of New Jersey showing the as-installed location of drilled shafts. The RE will analyze the total loads on individual drilled shafts based on the survey data. If the load on any drilled shaft exceeds 10 percent of the specified load capacity, correct the drilled shaft as directed by the RE. The corrections may include installation of additional drilled shafts.

    Do not place substructure concrete on a drilled shaft until the concrete in the shaft reaches a minimum of 80 percent of the required 28-day compressive strength and until all CSL test results are approved and the CSL tubes have been dewatered and grouted.

503.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  FURNISHING DRILLED SHAFT EQUIPMENT lump sum
  Demonstration Drilled Shaft Linear FOOT
  LOAD TEST UNIT
  CROSSHOLE SONIC LOGGING UNIT
  SHAFT CORING linear FOOT
  drilled shaft in soil ___" Diameter linear FOOT
  drilled shaft in rock ___" Diameter linear FOOT
  OBSTRUCTION linear FOOT
  Tomography Unit
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will make payment for each load test completed and accepted.

The Department will not include payment for tomography under Crosshole Sonic Logging. If the RE directs tomography, the Department will make payment for the number of 3-D evaluations performed and accepted under Tomography.

The Department will make payment under Shaft Coring if the drilled core confirms that the shaft is acceptable. The Department will not make payment for shaft coring if the core confirms that there is a defect.

The Department will make payment for 60 percent of the lump sum price bid for furnishing drilled shaft equipment when the equipment necessary for drilling shafts is furnished and drilling of shafts has began. The Department will make payment for the remaining 40 percent when all shafts have been drilled and all shaft concrete has been placed to the top of the shafts.

The Department will not include payment for removal of obstructions under DRILLED SHAFT IN SOIL. If an obstruction is encountered, the Department will make payment for removal of the obstruction under OBSTRUCTION.

The Department will make payment for sampling and analysis for regulated waste, including solids from dewatered slurry, under Soil Sampling and analyses, regulated as specified in 202.04.

The Department will make payment for off-site transport and disposal and recycling of regulated waste or hazardous waste, including solids from dewatered slurry, under Disposal of Regulated Material or Disposal of Regulated Material, Hazardous as specified in 202.04.

Section 504 – Structural Concrete

504.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing cast-in-place concrete.

504.02 Materials  back to top

504.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Grit 901.07
  Concrete 903.03
  High Performance Concrete 903.05
  Mortar 903.08.01
  Curing Materials 903.10
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Welded Wire Reinforcement 905.01.03
  Epoxy Waterproofing 912.02.02
  Preformed Joint Filler 914.01
  Joint Sealer (Hot-Poured) 914.02
  Waterstops 919.06

504.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Sealer Application System 1003.08
  Spreading and Finishing Machine 1005.02
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Straightedge 1008.02
  Pavement Saw 1008.04
  Hot-Air Lance 1008.06
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

504.03 Construction  back to top

504.03.01 Reinforcement Steel

  1. Handling. Store reinforcement steel above ground level. When unloading coated reinforcement steel, minimize scraping of the bundles, bar-to-bar abrasion, and sags in the bundles. For coated reinforcement steel, do not skid the bundles from the truck bed to the ground. Ensure that equipment used for handling the bars is equipped with nylon slings. Do not use wire rope slings or chains. Lift bundles of bars to ensure that sagging does not occur. Ensure that coated bars or bundles of coated bars are not dropped or dragged during handling.

  2. Storing. Coordinate deliveries of coated reinforcement bars to the work site with the placing of the bars in the structure. Store reinforcement steel as close as possible to the area where it will be placed to minimize handling. Store the bars above the ground on timbers or other suitable protective cribbing and space the dunnage to prevent sags in the bundles. When storing a large quantity of bars in a small area, stack bundles of straight bars with adequate blocking placed between the layers of bundles to provide stability and prevent sagging.

    Do not store reinforcement bars at the work site for more than 60 days unless approved by the RE. If long term storage is approved, protect non-metallic tags on the bundles or attach additional galvanized metal tags on all bundles of bars to maintain identification. If long term storage is approved, cover the bars with white polyethylene sheeting or other suitable protective material. For stacked bundles, drape the white polyethylene sheeting over the sides of the bundles around the perimeter of the stack. Secure the covering and provide air circulation around the bars to prevent condensation under the polyethylene sheeting.

  3. Field Cutting. Obtain RE approval before field cutting reinforcement steel. Do not flame cut epoxy-coated reinforcement steel. If coated reinforcement bars are cut in the field, coat the cut ends and repair damage to the coating as specified in 504.03.01.G.

  4. Field Bending. Obtain RE approval before field bending reinforcement steel. Use the cold method to make minor adjustments to reinforcement steel bars in the field. Do not bend galvanized reinforcement steel more than 10 degrees. With the approval of the RE, the Contractor may use the heat method to perform minor adjustments to uncoated bars. Preheat the bar to between 1000 and 1200 °F, and then gently bend in a gradual arc. For bars partially embedded in concrete, ensure that the concrete is not damaged by heating the bars.

  5. Placing and Fastening. When placing, ensure that reinforcement steel is free of dirt, detrimental scale, paint, oil, or other foreign substances. Tie bars at all intersections except where spacing is less than 12 inches in each direction, in which case tie alternate intersections. Use stays, blocks, ties, hangers or chairs, to maintain the specified concrete cover. If using blocks, ensure that the blocks are precast concrete. Ensure that blocks are not used where they are exposed in a finished surface.

    When using galvanized reinforcement steel, ensure that all miscellaneous hardware that comes in contact with or is used to support, position, or fasten the reinforcement steel are also galvanized according to AASHTO M 232. When using epoxy-coated reinforcement steel, use only plastic-coated or epoxy-coated tie wires and ensure that all miscellaneous hardware used to support, position, or fasten the reinforcement are dielectric, plastic-coated, or epoxy-coated.

    If using welded wire reinforcement, overlap sheets at least 1 grid in width. Fasten overlaps securely at the ends and edges.

    Repair damage to epoxy-coating or galvanized coating as specified in 504.03.01.G. Do not place concrete before inspection and approval of the reinforcement steel.

  6. Splices. When splicing is not specified, submit a plan for splicing to the RE for approval. Include size, location, and splicing method.

    The Contractor may use mechanical coupling devices listed on the QPL. When using galvanized reinforcement steel, ensure that mechanical coupling devices are galvanized according to AASHTO M 232. When using epoxy-coated reinforcement steel, ensure that mechanical coupling devices are epoxy coated according to AASHTO M 284.

    When using mechanical connections, remove the coating from the ends of the reinforcement steel over the length of the sleeve and at least 2 inches from the ends of the sleeves, or more if recommended by the Supplier.

    Repair damage to epoxy-coating or galvanized coating as specified in 504.03.01.G.

  7. Field Repairing of Coatings. The RE will allow field repair when there are less than 6 damaged areas in any 10-foot length of bar. The RE will reject material with more than 6 damaged areas within a 10-feet span and any material with a damaged area more than 4 square inches in size. Repairable damage is any bare or loose spots, or breaks in the coating that affect an area smaller than 4 square inches. Ensure that grease, dirt, mortar, concrete, mill scale, injurious rust, or any other foreign substance is removed before repairing.

    1. Epoxy-Coating. Repair damage to epoxy-coating according to AASHTO M 317.

    2. Galvanized-Coating. Repair damage to the galvanized coating according to ASTM A 780.

  8. Protecting Exposed Reinforcement Steel. When non-coated embedded reinforcement steel is partially exposed at construction joints for more than 30 days, protect the exposed portion of the bar with a coat of neat cement mixed with water within 5 days of the initial concrete placement. Remove loose coating by lightly tapping within 5 days of the subsequent concrete placement.

504.03.02 Constructing Concrete

  1. Falsework. When forms and concrete require support, construct falsework on sills resting on foundations capable of carrying the loads without settlement. If falsework cannot be founded on solid footings, support with falsework piling.

    Construct the falsework to support the forms and the structure so that there is no deflection. Provide camber in the falsework and forms to allow the joints to tighten in the forms and supporting falsework.

    When constructing centering for arches, correct any deflection due to placing the concrete by jacking, as the concrete is being placed.

  2. Forms. Construct forms that are true to line and grade; that are mortar tight; and that provide a smooth, even concrete surface. Ensure that forms are rigid to prevent distortion. Prevent the opening of the joints or movement in any direction. Ensure that all bolts are countersunk on the face forming the concrete surface.

    Ensure that forms are free from rust, grease, and other foreign matter. Clean the top and face of forms, and oil the face before erecting. Ensure that the form oil does not discolor the concrete.

    Provide a system to monitor settlement or movement in the falsework and forms. Check the alignment and elevation of the forms and make corrections before placing the concrete. Reset or remove and replace forms that deviate from the specified line and grade.

    Provide a chamfer to form edges as shown. Ensure that all chamfer strips are straight, of uniform width, and dressed.

    Construct forms so that they can be removed without damaging the waterstops. Splice, weld, or solder metallic waterstops, as necessary, to form continuous, watertight joints. Install nonmetallic waterstops in continuous strips, without splices. The RE will allow splices at changes in direction when necessary. Splice nonmetallic waterstops according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. When splicing PVC waterstops, ensure that the heat used is sufficient to melt but not char the plastic. Secure waterstops to prevent movement during concrete placement.

    When epoxy-coated reinforcement steel is used, use epoxy-coated or galvanized metal ties. When metal ties and anchorages remain in the forms, remove to a depth of at least 1 inch from the face without damaging the concrete. Provide cones if using wire ties.

    The Contractor may use manufactured fiber tubes as column forms for round columns of concrete. Ensure that fiber tubes are rigid and circular in section. Store fiber tubes above ground on supports in a dry area. Ensure that fiber tubes are not exposed to moisture before use. When erecting column forms, hold forms in a vertical position to prevent distortion during concrete placement.

  3. Limitations of Placing. At least 30 days before placing concrete, submit to the RE for approval a plan for hot and cold weather concreting. Include the method that will be used to ensure that the temperature of the concrete is between 50 and 90 °F during mixing and placing.

    Do not place concrete when precipitation is imminent as determined by the RE. If it begins precipitating during concrete placement, the RE may direct the Contractor to suspend placement operations and protect the plastic concrete as specified in 504.03.02.I. If placement cannot be resumed within 30 minutes, the RE may direct the construction of a construction joint.

    If, during the concrete placement or within the 24 hours preceding the scheduled concrete placement, the National Weather Service locally forecasts the ambient temperature to be below 40 °F or above 75 °F during the scheduled concrete placement or curing period, follow the appropriate temperature condition procedure. Do not place concrete when the ambient temperature is below 20 °F or above 100 F.

    1. Cold Weather Concreting. The RE will prohibit the placement of concrete when the ambient temperature is below 40 °F, unless all surfaces in contact with the concrete placement are preheated to between 50 and 80 °F and access is provided for measuring the temperature of the in-place concrete. For access, establish a 1/2 inch diameter hole that is 6 inches deep at a 45 degree angle by placing a greased bolt through the forms prior to concrete placement.

      Use 1 or more of the following protective measures to maintain the concrete temperature:

      1. Insulated Forms. Before placing concrete, construct insulated forms to protect concrete. Ensure that the forms are free of ice, snow, and frost at time of placing concrete.

      2. Insulated Blankets. Use insulated blankets to protect concrete. Place the blankets on top of polyethylene sheeting within 30 minutes of placing concrete.

      3. Heating and Housing. Before placing concrete in the forms, provide housing for the section of concrete to be placed so that the temperatures specified can be maintained within the enclosure. Construct the enclosures to allow removal of forms and finishing of concrete surfaces without interruption of the heating.

        Maintain the heating system to provide uniform heating within the enclosure. Ensure that the heating system has been operating so that the temperature of form surfaces, reinforcement steel and abutting construction to be in contact with the concrete is between 50 and 80 °F before placing the concrete.

        Provide a sufficient number of back-up heaters at the Project Limits to maintain the temperature of the housing in the event of a breakdown of the primary heating system. In the event of a breakdown, operate the back-up heaters until the primary heating system is repaired.

      Maintain the protective measures for arches, culverts, deck slabs, and approaches for at least 7 days. For other concrete placements, maintain for at least 5 days. Ensure that the temperature of the concrete is maintained between 60 and 160 °F for 5 days after placement. The RE will check the temperature of the concrete in the established hole. If the temperature of the concrete falls below 60 °F within 5 days after placing, maintain the protective measures in place for an additional 5 days. If the temperature of the concrete rises above 160 °F, the RE may direct the forms to be loosened or protective measures to be removed. If the temperature of the concrete falls below 32 °F or rises above 180 °F within 5 days of placement, the RE will direct that the concrete be removed and replaced. After the concrete temperature has been maintained for 5 days at a minimum of 60 °F, ensure that the temperature of the concrete does not fall more than 10 °F in 12 hours.

    2. Hot Weather Concreting. When the ambient temperature reaches 75 °F, use the following procedures before and during concreting operations.

      1. Schedule work so that concrete can be placed continuously. If necessary, start concrete placement at night or early morning.
      2. Use a water-reducing admixture or a water-reducing and retarding admixture as specified in 903.02.02 and according to the manufacturer’s recommendation.
      3. Prevent absorption by sprinkling the underlying material and the wood forms just before concrete placement so that they do not absorb water from the mix.
      4. Begin curing within 5 minutes after finishing.

      If the temperature of the plastic concrete reaches 85 °F, take immediate steps to cool either the mixing water or the aggregates, or both, according to the plan of action. Do not place concrete when its temperature in the plastic state exceeds 90 °F at the time of placement.

  4. Placing and Consolidating Concrete. The Contractor may request 1 additional set of cylinders to be taken for determining strength for early form removal as specified in 504.03.02.G. If additional cylinders are requested, notify the RE at least 24 hours before placing.

    Appoint sufficient number of personnel, who are certified by the NJACI as Concrete Construction Technologists or by ACI as Concrete Transportation Construction Inspectors, to monitor daily operations for concrete placement. The certified personnel are responsible for ensuring proper dimensions of forms; position of reinforcement steel; proper handling, placement, consolidation, and finishing of concrete; and proper curing of the concrete.

    Ensure that all forms, joints, and reinforcement steel have been placed, inspected, and approved before placing concrete. Ensure that utilities, pipe, conduit, ducts and any other items to be encased in concrete are in place and secure before placing concrete. Secure or provide rigid bracing for items to be encased in concrete during concrete placement to prevent their displacement. Ensure that forms for weep holes through concrete are PVC or unreinforced concrete drain pipe.

    Do not place concrete until all laitance and loose, deleterious material on reinforcement bars and previously placed concrete has been removed. Clean forms of all debris immediately before placing concrete. Wet the surfaces not treated with oil, paraffin, or epoxy bonding compound.

    Do not place concrete that is below 60 °F or above 90 °F. Begin placing concrete at the lowest elevation and proceed upgrade. Place the concrete so that segregation does not occur and there is no displacement or movement of reinforcement and forms using 1 of the following methods:

    1. Chutes and Troughs and Other Conveyances. Do not dump or drop concrete from a distance greater than 5 feet, unless using closed chutes or pipes to confine concrete.

      Ensure that buggies, chutes, troughs, and pipes used for placing concrete are kept clean and free from coatings of hardened concrete.

    2. Pumped Concrete. At least 30 days before beginning operations, submit a plan to the RE according to ACI 304.2R. Include the method and procedures along with a list of adequate descriptions of equipment and manpower proposed for use, including contingency equipment and manpower. The RE will prohibit the use of aluminum alloy pipe as a conveyance for the concrete or for any pieces of equipment in contact with the concrete. For flatwork concrete, ensure that the pipeline is horizontal for at least 6 feet at the discharge end.

      If the concrete remaining in the pipeline is to be used, discharge the concrete in such a manner that there is no contamination or segregation.

      Take samples of the plastic concrete according to AASHTO T 141 from the discharge end of the pipeline. Immediately deliver the samples to the ME for testing. If the RE determines that this is not feasible, the ME will sample the concrete before and after pumping and will develop adjustment factors for slump and air content. The ME will use the adjustment factors to determine the acceptability of slump and air content.

    When using spreaders to separate forms, remove spreaders while placing the concrete. If the reinforcement steel or forms settle or move, cease placing concrete and immediately notify the RE. Place concrete uniformly to avoid rehandling. After initial placement of the concrete, do not jar forms or place strain on the ends of projecting reinforcement.

    Consolidate the concrete using internal mechanical vibrators. When required, supplement vibrating by hand spading to ensure proper and adequate consolidation. Provide at least 1 additional standby vibrating unit for individual concrete placements in excess of 10 cubic yards.

    Use vibrators to work the concrete around the reinforcement steel and embedded fixtures and into corners and angles of the forms. Ensure proper vibration of the concrete to avoid honeycombing and voids. Do not use vibrators to move or spread concrete into position. Do not over vibrate concrete.

    Float the external surface of concrete during placing to force coarse aggregate from the surface and to bring mortar against the forms to produce a smooth finish substantially free from water and air pockets or honeycombs. For sidewalks, driveways, and islands, apply surface texture using a broom before applying curing materials.

    After placing concrete for elevated structures, check and, if necessary, adjust forms and falsework to the specified position before the concrete has taken its initial set.

    When placing concrete for bearing areas, finish concrete to the specified elevation. If the elevation of the finished surface is higher than specified, bushhammer to the specified elevation. If the elevation of the finished surface is lower than specified, submit a plan to the RE for approval detailing the method to correct the deficiency.

    Monitor the internal temperature of the concrete 6 inches below the surface. If the temperature of the concrete exceeds 160 °F, the RE may direct the forms to be loosened or opened.

  5. Placing Mass Concrete. When mass concrete is shown on the Plans submit a thermal curing plan to the RE at least 30 days before placing concrete. At a minimum, include the following requirements in the plan:

    1. Concrete mix design, including pozzolanic materials to control concrete temperature.
    2. Adjustments to form removal and loading times for slower strength gains for high pozzolan mixes.
    3. An analysis of the anticipated thermal developments within placements using proposed materials and casting methods.
    4. A plan outlining specific measures to be taken to control the temperature differential within the limits.
    5. The proposed monitoring system.
    6. Outline of corrective actions to control the temperature differential and maximum internal temperature.
    7. Proposed methods of repairs or corrective actions if the mass concrete member is not accepted.

    Place concrete as specified in 504.03.02.D.

    When curing concrete, ensure that the temperature differential of the mass concrete does not exceed 35 °F between the internal and external temperature of concrete. Measure the internal temperature as close as possible to the center of the member, but not less than 12 inches from the surface. Measure the external temperature of the concrete at an exposed surface.

    Monitor the temperature differential and the maximum internal temperature with monitoring devices that continuously record temperature for 15 days. Provide the RE with a copy of each set of readings. Provide temperature-monitoring devices to record temperature between the interior and exterior of the member at points approved by the RE and monitor the mass placement to measure temperature differentials. Monitor the temperature until the interior temperature is within 35 °F of the lowest ambient temperature or a maximum of 15 days. Provide the RE with a copy of each set of readings as they are taken and a temperature chart for each mass placement member showing temperature readings versus time.

    If monitoring indicates that the proposed measures are not controlling the concrete temperature differential to within 35 °F and the maximum internal temperature of 160 °F, implement corrective actions according to the thermal curing plan to maintain the temperature differential.

  6. Applying Curing Materials. After float finishing and when marring of the concrete will not occur, apply curing materials within 30 minutes after finishing. The RE will suspend concrete operations if the curing procedure is delayed or is not followed. Cure the concrete using the following materials:

    1. Curing Compound. Apply 2 coats of curing compound, as provided by the manufacturer, each at a rate of 1 gallon per 200 square feet of surface in a continuous, uniform film with pressure spraying equipment. Do not apply curing compound to exposed construction joint areas. Apply the second coat between 15 and 30 minutes of applying the first coat. If the method of applying the curing compound produces a nonuniform film, discontinue application and correct the procedure. If the procedure cannot produce the required results, use another curing option.

      Protect the treated surface, as specified in 504.03.02.I, from damage for at least 72 hours. If precipitation falls on the newly coated concrete before the film has dried sufficiently to resist damage, or if the film is damaged in any other way, apply an additional coat of curing compound at the original specified rate.

      Do not apply curing compound to concrete surfaces that will receive a subsequent concrete placement. Remove curing compound from concrete surfaces that will receive a subsequent concrete placement.

    2. Wet Burlap and White Polyethylene Sheeting. Pre-soak burlap strips for at least 24 hours before placing. Cover the concrete with strips of wet burlap at least 4 feet longer than the width of the slab to cover the sides. Lay the strips across the slab and overlap at least 1/2 the width of the strip to provide a double thickness of burlap. Ensure that the burlap remains wet throughout the specified curing period. Ensure that the wet burlap does not add excess water to the concrete surface.

      Cover the wet burlap with white polyethylene sheeting. Overlap sections of polyethylene sheeting at least 18 inches. Place the white polyethylene sheeting and weigh down to ensure that it remains in contact with the surface. Where reinforcement steel protrudes, ensure that the white polyethylene sheeting is draped, and overlapped over the structure to protect any exposed areas. Extend white polyethylene sheeting 4 feet beyond the edges of the concrete. Replace or restore polyethylene sheeting that is damaged or disturbed.

    3. White Polyethylene Sheeting. Overlap sections of polyethylene sheeting at least 18 inches. Place the polyethylene sheeting and weigh down to ensure that it remains in contact with the surface. Where reinforcement steel protrudes, ensure that the polyethylene sheeting is draped and overlapped over the structure to protect any exposed areas. Extend the polyethylene sheeting 4 feet beyond the edges of the concrete. Replace or restore polyethylene sheeting that is damaged or disturbed.


    Maintain curing materials for arches and culverts for at least 7 days; for other concrete placements, maintain for at least 3 days. When using protective measures for cold weather concreting, as specified in 504.03.02.C.1 maintain the curing materials until the protective measures are removed.

  7. Removal of Forms and Falsework. The Department may require concrete strength tests as specified in the Special Provisions for removal of forms and falsework. Remove forms without damaging the surface. The Contractor may remove forms 24 hours after placing concrete, except for the following:

    1. Remove barrier curb and parapet forms as soon as the concrete holds its shape to facilitate finishing.
    2. When using concrete that contains more than 20 percent fly ash by weight of total cementitious material, maintain the forms for at least 3 days.
    3. The Contractor may remove forms for wing walls after 3 days if the concrete has attained a strength of 3000 pounds per square inch as determined from 2 concrete cylinders field cured according to AASHTO T 23. If concrete cylinders for wing walls are not tested, or do not meet a strength 3000 pounds per square inch when tested before 14 days, the Contractor may not remove forms until 14 days after the concrete has been placed.
    4. The Contractor may remove forms for battered columns or pier caps after 3 days if the concrete has attained a strength of 4000 pounds per square inch as determined from 2 concrete cylinders field cured according to AASHTO T 23. If concrete cylinders for battered columns or pier caps are not tested, or do not meet a strength 4000 pounds per square inch when tested before 14 days, the Contractor may not remove forms until 14 days after the concrete has been placed.
    5. The Contractor may remove forms for arches or culverts after 7 days if the concrete has attained a strength of 4000 pounds per square inch as determined from 2 concrete cylinders field cured according to AASHTO T 23. If concrete cylinders for arches or culverts are not tested, or do not meet a strength of 4000 pounds per square inch when tested before 14 days, the Contractor may not remove forms until 14 days after the concrete has been placed. Do not remove falsework and centering for spandrel-filled arches before the abutments have been placed up to the spring line.
    6. Do not remove falsework supporting the deck of rigid frame structures until the embankment has been placed behind the vertical legs.
    7. When using protective measures for cold weather concreting, as specified in 504.03.02.C.1, do not remove the forms until the protective measures are removed regardless of concrete cylinder strength.
    8. Do not remove the forms for decks for 14 days


    For elevated formwork, lower centering gradually to prevent damage to the structure. Remove falsework from continuous or cantilevered structures to ensure that the structure is gradually subjected to its working stress.

  8. Finishing Concrete Surface. Finish the surface of the concrete immediately after removing the forms. Apply a Class 1 finish to surfaces not exposed to view. Apply a Class 2 finish to all surfaces exposed to view.

    Do not begin finishing a surface until the entire face of the structure is completed to ensure a uniform texture and color. For barrier curb and parapet, apply a Class 2 finish within 48 hours of placing concrete. The classes of concrete finish are as follows:

    1. Class 1, Surface Finish. Remove projecting wire or metal devices that have been used for holding the forms in place. If the wire or metal device cannot be removed, cut the wire or metal device at least 1 inch below the surface of the concrete. Remove lips of mortar and irregularities caused by form joints. Ensure that all construction and expansion joints are tooled and free of mortar and concrete.

      Patch holes, depressions, voids, and honeycombs by chipping away coarse or broken material until a dense uniform surface of concrete exposing solid coarse aggregate is obtained. Cut away feathered edges to form faces perpendicular to the surface. Saturate the surfaces of the deficient area with water, then fill the deficient area with stiff mortar. Finish the surface of the mortar with a wooden float before initial set takes place.

      When patching large or deep areas as determined by the RE, patch the area using the same mix design concrete as the surrounding concrete. Chip away coarse or broken material until a dense uniform surface of concrete exposing solid coarse aggregate is obtained. Cut away feathered edges to form faces perpendicular to the surface. Saturate the surface of the area with water, then apply a layer of bonding compound to the area. Fill the area with the concrete. Finish the surface of the concrete with a wooden float before initial set takes place.

      The Department may reject a structure for having areas of excessive honeycombs as directed by the RE.

    2. Class 2, Rubbed Finish. After performing a Class 1 finish, rub surfaces with a wetted wooden block or a medium coarse carborundum stone, using a small amount of mortar on its face. Do not use the carborundum stone until the concrete has hardened to the state where the sand grinds rather than ravels or rolls. Continue rubbing until form marks, projections, and irregularities have been removed, voids are filled, and a uniform surface has been obtained. Leave the paste produced by this rubbing in place. After the entire surface of the structure has been rubbed and the paste has dried, obtain the final finish by rubbing with a fine carborundum stone and water until the entire surface is of a smooth texture and uniform color.

  9. Protecting Concrete Structures. Post warning tape around flatwork such as bridge decks, pavement, sidewalks, driveways, and islands during the curing period. Provide wet burlap or polyethylene sheeting to protect the edges and surface of the plastic concrete from precipitation.

    Do not drive piles within 200 feet of concrete that is being placed or has been placed within the previous 24 hours unless approved by the RE. Ensure that salt or brackish water does not come in contact with the concrete for a period of 28 days after being placed.

  10. Loading Concrete Structures. Do not allow anything other than the curing materials on concrete surfaces for 24 hours after placing the concrete. The Contractor may begin constructing forms for subsequent concrete placements after the forms from the underlying concrete can be removed as specified in 504.03.02.G. After the forms have been constructed and at least 3 days after the underlying concrete has been placed, the Contractor may perform subsequent concrete placements. The Contractor may begin storing materials, backfilling, or other loading on the concrete surface 3 days after the concrete has been placed if the forms can be removed as specified in 504.03.02.G.

504.03.03 Epoxy Waterproofing

Provide a copy of the manufacturer’s recommendations to the RE at least 5 days before applying epoxy waterproofing. Apply epoxy waterproofing to abutment and pier seats after applying the finish and at least 3 days after stripping the forms, and to the tops of slabs of culverts having less than 2 feet of fill and an HMA overlay directly over that slab. Do not apply epoxy waterproofing to riding surfaces.

Immediately before application, clean the surfaces of dirt, grease, form oil, or other foreign material that may have accumulated. Do not apply epoxy waterproofing unless the ambient temperature is between 40 and 85 °F at the time of application. Mix and apply the epoxy waterproofing according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. If necessary, bushhammer bearing surfaces to their proper elevations before applying the epoxy waterproofing. Apply 2 coats of epoxy waterproofing using a brush or roller. Allow the first coat to dry before applying the second coat. Ensure that the total thickness of the coatings is 10 mils.

While the second coat is still tacky, broadcast grit at uniform rate of 5 pounds per square yard over the top surfaces by hand, except on masonry plate bearing areas. After the epoxy waterproofing has set, brush off excess grit and dispose of as specified in 201.03.09.

Allow the epoxy waterproofing to completely dry before placing any material against the concrete member.

504.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  REINFORCEMENT STEEL POUND
  REINFORCEMENT STEEL, EPOXY-COATED POUND
  REINFORCEMENT STEEL, GALVANIZED POUND
  CONCRETE CULVERT CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE FOOTING CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE Wing WALL CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE Pier column Protection, HPC CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE ABUTMENT WALL CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE PIER COLUMN AND CAP CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE PIER SHAFT CUBIC YARD
  Concrete Pedestrian bridge CUBIC YARD
  EPOXY WATERPROOFING SQUARE YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-504-1, CD-504-2, CD-504-3, CD-504-4, CD-504-5

Section 505 – Precast and Prestressed Structural Concrete


505.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for manufacturing, furnishing, and erecting prestressed members, precast reinforced concrete culverts, and precast concrete arch structures.

505.02 Materials  back to top

505.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Coarse Aggregate (No. 57) 901.03
  Concrete 903.03
  Non-Shrink Grout 903.08.02.A
  Structural Precast Concrete 904.03
  Prestressed Concrete 904.04
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Dowels 905.01.05
  Post-Tensioning Reinforcement 905.02.03
  Bearing Pads 907.03
  Anchor Bolts 908.01.03
  Epoxy Waterproofing 912.02.02
  Preformed Joint Filler 914.01
  Subsurface Drainage Geotextile 919.01
  Water 919.08

Provide post-tensioning grout that complies with the requirements for Class B or C grout according to Section 10 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.

505.02.02 Equipment

Provide grouting equipment according to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.

For each tensioning jack, provide the RE with jack calibrations charts certified by a testing laboratory approved by the Department to show the relationship between the dial gauge and the force delivered. Ensure that jacks and the gauges are calibrated as a unit, and are recalibrated every 6 months.

505.03 Construction  back to top

505.03.01 Prestressed Concrete Structures

  1. Working Drawings. Submit working drawings for certification that include the class of concrete, the pattern and schedule for releasing strands before detensioning, detensioning concrete strength, and tensioning and detensioning patterns.

    If the design requires post-tensioning, include end blocks in the design. In the case of multiple span structures, if the design of beams of any 1 span requires end blocks, include end blocks for all spans of the fascia beams.

  2. Shipping and Storing. Notify the RE at least 5 days before shipping. Transport and store precast girders and slabs in an upright position, and ensure that the points of support and directions of the reactions with respect to the member are approximately the same during transportation and storage as when the member is in its final position. Obtain RE approval to transport or store precast units in a position other than upright. When shipping members that are pre-tensioned, ensure that no creep occurs.

  3. Erection Plan. Submit working drawings for certification regarding the plan of operations to the RE at least 30 days before the pre-erection meeting. Include, at a minimum, the following in the plan:

    1. Number and type of manpower and equipment.
    2. Shipping procedures.
    3. Lifting procedures.
    4. Erecting sequence.
    5. Temporary bracing.
    6. Manufacturer’s recommendations.
    7. Procedures for employee safety.
    8. Traffic control and protection.
    9. Method of post-tensioning and determining friction loss.
    10. Anchorage details and design calculations, signed and sealed by a Professional Engineer.

  4. Erecting. Notify the RE to schedule a pre-erection meeting at least 20 days before the start of erection. Before erecting prestressed concrete beams, follow the loading requirements for substructure members as specified in 504.03.02.J. Place the embankment backfill behind the abutment walls to at least 50 percent of their height before erection, unless otherwise approved.

    Set bearing pads according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. Set structural bearing assemblies or reinforced elastomeric bearing assemblies as specified in 506.03.02.C.

    Anchor prestressed concrete voided slabs and box beams to abutments and piers using dowels as anchors.

  5. Post-Tensioning of Prestressed Slabs and Box Beams. Do not splice strands unless approved by the RE. Install post-tensioning reinforcement through preformed ducts before grouting the longitudinal keyways. Tension the rods and strands to the value shown on the Plans. Continuously monitor the tension being applied during the tensioning process.

    After tensioning the post-tensioning reinforcement, remove the exposed ends at the fascia members so that no part of the post-tensioning reinforcement or end fittings extend beyond a point 1 inch inside the exterior face of the prestressed concrete member. Do not flame-cut the post-tensioning reinforcement. Permanently protect exposed strand or rod ends at end fittings from corrosion using a method approved by the RE. Fill the recessed pockets at the fascia with mortar matching the concrete surface.

  6. Grouting.

    1. Concrete Beams. Grout according to Section 10 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.

    2. Concrete Box Beams and Concrete Slab Beams. Sandblast the keyway surface clean to ensure bonding before erection. The Contractor may sandblast at the fabrication plant if shown on the certified working drawings. The Contractor may substitute waterblasting for sandblasting.

      Immediately before grouting, clean the keyway by waterblasting. Ensure that the water does not puddle. After cleaning, seal the keyway with closed cell foam backer rod at least 1/4 inch below the keyway bottom. Seal the ends of the keyway to prevent grout loss. Do not grout the keyway before the RE’s inspection and approval.

      Mix and place non-shrink grout according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Begin the grouting operation at 1 end of the keyway and proceed continuously to the opposite end without interruption. Fill only 1 keyway with grout at a time. Consolidate the grout as it is placed in the keyway, and finish the grout flush with the top of the keyway.

      Ensure that the ambient temperature is between 40 and 85 °F when placing grout. When the ambient temperature is expected to fall below 40 °F, provide measures to maintain the concrete surface temperature between 40 and 85 °F. Provide curing blankets and place over the grout no later than 1 hour after the grout placement. Keep the curing blankets on the grouted keyways for at least 48 hours.

      Allow the grout in the keyways to cure at least 72 hours before allowing traffic or equipment on the bridge.

505.03.02 Precast Concrete Culverts

  1. Working Drawings. Submit working drawings for approval that show plan, elevation, and sections as well as details for all appurtenances such as headwalls, cutoff walls, wingwalls, and aprons. In addition, include details of the neoprene gasket between the precast concrete culvert units as well as all threaded inserts, bar extensions, waterproofing, and end anchorage details for the post-tensioning reinforcement. Provide erection details including handling points, neoprene gasket details, the method for pulling the culvert boxes together, section lengths, and the method of installing the units.

  2. Shipping and Storing. Notify the RE at least 5 days before shipping. Ship and store precast units according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

  3. Erection Plan. Submit a plan of operations as specified in 505.03.01.C.

  4. Erecting. Notify the RE to schedule a pre-erection meeting at least 20 days before the start of erection. Construct a minimum 2-foot thick, coarse aggregate layer that extends 12 inches past each side of the precast culvert. Compact the coarse aggregate layer using the directed method as specified in 203.03.02.C.

    Tie the precast units together with a minimum of 4 longitudinal rods or strands to ensure an adequate seal and to provide continuity and concrete shear transfer between the precast units. Provide a flexible, watertight, neoprene gasket according to ASTM D 1056 at the joint between the precast units. Ensure that the gasket is continuous around the circumference of the joint and has only 1 splice.

    Before backfilling, place a 2-foot wide strip of subsurface drainage geotextile over the top and side transverse joints. If precast concrete culvert units are used in parallel for multicell installations, fill the space between the units with non-shrink grout or Class A concrete.

  5. Post-Tensioning. Place a longitudinal rod or strand through a preformed hole located in each corner of the units and stressed to a tension of 30,000 pounds each. After tensioning, cut the exposed end of the post-tensioning reinforcement to 1 inch below the surface of the anchorage pocket. Do not flame cut the post-tensioning reinforcement. Galvanize all hardware associated with the end anchorage system. Apply 2 coats of bituminous paint to the exposed parts of the end fittings.

  6. Grouting. Fill hand hole pockets, post-tensioning reinforcement sleeves, and lifting lugs with non-shrink grout after the joints are sealed and the post-tensioning reinforcement are tensioned. Apply 1 coat of an epoxy waterproofing to all top slab hand hole pockets or lifting holes that are grouted in the field after the grout has properly cured.

  7. Backfilling. Backfill and compact around the culvert as specified in 203.03.

505.03.03 Precast Concrete Arch Structures

  1. Working Drawings. Submit working drawings for approval that include the following:

    1. Concrete compressive strength value.
    2. When the earth cover over the precast concrete arch unit is less than 24 inches, provide corrosion protected reinforcement in the outside mat of reinforcement.
    3. Plan, elevation, and sections as well as details for all appurtenances, such as headwalls, cutoff walls, wingwalls, and aprons.
    4. Details of the neoprene gasket between the precast concrete arch units as well as all threaded inserts, bar extensions, waterproofing, backfilling and loading requirements, and end anchorage details for the post-tensioning reinforcement.
    5. Profiles and dimensions of all precast concrete arch structures, lifting loads of all components, and reinforcement steel layout.
    6. Erection details of the joint seal between the precast concrete arch structures, joint seal details, section lengths, and the method of installing the units.

  2. Shipping and Storing. Notify the RE at least 5 days before shipping the precast concrete arch units. Ship precast units according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Store the precast concrete arch units according to the manufacturer’s requirements. To prevent cracking of the structures, support the precast concrete arch units with timber members.

  3. Erection Plan. Submit a plan of operations as specified in 505.03.01.C.

  4. Erecting. Notify the RE to schedule a pre-erection meeting at least 20 days before the start of erection. Construct footings using Class B concrete. Ensure that the surface of the footing does not vary more than 1/4 inch in 10 feet. Provide a float finish to the footing. Ensure that the concrete reaches a compressive strength of 3000 pounds per square inch, as determined from test cylinders cast during placing of the concrete, before installing the precast concrete arch structure.

    Install precast concrete arch units on footings according to the manufacturer’s erection instructions. Connect the foundations for the precast concrete arch units and other appurtenances with reinforcement or suitable mechanical connections to form one monolithic body.

    Fill the footing keyway and lifting points with non-shrink grout.

  5. Joints. Seal and cover the butt joint made by 2 adjoining precast concrete arch units, the joint between the end unit and the headwall, and the joint between the end unit and wingwall according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Ensure that the joint surface is clean before the sealing operations. Cover the joint continuously from the bottom of a precast concrete arch unit section leg across the top of the arch and to the opposite arch unit section leg. Ensure that all laps that result in the joint wrap are a minimum of 6 inches long with the overlap running downhill.

  6. Backfilling. After the RE has approved the precast arch structure, place I-9 soil aggregate in 8-inch lifts or less. When placing backfill, ensure that the difference between the heights of the backfill on the opposite sides of the arch structure does not exceed 12 inches.

    Use mechanical tampers to compact the backfill adjacent to each side of the arch units and over the top of the arch units until they are covered to a minimum depth of 12 inches. Do not operate heavy equipment (weighing in excess of 12 tons) over the structure until a depth of backfill has been placed that will support the equipment.

505.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  PRETENSIONED PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM, ___" LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BOX BEAM, (TYPE ___), ___" BY ___ "  LINEAR FOOT
  PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLAB BEAM, (TYPE ___), ___" BY ___ " LINEAR FOOT
  Precast CONCRETE CULVERT LINEAR FOOT
  PRECAST CONCRETE ARCH STRUCTURE LINEAR FOOT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will make payment for structural bearing assemblies as STRUCTURAL BEARING ASSEMBLY as specified in 506.04. The Department will make payment for reinforced elastomeric bearing assemblies as Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Assembly as specified in 506.04.

Section 506 – Structural Steel

506.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for furnishing and erecting bridges, structures, structural bearings and reinforced elastomeric bearings and associated elements that include use of structural steel and miscellaneous metals.

506.02 Materials  back to top


Provide materials as specified:
  Grout 903.08.02
  Structural Steel 906.01
  Structural Steel Fabrication 906.04
  Structural Bearing Assemblies 907.01
  Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Assemblies 907.02
  Bearing Pads 907.03
  Bolts and Bolting Materials 908.01
  Anchor Bolts 908.01.03
  Direct Tension Indicators (DTI) 908.03
  Organic Zinc Coating System 912.01.01
  Epoxy Mastic Coating System 912.01.01

506.03 Construction  back to top

506.03.01 Structural Steel

  1. Working Drawings. Submit working drawings for approval.

  2. Erection Plan. At least 30 days before the pre-erection meeting, submit working drawings for certification regarding the plan of operations to the RE. Include, at a minimum, the following in the plan:


    1. Number and type of manpower and equipment.
    2. Shipping procedures.
    3. Lifting procedures.
    4. Beam erecting sequence, including method of setting bearings and diaphragms.
    5. Temporary bracing.
    6. Manufacturer’s recommendations.
    7. Procedures for employee safety.
    8. Traffic control and protection.


  3. Shipping and Handling. At least 5 days before shipping the steel, submit to the RE for approval all shipping and storage details. Ensure that structural steel is handled and shipped as specified in 906.04.04. Ensure that the steel is protected from the binding chains during shipping using softeners approved by the ME. Use padded hooks and slings to hoist steel. Space diaphragms and similar pieces to ensure that the coatings are not damaged by rubbing during shipment. Do not store steel on the ground. Ensure that members do not fall or rest on each other.

  4. Erecting. Ensure that stringers and built-up girders involving field splices are completely preassembled in the shop, with account taken to their relative position in the finished structure as to grade, camber, and curvature. The Contractor may erect the built-up stringer or girder as a unit, as allowed by traffic conditions.

    Obtain Department approval before welding to members or parts of members subject to tension or reversal of stress. If necessary to weld in these areas, ensure that the actual stress range at the point of attachment does not exceed the value for Category F according to the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification. If field welded splices are made, inspect splices using nondestructive tests at the site of erection.

    Unless otherwise approved, construct embankments in back of the abutment walls to at least 50 percent of their height, before placing structural steel.

    Erect structural steel according to Section 11 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Ensure that temporary attachments or supports for scaffolding or forms do not damage the coating system of the steel. Use sufficient support pads for fascia bracing.

    Provide lateral support when hoisting members into position so as to prevent lateral buckling or other damage. Ensure that bolt heads of high-strength bolts are on the outside of fascia stringers.

  5. Installing High-Strength Steel Bolts. Check galvanized bolts and nuts to verify that a visible lubricant is on the threads. Check black bolts and nuts to verify that they are oily to the touch.

    Before beginning bolt installation, provide on the project site a Skidmore-Wilhelm calibrator or an acceptable equivalent tension measuring device. Ensure that the manufacturer’s representative is present during the first full day of tensioning work to provide technical assistance.

    Test assemblies as follows:

    1. For bolt assemblies that do not require Direct Tension Indicators (DTI’s), perform the rotational capacity test in accordance with 909.02.02.C, on 2 assemblies from each rotational-capacity lot.
    2. For bolt assemblies requiring DTI’s, install in accordance with the following, and perform the rotational-capacity test as specified in NJDOT S-3 on 3 assemblies from each rotational-capacity lot.
  6. Ensure that the bolt, nut, and washer are from the same rotational-capacity lot.  If the DTI is used under the nut, place an additional washer between the nut and the protrusions on the DTI.  If recommended by the bolt manufacturer, the Contractor may use wax lubricant, beeswax, or a water wax emulsion to aid in installation.  Hold the bolt head stationary while tightening the nut.

    Install bolts in all of the holes of the connection and tighten to a snug-tight condition to compact the joint.  Ensure that the number of spaces on DTIs in which a 0.005-inch feeler gauge is refused after snugging does not exceed the maximum snug-tight refusals as specified in Table 506.03.01-1.  If the number of refusals exceeds the maximum, remove the assembly, insert a new DTI, and resnug.

    Tighten the assemblies successively from the most rigid part of the connection to the free edges by turning the nuts while holding the bolts stationary.  Tension the assemblies until the number of spaces in which the 0.005-inch thickness gauge is refused meets or exceeds the minimum final tension refusals specified in Table 506.03.01-1.

    Table 506.03.01-1 Criteria for DTI Spaces for A 325 Bolts
    Bolt Diameter, Inches 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2
    Number of Spaces on DTIs 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8
    Maximum Snug Tight Refusals1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3
    Minimum Final Tension Refusals2 2 2 3 3 3 3 5 6 7
    1
    If the DTI is coated and under the nut, the maximum snug tight refusals is the number of spaces on the DTI minus one.
    2
    If the DTI is coated and under the nut, the minimum final tension refusals is the number of spaces on the DTI.

    If an assembly is tightened so that there are no visible gaps remaining in any of the spaces on the DTI, the assembly has been over-tightened.  Remove and replace over-tightened assemblies.

    If assemblies do not meet the above rotational capacity requirements when tested at the work site, the Contractor may clean and relubricate the bolt assemblies in the rotational-capacity lot.  After cleaning and relubricating, retest the assemblies for compliance to the above rotational capacity requirements.

    For painted steel, apply 3 coats of an organic paint system, supplied by the same manufacturer as the originally applied inorganic zinc system, to the field bolted connections.

  7. Repairing Damaged Coating.  Repair damaged coatings as directed by the RE.  Use an organic zinc coating system for the paint repair, supplied by the same manufacturer as the originally applied inorganic zinc system.  If the originally applied coating system is not available, the ME will designate an alternate system.

 

506.03.02 Bearings

  1. Working Drawings. Submit for approval working drawings that include the following:

    1. The total quantity of each kind of bearing required (fixed, guided-expansion, or non-guided expansion), grouped first according to type (load range) and then by actual design capacity.
    2. Plan view and section elevation including all relative dimensions.
    3. Details of components and sections showing all materials incorporated into the bearing.
    4. All ASTM, AASHTO, and other material designations.
    5. Any required revisions or additions to concrete members, reinforcement steel, or other facilities.
    6. Details of the connections of the isolator load plates to the mounting plates.
    7. Vertical, horizontal, rotation, movement, and load capacity.
    8. A schedule of all bearing offsets.
    9. Alignment plans.
    10. Paint or coating requirements.
    11. Installation scheme.
    12. Anchorage details.
    13. Bearing pre-set details.

  2. Shipping and Storing. Ensure that bearings are handled and shipped as specified in 907.01.03. Store bearing devices and components in an area at the work site that provides protection from environmental and physical damage.

    Inspect bearings within 1 week after the bearings arrive on the Project. Following the inspection, re-wrap the bearings and keep the bearings clean until installation. Do not dismantle bearings at the work site unless necessary for inspection or installation. If it is necessary to open or dismantle bearings at the work site, obtain RE approval and do so under the direct supervision of the manufacturer.

    When installing, ensure that the bearings are clean and free of all foreign substances.

  3. Installing Bearings. Install bearings as follows:

    1. Anchor Bolts. Provide anchor bolts in abutments and piers for bearings that are either cast-in-place, cast in 3-inch diameter corrugated sleeves, or cast in holes drilled after the concrete has set; however, the RE will prohibit drilling in rigid frame and T-type piers. If using anchor bolt sleeves, ensure that they are circumferentially corrugated and are galvanized steel or plastic. Ensure that the wall thickness of the sleeves is sufficient to withstand the construction loads applied to them. If drilling holes to cast bolts in, core drill the holes at least 1 inch larger in diameter than the diameter of the bolts. Ensure that the reinforcement steel is not damaged during core drilling.

      Prevent the collection and freezing of water in holes during the time between when the anchor bolts are set and when the bearings are placed. Fill holes with an environmentally safe antifreeze, seal the top with a watertight cap, and coat with a rubber-asphalt joint sealer. Before setting the bearing, remove the environmentally safe antifreeze and other foreign material from the holes. Set the bolts by filling the holes with non-shrink grout.

    2. Bridge Seat Bearing Areas. Do not place bearing plates on bridge seat bearing areas that are irregular or improperly finished or deformed. Ensure that the epoxy waterproofing has been applied and is cured before placing bearings. Immediately before placing the bedding material and installing bearings or masonry plates, clean the contact surfaces of the concrete and steel.

      Ensure that all bearing plates are set level in position and have full contact. When setting bearing plates on masonry, pad the plates using an elastomeric bearing pad.

    3. Setting Bearings. Allow for the effect of stress deformation and temperature changes when setting bearings. Use swedged or threaded anchor bolts to ensure a secure grip upon the material used to embed them in the holes.

      When using seismic isolation bearings, install the isolators level and perpendicular to the gravity load. Accommodate superstructure gradients with beveled sole plates. Ensure that there are no obstructions, including bolt extensions that prevent the isolators from deforming horizontally in any direction. Clean the area around each isolator of all debris and construction materials at the completion of the Contract. Connect the isolators to the superstructure and substructures by bolting. Do not weld steel in contact with an isolator.

506.03.03 Shear Connectors

Ensure that shear connectors conform to Section 7 of the ANSI/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code.

Install using automatically timed stud welding equipment shear connectors in the field only after the structural steel is erected, after the deck forms are installed, and before the reinforcement steel is placed.

506.03.04 Steel Pedestrian Bridges

Submit an erection plan, as specified in 506.03.01.B, at least 20 days before erecting the steel pedestrian bridge. Apply intermediate and finish coats of paint to the units either in the shop or on the work site before erection. Repair painted areas that are damaged during transportation or erection as specified in 506.03.01.F.

506.03.05 Steel Grid Flooring

At least 45 days before beginning the work, submit working drawings for approval.

Construct steel grid flooring according to Section 12 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications. Place concrete for filled type grid flooring as specified in 504.03.02.D.

506.03.06 Repair Galvanizing

Where limited areas of galvanized surfaces are damaged during shipping or erection, repair the areas using any of the 3 methods in ASTM A 780. Ensure that the repair achieves the minimum coating thickness specified for the item.

Paint galvanized surfaces only when directed by the RE. If painting is directed, treat the galvanized surface according to the manufacturer’s recommendations, then apply the epoxy intermediate and urethane finish coats only.

506.04 Measurement and Payment   back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  STRUCTURAL STEEL LUMP SUM
  Reinforced Elastomeric Bearing Assembly UNIT
  STRUCTURAL BEARING ASSEMBLY UNIT
  SHEAR CONNECTOR UNIT
  STEEL PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE LUMP SUM
  STEEL GRID FLOORING SQUARE FOOT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

Section 507 – Concrete Bridge Deck and Approaches

507.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing concrete bridge decks, parapets, deck joint systems, and approaches.

507.02 Materials  back to top

507.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  HPC 903.05
  Non-Shrink Grout 903.08.02.A
  Epoxy Grout 903.08.02.B
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  4-Bar Open Steel Parapet 906.07
  Bearing Pads 907.03
  Preformed Joint Filler 914.01
  Preformed Elastomeric Joint Assemblies 914.04.01
  Strip Seal Expansion Joint Assemblies 914.04.02
  Modular Expansion Joint Assemblies 914.04.03

507.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Sealer Application System 1003.08
  Pavement Forms 1005.01
  Spreading and Finishing Machine for Concrete Bridge Decks 1005.03
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Slip-Form (Extrusion) Machine 1005.06
  Straightedge 1008.02
  Pavement Saw 1008.04
  Hot-Air Lance 1008.06
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

507.03 Construction  back to top

507.03.01 Joint Assemblies

  1. Working Drawings. Submit working drawings for certification for strip seal expansion joint assemblies, preformed elastomeric joint assemblies, and modular expansion joint systems. As a minimum, indicate the following information on the working drawings:

    1. Plan, elevation, and section of the joint system for all movement ratings and roadway width limitations, as well as relative dimensions and tolerances.
    2. All ASTM, AASHTO, or other material designations.
    3. Method of installation including sequence of installation, relative temperature settings, setting anchorage, and installation at curb lines.
    4. Corrosion protection system or material.
    5. Details of temporary supports for shipping and handling. Include lifting mechanisms and locations.
    6. Design calculations for all structural elements. As warranted, include fatigue design calculations and strength design calculations. Indicate locations of all welded splices.
    7. Design the joint system as 1 continuous unit without field splices. If due to shipping or construction requirements, splices are necessary indicate that the locations of the splices are to be in areas outside the main traffic lanes. Provide field splicing procedures.
    8. Ensure that the removal and reinstallation of the strip seal can be accomplished from above the joint without full closure of the roadway.
    9. Ensure that the expansion joint assembly seals do not protrude above the top of the joint. Use preformed neoprene strip seals that are mechanically held in place.

    In addition, for modular expansion joint systems, incorporate the following design criteria:

    1. Design the expansion joint system to accommodate all expected longitudinal movements as well as vertical and horizontal rotations. Incorporate strip seal glands with a maximum movement range of 3.15 inches per seal. Support each separation beam with an independent support bar that is welded to the separation beam. Suspend the support bars over the joint opening by sliding elastomeric bearings. Incorporate an equidistant control system that develops its maximum compressive force when the joint is at its maximum opening. Do not use bolted connections between the separator beams and support bars.
    2. Design the splices to consist of a bolted separator beam splice.
    3. Design and fatigue test the transverse separation beams, support bars, and other structural elements according to NCHRP Report 402 Fatigue Design of Modular Bridge Expansion Joints and Chapter 14 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification.
    4. Design the elastomeric springs and bearings to be removable and replaceable.

  2. Installation. Ensure that expansion joint systems are self-supported and continuous across the full width of the deck and continue into traffic barriers and curbing. Provide to the RE a copy of the manufacturer’s recommendations for the joint system’s installation. Provide a joint installation temperature chart on the working drawings ranging from −10 to 110 °F. Install one of the following joint systems according to the manufacturer’s recommendations:

    1. Strip Seal Expansion Joint Assemblies. Strip seal expansion joint assemblies include molded neoprene rubber gland, parallel steel rail sections, and all hardware necessary to form a mechanical connection between the metal components and the bridge deck.

      For strip seal expansion joint assemblies, place closed-cell foam backer rod in the seal cavity of the steel retainer rails before placing the deck slab concrete. Ensure that the backer rod remains in place until the rubber gland seal is installed. Do not field splice molded neoprene rubber glands or preformed elastomeric compression seal. Repair galvanized coating that is damaged before or during installation.

    2. Preformed Elastomeric Joint Assemblies. Preformed elastomeric joint assemblies include preformed elastomeric compression seal, parallel steel rail sections, and all hardware necessary to form a mechanical connection between the metal components and the bridge deck.

    3. Modular Expansion Joint Assemblies. Modular expansion joint assemblies include preformed neoprene strip seals that are held in place by steel edge and separation beams, a support bar to support the separation beam, and sliding elastomeric bearings. These assemblies contain no bolted connections.

      Take precautions to protect the joint system from damage after installation. Provide a bridge, or a method to protect the joint system from construction vehicle damage to the satisfaction of the RE.

      When installing the joints, ensure that they are in the correct position during the concrete placement. Ensure that the installed joint system matches the roadway profile and finished grades. Adjust the opening at expansion joints to correspond with the installation temperature chart.

507.03.02 Constructing Bridge Decks

  1. Forms. Construct forms as follows:
    1. Stay-In-Place (SIP) Forms. Submit working drawings for certification that include the following:
      1. Deck reinforcement location.
      2. Grade of steel.
      3. Galvanizing specification.
      4. Physical and section properties for all permanent steel bridge deck form sheets.
      5. Locations where the forms are supported by steel flanges subject to tensile stresses.

      Provide form cut and fill grade sheets. Weld form supports to the flange of stringer or floor beam, except in the areas where flanges are subjected to tensile stress. Ensure that SIP forms do not rest directly on the top of the stringer or floor beam flanges. Fasten SIP forms to form supports and ensure that a minimum bearing length of 1 inch at each end is achieved. Do not flame-cut SIP forms. Cut vertical legs for form supports at or below the bottom of the deck slab to maintain the required concrete cover for reinforcement steel at all locations.

      Do not use SIP forms where longitudinal deck construction joints are located between stringers or outside of the fascia stringers.

      Weld SIP forms according to ANSI/AWS D1.5 Bridge Welding Code pertaining to fillet welds. The Contractor may use a 1/8-inch fillet weld. Do not weld flanges in tension or structural steel bridge members fabricated from non-weldable grades of steel.

      Repair permanently exposed form metal whose galvanized coating has been damaged as specified in 506.03.01.F.

    2. Removable Forms. Construct removable forms as specified in 504.03.02.B. Do not use shoring to support stringers along the span length where the superstructure, under live load and impact loads, is designed for composite action. Do not weld attachments required for placement of the removable forms to the beam.

  2. Deck Placement Plan. At least 15 days before the start of placing bridge deck concrete, submit to the RE for approval a plan of operation that includes the following:

    1. SIP form cut and fill grade sheets.
    2. A screed and rail erection plan.
    3. Deck grades.
    4. Sequence and rate of placing concrete.
    5. Number and type of personnel performing the work.
    6. Number, type, and model of equipment to be used in handling, placing, and finishing the concrete including the weight of the finishing machine.
    7. Request for a change in the number, location, or configuration of construction.
    8. Method of maintaining the evaporation rate below 0.15 pounds per square foot per hour.
    9. Type of fog misting equipment if used.

  3. Meeting. Within 10 days before the start of deck placement, conduct a meeting with the RE, the ME, and the concrete supplier to discuss the plan of operation and to coordinate the deck placement.

  4. Installing Joint Assemblies. Ensure that joint assemblies are installed as specified in 507.03.01.B.

  5. Installing Reinforcement Steel. Ensure that reinforcement steel is installed as specified in 504.03.01.

  6. Limitations of Placing Concrete. Comply with the limitations of placing specified in 504.03.02.C, except do not place concrete when the ambient temperature is above 85 °F. If within the 12 hours before the concrete placement the National Weather Service locally forecasts a 40 percent chance or greater of precipitation during the scheduled concrete placement, postpone the placement of bridge decks and pavement.

    Do not place concrete when the atmospheric evaporation rate is greater than 0.15 pounds per square foot per hour. The Contractor may use fog misting, wind shields, or other methods approved by the RE to keep the evaporation rate below 0.15 pounds per square foot per hour. If using fog misting, ensure that the fog misting equipment is capable of delivering 2 to 3 gallons of water per minute at 2000 to 2500 pounds per square inch using a 40-degree to 50-degree wide-angle nozzle. Position the fog nozzle 6 feet above the concrete surface. Do not use fog misting to apply water for finishing purposes. Immediately cease fog misting if water accumulates on the surface.

    The ME will measure air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed at the location of the deck placement. The ME will measure concrete temperatures from the sample used for slump and air content tests. The ME will perform measurements and calculations at least once every 2 hours beginning 1 hour before concrete placement.

  7. Performing the Dry Run. Perform a dry run with the finishing machine over the full length of the bridge segment. Ensure that the screed rail supports are spaced no more than 3 feet apart. Adjust the screed to its finishing position before performing the dry run. During the dry run, check the height and deflection of screed rails, the cover for reinforcement steel, and forms. Make necessary corrections before notifying the RE for inspection.

    If the supports for the rails are located in the deck concrete, ensure that the supports can be removed without disturbing the concrete, or partially removed so that no part remains less than 2-1/2 inches below the finished concrete surface.

    The RE will not inspect the dry run until it is evident that the placement and finishing operation can be completed within the scheduled time, that any required weather protective materials are in place, and that all necessary finishing tools and equipment are on hand at the work site.

    The RE will check to ensure that elevations are within ±1/4 inch of the specified elevations. The RE will check elevations longitudinally every 10 feet and transversely at the edges of breaklines, joint assemblies, gutter grades, and the center of each lane and shoulder. The RE may direct placement of additional grade stakes in areas with rapid changes in grade so that intermediate longitudinal checks can be made.

    Once the RE has approved the dry run, do not make adjustments to the operation without RE approval.

  8. Placing Deck Concrete. Provide work bridges or other RE approved means of access to the surface of the deck for the purpose of finishing, straightedging, making corrections, and for other operations requiring access to the surface of the deck after the passing of the screed. Before placing deck concrete, construct bulkheads in the shape of the required deck cross-section.

    When multiple concrete placements are required within a deck structure, follow the numbered sequence shown on the Plans, beginning with the lowest number. The Contractor may submit a written request to the RE for approval to have this requirement waived if the succeeding sections can be completed within 4 hours after the start of the initial section placement. The RE will not allow these requirements to be waived for deck slabs on prestressed concrete beams that are continuous for live load.

    Do not place a deck section until the previously placed concrete within the unit has cured for 72 hours.

    Coordinate concrete placement and initial strike-off by a transverse finishing machine so that initial strike-off is between 6 and 8 feet behind the concrete placement.

    Deliver, place, and consolidate the concrete, as specified in 504.03.02.D, at a uniform rate in a continuous operation. Ensure that stoppages of concrete placement do not exceed 30 minutes. If there is a stoppage of more than 30 minutes, the RE may direct the deck segment be removed and replaced. When placing concrete, maintain a minimum rate of 30 cubic yards per hour for deck slabs of 180 cubic yards or less. Maintain a minimum rate of 40 cubic yards per hour for deck slabs of more than 180 cubic yards of concrete.

    Make as few passes of the machine as are necessary to obtain a smooth, dense surface of the required contour. Maintain a small uniform quantity of concrete ahead of the screed on each pass. Ensure that the quantity of concrete carried ahead of the screed is not great enough to cause slipping or lifting of the finishing machine on the rails at any time.

    If improper adjustment or operation of the finishing machine results in unsatisfactory consolidation, reinforcement cover, or surface requirement, immediately correct the unsatisfactory condition.

    If the supports for the rails are located in the deck concrete, remove them before initial set has taken. Fill the resulting holes with deck concrete. If the concrete has hardened, fill the holes with non-shrink grout.

    Ensure that all deck concrete is placed before placing sidewalks, curb, and parapet.

  9. Deck Slab Surface Texture Finish. Texture concrete bridge deck slabs using a broom or burlap drag immediately after final strike-off. When using burlap drag, attach a single, full width strip to the finishing machine. Texture the concrete deck slab in a transverse direction. Clean the broom or burlap as necessary to provide a uniform texture. Provide a smooth finish within 1 foot of curbs and drainage structures. Provide a final finish on sidewalks and top of curbs with a fine-bristle broom.

  10. Curing. Within 30 minutes of texturing, apply wet burlap and white polyethylene sheeting as specified in 504.03.02.F, and maintain for at least 14 days. Ensure that the water used for curing does not leave the bridge deck. Do not allow anything on the deck during the 14-day curing period except for personnel necessary to maintain curing materials and protective measures. Post warning tape around flatwork during the curing period.

  11. Underdeck Inspection. If the RE determines that underdeck inspection is warranted, the RE will direct the removal of at least 1 SIP panel for each span at the location and time selected. As soon as the form is removed, the RE will inspect the concrete surfaces for cavities, honeycombing, and other defects. If the RE finds irregularities that do not justify rejection of the work, submit a plan to the RE for approval to repair the irregularities. Give the concrete a Class 2 finish as specified in 504.03.02.H.2. If the RE determines that the concrete where the form is removed is unsatisfactory, remove additional forms for inspection. Remove or repair unsatisfactory concrete. If the inspection shows excessive irregularities in the slab, modify the placement plan before placing additional slabs.

    Repair the adjacent metal forms and supports to present a neat appearance, and ensure they are securely fastened.

  12. Saw Cut Grooved Surfacing. Saw cut the deck no earlier than 15 days after placing the concrete. Saw cut before opening to traffic. Do not saw cut until after the Department performs Acceptance Testing as specified in Subsection 507.03.02.N.

    Provide 2 approved gauges to the RE to verify groove depth before sawcutting. Include the manufacturer’s recommendations for use with the gauges.

    Cut grooves using multi-bladed sawcutting equipment fitted with diamond-tipped circular saw blades. The RE will allow the use of single blade saw equipment where necessary to complete the work, as required.

    Cut grooves perpendicular or radial to the centerline of the traveled way. Radially groove in partial-width passes. Limit each pass to 1 lane width. Ensure that grooves are between 0.10 and 0.15 inches wide and 1/4 and 3/8 inches deep. Space the blades to achieve the distance specified in Table 507.03.02-1 between the centerlines of each groove to form a random pattern.

    Table 507.03.02-1 Groove Spacing
    3/4" 1-1/4" 5/8" 1" 5/8" 1-1/4" 3/4"

    Perform consecutive passes within 2 inches of the previous pass. Do not cut grooves over an area that has been already grooved, or introduce a cutting blade into a groove that has been already established.

    During grooving operations, the RE will randomly check the groove dimensions. If the minimum groove depth has not been achieved, stop grooving operations and make the necessary adjustments.

    Ensure that slurry or debris from the grooving operations does not accumulate in the grooves. Continuously collect slurry and dispose of as specified in 201.03.09. Ensure that the slurry does not enter the structure or highway drainage system.

  13. Loading the Deck. Before allowing anything on the deck, ensure that the deck has cured for a minimum of 14 days. The RE may allow the Contractor to place a finishing machine on the deck 72 hours after placing concrete for the previous segment. After a minimum of 14 days, the Contractor may load a total of 80,000 pounds on the deck if the deck has attained a strength of at least 4000 pounds per square inch, as determined from 1 set of cylinders field cured according to AASHTO T 23. After a minimum of 28 days, the Contractor may load more than 80,000 pounds if the deck has attained the design strength and if approval has been obtained from the Department. To obtain approval, submit stress analysis calculations for the load and the location of the load on the deck. The Department will not approve stresses that exceed the design allowable by more than 20 percent. If placement of the load is allowed, provide matting to protect the surface from damage.

  14. Concrete Deck Surface Requirements

    1. Acceptance Testing. Construct deck slabs so that less than 9 percent of the measured length of the lot exceeds 1/8 inch tolerance in 10 feet. The ME will test the surface of concrete bridge deck slabs with a Class I Walking Profiler prior to the performance of saw cut grooved surfacing. The ME will calculate the percent defective using a rolling straight edge simulator analysis of the profiler data.

      The RE will determine conformance to the surface tolerance for concrete deck slabs in lots, each lot being equal to the number of cubic yards of deck concrete placed in the designated lanes of traffic from joint assembly to joint assembly. The RE will calculate such lot quantity using the specified nominal deck thickness, excluding the quantity of concrete placed in haunches, end dams, and diaphragms.

      The RE will base acceptance on the percentage of the total length of the lot having surface variation exceeding 1/8 inch in 10 feet, this percent noncompliance being defined as the Lot Percent Defective Length. To compute the lot percent defective length, add the lengths of individual surface defects exceeding the specified tolerance, and divide this sum by the total length tested, then multiply by 100 to convert to percent.

      The RE will test the full extent of the lot in the longitudinal direction. The transverse location of the test generally is in the wheelpaths of vehicle travel, which are defined as the 2 imaginary lines located approximately 3 feet on each side of the centerline of the lane and extending for the full length of the lane.

      If the lot percent defective length equals or exceeds 25 on any machine finished deck (irrespective of whether such machine finishing was required or optional) or 35 on a manually struck and finished deck, the RE may order any or all of the concrete in the lot to be removed, replaced, and retested for acceptance. If the RE allows the concrete to remain in place, apply a 15 percent reduction to the payment request for the lot.


    2. Table 507.03.02-2 Reduction Per Lot of Deck Slab Concrete Due to Nonconformance with Surface Requirements
      Lot Percent Defective Length Reduction Per Lot, Percent
      0 - 8.9 none
      9.0 - 13.9 1.0
      14.0 - 24.9 7.0

    3. Surface Remedial Measures. Regardless of the overall surface conformity of a lot of bridge deck concrete, if surface deviations have a detrimental effect on deck drainage or reinforcement steel cover, the RE may require appropriate remedial measures to restore any or all of the deck slab surface to the required grades and surface tolerance. When such remedial procedures are ordered by the RE, submit a plan detailing the intended limits of the surface restoration and the methods, equipment, and materials proposed for use.

      After completion of the surface restoration measures, the ME will retest the lot containing the affected area.

  15. Opening to Traffic. Do not allow vehicular traffic of any kind on the deck slab until the deck has been saw cut grooved finished as specified in 507.03.02.L.

507.03.03 Date Panel

Submit a sample of the date panel showing the coloring and surface finish to the RE for approval. Ensure that the date panel is cast true and straight in a single unit that includes anchors. Ensure that the material used to color the concrete is nonfading. Ensure that the arrises are clean and accurate. Install the date panel into the parapet using epoxy grout.

507.03.04 Concrete Bridge Sidewalk

Ensure that the concrete deck has cured for at least 14 days before beginning sidewalk construction. Construct forms as specified in 504.03.02.B. Ensure that the reinforcement steel is placed as specified in 504.03.01. Place concrete as specified in 504.03.02.D. Float-finish concrete before applying a surface texture with a broom. Apply curing materials as specified in 504.03.02.F and maintain for 3 days. Post warning tape around the sidewalk during the curing period. Follow the loading restrictions as specified in 504.03.02.J.

507.03.05 Concrete Parapet and Barrier Curb

Ensure that the concrete deck has cured for at least 14 days before beginning parapet or barrier curb construction. Construct moldings, panel work, and bevel strips true to line and grade with neatly mitered joints. Ensure that corners in the finished work are true, clean cut, and free from cracks, spalls or other defects. Construct barrier curb using the fixed form method. Construct parapet to support bridge lighting foundations using the fixed-form method. Construct parapet not supporting bridge lighting foundations using 1 of the following methods:

  1. Fixed-Form Method. Construct forms as specified in 504.03.02.B. Ensure that the reinforcement steel is placed as specified in 504.03.01. Place concrete as specified in 504.03.02.D. Remove the forms as soon as the concrete holds its shape, and immediately apply the Class 2 finish as specified in 504.03.02.H.2. Ensure that the application of the Class 2 finish is completed within 48 hours of placing concrete.

  2. Slip-Form Method. At least 20 days before beginning the work, submit the proposed equipment, methods, and processes for the construction of the slip-formed concrete parapet to the RE for approval. Provide, to the RE, evidence of successful history and operation of the slip-form machine or other equipment. Design and construct a support system to restrain the reinforcement cage during slip-forming, so that displacement will not occur. Locate the reinforcement steel so that after the joints are saw cut the reinforcement steel will have the minimum concrete clear cover as shown on the Plans.

    Ensure that the slip-forming machine consolidates the freshly placed concrete in 1 complete pass of the machine. Ensure that the forming portion of the slip-form machine is readily adjustable vertically, during the forward motion of the machine. If information on the history is not available, construct a test section, at least 100 feet long, at the Project Limits, to verify that the proposed equipment, material, and methods are capable of producing the required concrete parapet.

    Attach a grade line gauge or pointer to the machine to ensure that a continual comparison can be made between the barrier being placed and the established grade line as indicated by the offset guide line.

    When using the slip-form method, supply concrete to the slip-form machine at a uniform rate to produce a completely shaped parapet. Ensure that the machine is operated to produce consolidated concrete free from surface pits larger that 1/2 inch in diameter and 1/4 inch in depth and that requires no additional handling.

    If concrete placement is interrupted, protect from drying by covering the placed concrete with several layers of wet burlap. If the interruption exceeds 30 minutes, install a construction dam or bulkhead. If the interruption exceeds 90 minutes, discontinue any further placement. The Contractor may resume concrete placement at the joint beyond the bulkhead after 12 hours, measured from the start of delay, has elapsed. If the RE determines that the length of placement between the bulkhead and the next joint cannot be slip-formed, form the section by methods other than slip-forming.

    Remove all loose and otherwise unsatisfactory materials from the surface of the cold joints. Obtain approval from the RE before using tools for this purpose. Scrub the surface with a wire broom and keep wet until new concrete is placed. Immediately before placing concrete, apply the epoxy bonding coat according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    Within 4 hours of slip-forming, saw cut contraction joints to a maximum depth of 1 inch past the troweled “V” notch groove to prevent shrinkage cracking.

Cure using curing compound as specified 504.03.02.F. If drilling is required for subsequent construction, allow the concrete to cure for a minimum of 14 days before drilling.

507.03.06 4-Bar Open Steel Parapet

Ensure that the deck has cured for at least 14 days before placing concrete for 4-bar open steel parapet. Place concrete for 4-bar open steel parapet as specified in 504.03.02.D. Install as shown on the Plans.

507.03.07 Concrete Bridge Approach

Prepare the underlying surface as specified in 405.03.01.

Set forms as specified in 504.03.02.B, place reinforcement steel as specified in 504.03.01, and set joint ties for the entire area to be paved at least 1 day before placing concrete. Set forms at grade in full contact with the underlying surface. Install longitudinal joint ties through the forms and secure in place. Ensure that concrete does not seep around the bar. If longitudinal joint ties cannot be installed before placing concrete, install as specified in 405.03.02.C.

Check the alignment and grade elevations of the forms and joint ties and make corrections before placing the concrete. Ensure that the forms do not deviate from the required alignment by more than 1/4 inch. Reset, or remove and replace forms that settle or deflect under the spreading and finishing equipment. Clean the top and face of forms, and oil the face before placing concrete.

Comply with the limitations of placing specified in 507.03.02.F. Place concrete as specified in 507.03.02.H. Apply the surface texture as specified in 507.03.02.I. Cure the concrete as specified in 507.03.02.J. Saw cut the surface as specified in 507.03.02.L.

Follow the loading restrictions as specified in 507.03.02.M. Do not allow vehicular traffic of any kind on the approach until the it has been saw cut grooved finished.

Ensure the concrete conforms to the surface requirements as specified in 507.03.02 N, except each lot will be equal to the number of cubic yards of approach concrete placed in the lane.

507.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  ___" BY ___ " PREFORMED ELASTOMERIC JOINT assembly LINEAR FOOT
  STRIP SEAL EXPANSION Joint Assembly LINEAR FOOT
  Modular Expansion joint Assembly LINEAR FOOT
  CONCRETE Bridge DECK CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE Bridge DECK, HPC CUBIC YARD
  Date Panel Unit
  CONCRETE Bridge SIDEWALK CUBIC YARD
  ONCRETE Bridge SIDEWALK, HPC CUBIC YARD
  CONCRETE Bridge PARAPET LINEAR FOOT
  CONCRETE Bridge PARAPET, HPC LINEAR FOOT
  4-BAR OPEN STEEL Parapet LINEAR FOOT
  ___" X___" CONCRETE BARRIER CURB, Bridge LINEAR FOOT
  Concrete BRIDGE APPROACH CUBIC YARD
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-507-1, CD-507-2, CD-507-3, CD-507-4, CD-507-5, CD-507-6, CD-507-7, CD-507-8, CD-507-9, CD-507-10, CD-507-11

The Department will include payment for epoxy coated reinforcement steel for the bridge approach under the item CONCRETE BRIDGE APPROACH; for other concrete items, the Department will make payment for reinforcement steel under REINFORCEMENT STEEL, REINFORCEMENT STEEL, EPOXY-COATED, and REINFORCEMENT STEEL, GALVANIZED as specified in 504.04.

The Department will measure ___" BY ___ " preformed elastomeric joint Assembly, strip seal expansion joint assembly, and modular expansion joint assembly of the various sizes by the linear foot along the centerline, including the vertical face of curbs and tops of sidewalks and brush curbs.

The Department will make pay adjustments for surface requirements as specified in Table 507.03.02-2 and will apply to the lot volume for concrete in deck slabs and approach.

The Department will make a payment adjustment for concrete surface requirement quality in deck slabs and approach, by the following formula:

   Pay Adjustment  =   Q x BP x PR

Where:    
  BP = Bid Price.
  Q = Surface Requirement Lot Quantity
  PR = percent reduction as specified in Table 507.03.02-2

Section 508 – Bridge Drainage

508.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing scuppers, inlets, and downspouts for surface drainage of bridge decks.

508.02 Materials  back to top


Provide materials as specified:
  Bolts and Bolting Material 908.01
  Steel Alloy Pipe 909.02.07
  Gray Iron Casting Frame 909.03
  Ductile Iron Casting Grates 909.03
  Fiberglass Pipe 909.02.09

If inlet frames, grates, and scuppers are fabricated from steel, galvanize as specified in 912.02.01.

508.03 Construction  back to top

508.03.01 Inlet Frames, Grates, and Scuppers

Ensure that the bearing surfaces of frames and grates are machined so that the grates have uniform bearing on the frames. Ensure that the bearing surfaces are match marked before being delivered.

Ensure that the frames are set flush with the deck surface.

508.03.02 Steel Alloy Pipe

Repair areas where galvanizing has been damaged as specified in 912.02.01. Obtain RE approval of the type of threaded concrete inserts for support brackets and clamp.

508.03.03  Fiberglass Pipe and Fittings

Ensure that pipe supports are located at spacings that do not exceed the pipe manufacturer’s recommendations.  Avoid supports that have point contact or narrow supporting areas.  Standard sling, clamp, and clevis hangers and shoe supports designed for use with steel pipe may be used. Ensure that the minimum strap width of all pipe hangers meets the pipe manufacturer’s recommendations. Ensure that straps have a minimum of 120 degrees of contact with the pipe.  On pipe supported on surface with less than 120 degrees of contact use a split fiberglass pipe protective sleeve bonded in place with adhesive.

Ensure that all connections of pipes and fittings shown on the plans to facilitate future removal for maintenance cleanout or flushing are made with a threaded, gasketed coupler or a bolted gasketed flange system.  Use only female – male threaded plugs for cleanouts.

508.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  INLET FRAME AND GRATE UNIT
  SCUPPER UNIT
  ___" STEEL ALLOY PIPE LINEAR FOOT
  ___" FIBERGLASS PIPE LINEAR FOOT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

Section 509 – Bridge Railing and Fence

509.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing metal railing, fence, and guide rail on bridges.

509.02 Materials  back to top


Provide materials as specified:
  Bearing Pads 907.03
  Bolts and Bolting Material 908.01
  Anchor Bolts 908.01.03
  Adhesive Anchor Bolts 908.01.04
  Chain-Link Fence 913.02.01
  Bridge Railing 913.03

Ensure that the railing is fabricated to allow for minor adjustments in both horizontal and vertical directions.

509.03 Construction  back to top

509.03.01 Bridge Railing

At least 30 days before beginning the work, submit working drawings for certification. Indicate material specifications for adhesive, anchors, washers, and nuts on the working drawings.

Base the design embedment of the adhesive anchor bolts on a concrete compressive strength of 4000 pounds per square inch. Ensure that the embedment depth of the adhesive anchors shown on the working drawings is sufficient to obtain the required pullout strength as required for the proof load testing as specified in 908.01.04.

Ensure that the railing is fabricated to allow for minor adjustments in both horizontal and vertical directions. Install 1 or 2-rail aluminum railing on top of the concrete parapet as shown on the Plans. Do not use expansion type anchor bolts.

  1. Cast-in-Place Type. Set anchor bolts before placing concrete using a rigid template for each anchor assembly. When placing concrete, ensure that bolts do not move and spacing is maintained between the rigid templates. Ensure that the exposed threaded ends of the anchor bolts remain clean and protected from concrete. Clean the anchor bolts before installing the specified hardware.

  2. Adhesive Type.  Do not drill for installation until the concrete has cured for at least 14 days.  Install adhesive anchors according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.  When drilling, ensure that spalling does not occur and existing utilities are not damaged.  Repair damage to the existing concrete, utilities, and reinforcement steel as a result of drilling.  Clean and dry drill holes before and during installation of the adhesive anchors.

Repair damage to galvanized coating as specified in 912.02.01.

509.03.02 Chain-Link Fence for Bridge

At least 30 days before beginning the work, submit working drawings for certification.  Indicate material specifications for adhesive, anchors, washers, and nuts on the working drawings.

Base the design embedment of the adhesive anchor bolts on a concrete compressive strength of 4000 pounds per square inch.  Ensure that the embedment depth of the adhesive anchors shown on the working drawings is sufficient to obtain the required pullout strength as required for the proof load testing as specified in 908.01.04.

Do not use expansion type anchor bolts.  Place anchors using one of the following:

  1. Cast-in-Place Type.  Set anchor bolts before placing concrete using a rigid template for each anchor assembly.  When placing concrete, ensure that bolts do not move and spacing is maintained between the rigid templates.  Ensure that the exposed threaded ends of the anchor bolts remain clean and protected from concrete.  Clean the anchor bolts before installing the specified hardware.

  2. Adhesive Type.  Do not drill for installation until the concrete has cured for at least 14 days.  Install adhesive anchors according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.  When drilling, ensure that spalling does not occur and existing utilities are not damaged.  Repair damage to the existing concrete, utilities, and reinforcement steel as a result of drilling.  Clean and dry drill holes before and during installation of the adhesive anchors.

Erect fencing as shown on the Plans.

509.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  BRIDGE RAILING (___RAIL, ALUMINUM) LINEAR FOOT
  BRIDGE RAILING (___RAIL, STEEL) LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE I, ZINC-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE II, ALUMINUM-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE III, ALUMINUM ALLOY, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE IV, PVC-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE I, ZINC-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH, CURVED TOP LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE II, ALUMINUM-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH, CURVED TOP LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE III, ALUMINUM ALLOY, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH, CURVED TOP LINEAR FOOT
  CHAIN-LINK FENCE, TYPE IV, PVC-COATED STEEL, BRIDGE, __'__" HIGH, CURVED TOP LINEAR FOOT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-509-1, CD-509-2, CD-509-3, CD-509-4

Section 510 – Timber Structures

510.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing structures or parts of structures, other than piles, composed of treated or untreated timber, or a combination of both, on prepared foundations.

510.02 Materials  back to top


Provide materials as specified:
  Round Timber Piling 915.02
  Timber for Sheet Piling 915.03
  Timber for Structures 915.04
  Timber Treatments 915.05
  Timber Connectors and Hardware 915.06

510.03 Construction  back to top

510.03.01 Timber Structures

Construct timber structures according to Section 16 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications and according to the details provided in the contract documents.

Do not use cant hooks, peaveys, pikes, or hooks for handling of the timber members.

510.03.02 Sheeting and Wales

Submit working drawings for approval of the design of ring or shear plate timber connectors. Ensure that connectors are made of corrosion-resistant metal. Include the following:

  1. Timber and steel material designations.
  2. Hardware requirements, such as nails, bolts, nuts, washers, drift bolts and dowels.
  3. Timber dimensions.
  4. Timber connector type, its dimensions and installation method.
  5. Hole dimensions.
  6. Bracing requirements.

Refer to the Special Provisions for corrosion requirements for metal components.

510.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  TIMBER STRUCTURE Lump Sum
  TIMBER SHEETING Cubic Foot
  TIMBER WALE Cubic Foot

Section 511 – Bulkhead, Fender, and Dolphin Systems


511.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing bulkhead, fender, and dolphin systems using concrete, steel, timber, or composite piles.

511.02 Materials  back to top

511.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Precast Structural Concrete 904.03
  Prestressed Concrete 904.04
  Structural Steel 906.01
  Steel Piles 906.02
  Bolts and Bolting Material 908.01
  Coal Tar Epoxy Paint 912.01.03
  Zinc Coating on Steel 912.02.01
  Sawn Timber Posts 915.01
  Timber Bearing Piles 915.02
  Timber Sheet Piles 915.03
  Timber for Structures 915.04
  Timber Treatment 915.05
  Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Lumber (FRPL) 916.01
  Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Piles (FRPP) 916.02
  Fiberglass-Concrete Composite Piles (FCCP) 916.03

Provide tie rods, plate washers, turnbuckles, nuts, bolts, washers, and all other hardware in bulkheads made of steel with a dual coating system consisting of zinc coating (galvanizing) and coal tar epoxy paint.

511.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Impact Hammers 1004.01
  Vibratory Hammers 1004.02
  Leads and Followers 1004.03

511.03 Construction  back to top

511.03.01 Bulkhead, Fender, and Dolphin Systems   back to top

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning work, submit working drawings for approval for steel or concrete sheet piling, composite piles, and FRPL.

    1. Steel and Concrete Sheet Piling. Include design calculations, member size, member location, and penetration depth.

    2. Composite Piles. When using composite piles, the Contractor may use FCCP or FRPP. Include the following for composite piles:

      1. Calculations and certifications showing structural properties, including ultimate and flexural strength.
      2. The location of any embedded or attached lifting devices and use of pick-up or support points.
      3. The location of the roughened surface where skin friction is needed between the pile and the soil.
      4. The location of detailing of any splices, shoes, and top of pile connections required.
      5. Catalog cuts, manufacturer’s recommendations, schedules, diagrams, performance charts, physical appearance, and other characteristics.
      6. Pile driving recommendations, including recommended driving energies.
      7. For FCCP, include the outside diameter and wall thickness of the composite reinforcement tube and the concrete placement method.
      8. For FRPP, provide certification and lab reports from an independent testing facility that FRPP meets the plastic material properties and structural properties specified in 916.02.

    3. FRPL. Include the following for FRPL:

      1. Written certification from the FRPL manufacturer, as specified in 106.07, that their product satisfies the requirements of 916.01.
      2. Catalog cuts, manufacturer’s recommendations, schedules, diagrams, performance charts, physical appearance, and other characteristics of FRPL.
      3. Lab reports from an independent testing facility including calculations that confirm that the FRPL meets the ultimate strength requirements specified in 916.01.

  2. Shipping, Storing, and Handling. Ship, store, and handle components, including fiberglass tubes, protective coatings, and concrete to avoid damage. When pile tips are required, attach to the pile before shipping. Store piles on a minimum of 6-inch wide timber cribbing arranged to support and to maintain straightness within the specified tolerance. Store components so that they may be easily inspected. When storing components, protect from exposure to extreme heat or impact. Only use fabric slings to move composite, timber, and concrete materials.

  3. Coating Steel. Apply coal tar epoxy paint immediately after the installation of all connections, except for tie rods that do not have threaded ends. Paint unthreaded tie rods at least 72 hours before installation. Clean galvanized surfaces receiving coal tar epoxy paint according to SSPC-SP 6. Ensure that galvanizing is not damaged during the cleaning process.

    Blast clean surfaces of sheeting, plates, and wales according to SSPC-SP 6. Coat the surfaces with coal tar epoxy paint as follows:

    1. Immediately after blast cleaning, apply 2 coats of coal tar epoxy paint at a maximum coverage rate of 125 square feet per gallon. Ensure that the total dry film thickness of the 2 coats is less than 16 mils at any point. Apply the coating by brush, roller, or spray. The Contractor may thin the first coat with a maximum of 10 percent of solvent according to the coating manufacturer; however, the Contractor may not thin the second coat. Allow the first coat to thoroughly dry before applying the second coat. Allow the second coat to dry and harden before handling the steel.
    2. Clean damaged or rejected areas of coating of foreign or loose material and promptly recoat the area. Remove the loose or damaged coating in the surrounding area, and brush the adjacent surface of the remaining sound film with methyl isobutyl ketone to provide a good bonding surface for the new coats.
    3. Allow the top coat to cure for at least 72 hours before driving.

  4. Constructing Bulkhead, Fender, and Dolphin Systems. When constructing with timber, drive nails flush with the surface of the wood. Ensure that driving does not cause hammer marks in wood surfaces. Drift sharpen the lower ends of timber sheet piling to wedge against the adjacent timbers. If the tops are battered in driving, leave slightly high and then cut off at the required elevation. After cutting, coat the ends of sheeting members and wales with 2 applications of coal tar epoxy paint.

    Drive piles as specified in 502.03.03.B. The Contractor may use lighter driving equipment or vibratory pile drivers. Ensure that the completed piling is vertical, in line, driven to the prescribed depth, cut off to a straight line at the shown elevation, and watertight at the joints.

    Ensure FRPL is cut, beveled, drilled, countersunk, and otherwise fabricated according to manufacturer’s recommendations. Set material accurately to the required levels and lines, with members plumb and true and accurately cut and fitted. Securely attach FRPL to substrate by anchoring and fastening as shown on Plans.

  5. Extensions and Splices. Splice piles as specified in 502.03.04.

  6. Cut-Offs and Cappings. Cut off and cap piles as specified in 502.03.03.E.

511.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  CONCRETE SHEET PILING SQUARE FOOT
  STEEL SHEET PILING SQUARE FOOT
  TIMBER SHEET PILING SQUARE FOOT
  Composite Pile Linear Foot
  FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC LUMBER CUBIC FOOT
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List  
Construction Details CD-551-1, CD-551-2, CD-551-3, CD-551-4

The Department will measure FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC LUMBER (FRPL) in cubic feet computed on the basis of volume of the shortest commercially available length that is placed.

The Department will measure the square footage of CONCRETE SHEET PILING, STEEL SHEET PILING, and TIMBER SHEET PILING by multiplying the average height and length of sheeting that is driven. The Department will determine the average height by extending a line from the bottom of the excavation to a vertical plane of the top of sheeting.

Section 512 – Sign Support Structures

512.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing sign support structures.

512.02 Materials  back to top

512.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Concrete 903.03
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Sign Structures 906.05
  Anchor Bolts 908.01.03
  Electrical Conduit and Fittings 918.01

512.02.02 Equipment


Provide equipment as specified:
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

512.03 Construction  back to top

512.03.01 Sign Structures

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning work, submit working drawings for certification.

  2. Storage and Handling. Load, transport, unload, and erect structural materials so that the metal is kept clean and free from injury in handling.

    Store structural materials above the ground on platforms, skids, or other supports. Keep the structural materials free from accumulation of dirt, oil, acids, or other foreign matter.

  3. Erection Plan. At least 15 days before erecting posts, tower shafts, and trusses, submit a plan to the RE showing the proposed equipment to be used. Include calculations and lift points to maintain the truss assembly in plumb position during placement, detailed erection instructions and drawings of all structures, and the proposed scheme for traffic control during the erection of the towers and trusses. Ensure that the plan includes the method to install walkways, luminaires, signs, and miscellaneous attachments within the same 8-hour period that the trusses are erected unless otherwise approved by the RE.

  4. Excavating. Excavate as specified in 202.03.03. Shape and compact the underlying material to produce a firm, even surface. Obtain RE approval before finishing excavation. If the RE determines that the bottom of the excavation is unstable, undercut, backfill, and compact as directed by the RE.

  5. Placing Concrete for Pedestals. Set anchor bolts into a template to maintain alignment and elevation. Secure in position to prevent displacement while placing concrete. Before placing the concrete, place reinforcement steel as specified in 504.03.01 and conduit. Ensure that concrete placement complies with the limitations specified in 504.03.02.C. Place concrete as specified in 504.03.02.D. Cure concrete as specified in 504.03.02.F.

  6. Installing Electrical Material. Provide and install galvanized steel conduit ells in pedestals. Where this conduit is not to be extended to a junction box, terminate the lower end of each ell 3 feet from the face of the pedestal and 18 inches below grade, and cap with a standard galvanized steel pipe cap. The upper end of each ell shall project above the pedestal for a sufficient distance to terminate at the level of the bottom of the handhole in the sign support post or tower shaft, or at a maximum of 2 inches below such level. Terminate the ell by ground bonding bushing (with closure disk in conduit not to be extended).

    Where a cable passes through a hole or runs along a surface at any point on the complete assembly, ensure holes and surfaces are deburred and free of sharp edges or protuberances that may damage the cable.

  7. Erecting Posts, Trusses, and Tower Structures. Straighten any deformed structural material before being laid out, punched, drilled, or otherwise worked on in the shop. The RE will reject structural material with sharp kinks or bends. Verify bolt alignment before erecting towers. Do not erect posts and tower shafts on the completed pedestals until approved by the RE. Backfill footings before erection.

    1. Trusses. Connect the truss abutting chord splices according to Subsection 11.5.6 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specifications.

      Provide 2 working platforms that allow the bolt assembly tightening from opposite sides of the structure. Provide 2 impact wrenches. Sequentially tighten by initiating and progressing the tightening of the bolts in a pattern whereby a 180-degree opposite side repetition is maintained. Sequentially tighten each bolt and nut to the same calibrated increment.

      Install high-strength steel bolts as specified in 506.03.01.E.

    2. Posts and Tower Shafts. Clean and lubricate threads of anchor bolts and nuts before installing post or tower shaft. Ensure that the top of the concrete pedestals or caissons is free of dirt or other foreign materials. Install the top and bottom bolt assemblies as shown on the Plans and set level and as specified in 506.03.01.E.

      After erecting the posts or tower shafts and tightening all nuts as outlined above, add a second nut to each anchor bolt and adjust snug tight. The Contractor may use self locking nuts to maintain the connection. After installing the second nut, or self-locking nut, adjust the leveling nuts to a snug tight condition. Snug tight is defined as the tightness that exists when all surfaces on the joint are in firm contact with one another. Leave the space between the top of the pedestal and the bottom of the post open.

      At least 15 days before erecting VMS structures, provide 2 stainless steel mounting U-bolts per lot, to the NJDOT Bureau of Materials.

  8. Verify the location of an electrical power source in the field before foundation construction and before fabrication of the structure.

512.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  CANTILEVER SIGN SUPPORT, STRUCTURE NO.___ UNIT
  BRIDGE MOUNTED SIGN SUPPORT, STRUCTURE NO. ___  UNIT
  BUTTERFLY SIGN SUPPORT, STRUCTURE NO. ___  UNIT
  OVERHEAD SIGN SUPPORT, STRUCTURE NO. ___  UNIT
  CANTILEVER SIGN SUPPORT, DMS STRUCTURE NO. ___  UNIT
  BUTTERFLY SIGN SUPPORT, DMS STRUCTURE NO. ___ 

UNIT

Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will make payment for excavation as specified in 202.04.

The Department will make payment for concrete and reinforcement steel as specified in 504.04.

The Department will make payment for load bearing piles as specified in 502.04.

Section 513 – Retaining Walls

513.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing cast-in-place retaining walls, prefabricated modular wall systems, mechanically stabilized earth (MSE) wall systems, and other alternate retaining wall systems.

513.02 Materials  back to top

513.02.01 Materials


Provide materials as specified:
  Coarse Aggregate (No. 57) 901.03
  Soil Aggregate (I-9) 901.11
  Soil Aggregate (I-15) 901.11
  Concrete 903.03
  Mortar 903.08.01
  Curing Materials 903.10
  Precast Concrete Units 904.02
  Reinforcement Steel 905.01
  Welded Wire Reinforcement 905.01.03
  Structural Steel Plates and Bars 905.01.04
  High-Strength Steel Bolts 908.02
  Coal Tar Epoxy Paint 912.01.03
  Preformed Joint Filler 914.01
  Joint Sealer (Hot-Poured) 914.02
  Subsurface Drainage Geotextile 919.01
  HDPE Geomembrane 919.05
  Waterstops 919.06

Provide soil reinforcement strips according to ASTM A 572, Grade 65. Provide tie strips according to ASTM A 1011, Grade 50.

For MSE Walls, use either Soil Aggregate, I-15 or Coarse Aggregate, No. 57. For Prefabricated Modular Retaining Walls and T-Wall, use either Soil Aggregate, I-9 or Coarse Aggregate, No. 57.

513.02.02 Equipment  back to top


Provide equipment as specified:
  Vibrator 1005.04
  Concrete Batching Plant 1010.01
  Concrete Trucks 1010.02

513.03 Construction  back to top

513.03.01 Proprietary Retaining Walls

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning the work, submit working drawings for approval that include, at a minimum, the following:

    1. Design calculations giving complete information as to the proposed method of fabrication and erection of precast units and related components.
    2. General notes, design parameters, soil characteristics, and factors of safety.
    3. An elevation view of the wall showing elevations at the top of the wall, the beginning, and at the end.
    4. Plan view of the wall showing the offset from the construction baseline to face of wall units at all changes in horizontal alignment.
    5. Distance from front of wall to the extreme limit of module.
    6. Typical sections of the wall indicating how internal drainage and surface drainage behind the wall is handled. Typical cross-sections of cut and fill sections. Limits and extent of select granular backfill material placed above original ground. Location of proposed ground line.
    7. Panel or unit length and size and designations.
    8. A numbered panel layout for fabrication and erection purposes.
    9. Typical panels, as well as special panels, such as at bends; dimensions necessary to construct the member; the location of reinforcement steel in the member; and the location of reinforcement attachment devices that are embedded in the panels.
    10. Designation of breaks in vertical alignments and elevations at whole stations and at 25-foot increments and treatment.
    11. All details for footings and leveling pads, including step details, locations, and elevations, and actual maximum bearing pressure.
    12. Architectural details, such as special facing finish, texture, and color.
    13. The location of the proposed final ground line.
    14. ROW limits and their relationship to the wall, with offsets and stations to corners.
    15. Location of any noise walls or sign structures near the wall by station and offsets.
    16. Centerline of any drainage structures or utilities behind and passing through or under walls.
    17. Location of all piles on any adjoining structure’s foundation plans with details to avoid any conflict.
    18. Connections to barriers, copings, signs, lights, railing, fences, noise barriers, or any other element.
    19. Details for the construction of walls and soil reinforcement around obstructions including bridge supports, drainage facilities, sign footings, or any other element.
    20. Details for required electrical systems, including highway lighting bases, junction boxes, and conduit.
    21. Limits and extent of common structure volume, such as excavation, volume of concrete, reinforcement steel, and backfill.
    22. Numbers and types of precast units/panels.
    23. Manufacturer’s recommendations, including suggested sequence of construction.

  2. Shipping, Handling, and Storing. Ensure that the precast units have cured for at least 72 hours and have attained the minimum 28-day compressive strength before shipping.

    Provide galvanized handling devices according to ASTM A 123. Store, transport, hoist, and handle units to prevent cracking or damage. After galvanizing, coat attachment surfaces not to be embedded in concrete with coal tar epoxy paint. Replace or repair units damaged by improper storing, transporting, or handling.

  3. Wall Foundation. Excavate as specified in 202.03.03. Shape and compact the underlying material to produce a firm, even surface. Obtain RE approval before finishing excavation. If the RE determines that the bottom of the excavation is unstable, undercut, backfill, and compact as directed by the RE. Grade the foundation for the structure level for a width that exceeds the length of the soil reinforcement by at least 2 feet.

    Place concrete, as specified in 504.03.02.D, for an unreinforced concrete leveling footing, or provide a precast concrete leveling pad according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    Before placing wall units, install underdrains and drainage pipes.

  4. Installing. Provide 2 copies of the manufacturer’s recommendations to the RE. If a section of wall is to be cast-in-place, construct the section as specified 504.03.02.D. Obtain RE approval of the foundation for the structure before beginning erection. Install the units according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. For erection, handle units with lifting devices set into the upper edge of the panels. Place units in a horizontal course. Do not place the subsequent course until the previous course is backfilled within 2 inches of the top of the course.

    Provide external bracing for the initial course. While erecting each course, examine line, and grade, and correct deviations to prevent cumulative inaccuracies in alignment. Vertical tolerance and horizontal alignment tolerance shall not exceed 1/2 inch, when measured along a straightedge. Install joint filler and rubber pads according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Close joints at corners or angle points.

    Ensure that all wall units above the first course interlock with the lower courses. Vertical joint openings on the wall’s front face shall not exceed 3/4 inch. The front face vertical joints shall have 12-inch wide strips of subsurface drainage geotextile behind each joint starting 2 feet below grade.

  5. Back of Wall Drainage. Place a stone pocket, subsurface drainage geotextile, and an 8-inch corrugated steel underdrain pipe as shown on the Plans.

    When constructing weep holes, place ports or vents for equalizing hydrostatic pressure below low water. Use 4-inch PVC or unreinforced concrete drain pipe as forms for weep holes through concrete.

  6. Backfilling. For MSE walls, place reinforcement perpendicular to the face of the wall, unless otherwise shown on the Plans or directed. Before placing soil reinforcement, compact the backfill material as specified in 513.03.01.G.

    For modular bin walls, fill wall units 4 feet or less in height in 1 lift and then thoroughly compact with a vibratory tamping device. Fill wall units more than 4 feet in height in 2 approximately equal lifts and thoroughly compact after each layer is placed.

    Backfill after erecting each course of wall units. Verify that the reinforcements and wall units are not damaged, disturbed, or misaligned while backfilling. Correct misalignment and remove and replace damaged units of the wall units before placing the next course. Backfill using 1 of the following materials:

    1. Soil Aggregate. Do not exceed 10 inches loose measurement for the maximum lift thickness of the backfill. Decrease this lift thickness to obtain the specified density.

      The ME will determine the optimum moisture content as specified in AASHTO T 99, Method C. Ensure that the moisture content of the backfill is uniform throughout each layer and has a placement moisture content that is less than or equal to the optimum moisture content.

      Remove and rework backfill that has a placement moisture content in excess of the optimum moisture content until the moisture content is uniformly acceptable throughout the entire layer.

      Ensure that backfill placed within 1 foot of a drainage structure or utility does not have any particle greater than 3 inches in maximum dimension.

    2. Coarse Aggregate. Do not exceed 8 inch lift thickness of coarse aggregate. Place subsurface drainage geotextile at the interface of the coarse aggregate and regular roadway materials and embankments.

      At each reinforcement strip level, level and compact the coarse aggregate before placing the reinforcement.

  7. Compacting. Compact backfill material without damaging, disturbing, or misaligning the wall units before placing the next block level. Roughly level each course of backfill to an elevation approximately 2 inches above the level of the next course of units. Compact in a direction parallel to the wall. For MSE walls, do not use sheepsfoot or grid-type rollers for compacting backfill within the limits of the soil reinforcement. Compact for the specified material as follows:

    1. Soil Aggregate. With the exception of the 5-foot zone directly behind the units, compact soil aggregate with large, smooth drum, vibratory rollers using the density control method as specified in 203.03.02.D.

      Within 5 feet of the wall, use small, single or double drum, hand operated, walk-behind vibratory rollers, or walk-behind vibrating plate compactors. Make at least 3 passes.

    2. Coarse Aggregate. To provide the proper density of the broken stone, compact by making at least 4 passes with a vibratory roller that has a total operating weight of 8 to 10 tons. Set the roller in the vibratory mode between 1.5 and 2.5 mph.

      Within 5 feet of the wall, use small, single or double drum, hand operated, walk-behind vibratory rollers, or walk-behind vibrating plate compactors. Make at least 3 passes.

      When there is evidence of wall displacement or disturbance, compact with a smooth drum static roller.

    At the end of each day’s operation, slope the last placed layer of backfill away from the wall units to direct runoff of rainwater away from the wall face. Do not allow surface runoff from adjacent areas to enter the work site.

    Ensure that the overall vertical tolerance of wall does not exceed 1/2 inch per 10 feet of wall height.

  8. HDPE Geomembrane Liner for MSE Walls. Deliver HDPE geomembrane liner systems and store to prevent damage to the material before installation.

    Before placing HDPE liner, ensure that the area to be lined is smooth and free of sharp objects or debris. Do not use equipment or tools that may damage the HDPE liner while handling, moving, or installing.

    Place the HDPE liner below the pavement and just above the first row of reinforcements. Slope the HDPE liner to drain away from the wall units.

    Align seams parallel to the line of maximum slope. Overlap seams at least 2 feet and seam according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Conduct field testing of seams, according to the manufacturer’s specifications, to verify satisfactory seaming conditions.

    When backfilling, prevent damage to the HDPE liner system. Do not allow equipment or traffic within 10 feet of the HDPE liner. Slope the last placed level of backfill away from the wall units to direct runoff of rainwater away from the wall face. Do not allow surface runoff from adjacent areas to enter the work site.

513.03.02 Cast-in-Place Retaining Walls

Place reinforcement steel as specified in 504.03.01. Construct concrete as specified in 504.03.02.

513.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  Retaining Wall, Location NO. ___ Square foot
  Retaining Wall, Cast-in-place, Location NO. ___ Square foot
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will make payment for reinforcement steel under REINFORCEMENT STEEL, and REINFORCEMENT STEEL, EPOXY-COATED as specified in 504.04 for reinforcement steel in cast-in-place retaining walls.

The Department will measure retaining walls by the square foot. The area measured is the product of the average height determined by extending the final ground lines at the top and bottom of the wall to a vertical plane of the front face of wall and the total length of wall shown.

Section 514 – Temporary Structures

514.01 Description  back to top

This Section describes the requirements for constructing and removing temporary structures.

514.02 Materials  back to top

The Contractor may use any material or combination of materials that are approved with the working drawings.

514.03 Construction  back to top

514.03.01 Temporary Structures

  1. Working Drawings. At least 30 days before beginning the work, submit working drawings for approval.

  2. Erection Plan. At least 30 days before beginning work, submit to the RE a plan that includes the proposed equipment, detailed erection instructions and drawings of all structures, and the proposed scheme for traffic control during the erection and use.

  3. Structures. For overpass and waterbody structures, construct to provide horizontal and vertical clearance that is at least equal to the clearances provided by the existing structure. If there is no existing structure, construct the temporary structure to provide horizontal and vertical clearance that is at least equal to the clearances provided by the new structure.

    Remove temporary structures after the new work is open to traffic.

514.04 Measurement and Payment  back to top


The Department will measure and make payment for Items as follows:
  Item Pay Unit
  TEMPORARY STRUCTURE, ONE-WAY LUMP SUM
  TEMPORARY STRUCTURE, TWO-WAY LUMP SUM
  TEMPORARY STRUCTURE, PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE LUMP SUM
Additional Reference Material
Item Number List

The Department will pay 75 percent of the lump sum price bid when the temporary structure is opened to traffic. The Department will pay the remaining 25 percent when the temporary structure has been removed.


Last Document Correction:
January 2, 2013