Water, a Forest Product

Forests and water are interconnected. We take the following steps to ensure the water that flows through the forest is protected:

1. Follow Best Management Practices

The activities are conducted in accordance with the NJ Wetlands Best Management Practices Manual, the state-wide guide which standardizes the methods, measures, and practices used to protect, maintain, and preserve water quality.

2. Keep wetlands activities small-scale

The activities are small in scale and they do not obstruct the water flow.

3. No clear-cuts in the wetlands

The work does not consist of clear-cuts in a wetland, exempt under certain circumstances deemed necessary by the New Jersey Forest Service to regenerate the stand.

4. Address any impact to sensitive wetlands wildlife or plants

We address any potential impacts to wetlands-dependent threatened or endangered species.

5. Proceed after New Jersey Forest Service approval

The Forest Management or Stewardship Plan's prescribed activities, including wetlands activities, are reviewed and approved by the New Jersey Forest Service. DEP proceeds with the activities only after this approval.

DEP consults with the USDA Forest Service's Natural Resources Conservation Service to ensure our methods have no negative effects on soil erosion or water quality. In addition, we have expanded buffers near concerned communities and to protect water quality.


Rare and Endangered Plants

Calla palustris DEP's policy is that activities on state lands be consistent with the protection and preservation of rare biodiversity, forest resources, and cultural resources.

Division of Fish and Wildlife performed preliminary field surveys for endangered and rare plants in 2013 and 2014. These surveys revealed a highly diverse forest flora in the Sparta Mountain WMA.

Before any activities are performed at Sparta Mountain, DEP will perform additional surveys of forest tracks targeted for management to determine if and how to proceed. The forest stewardship plan and any stand practice plans will incorporate rare plant occurrence data to ensure that management activities will not impact the plants or their habitats.

DEP's policy is that activities on state lands be consistent with the protection and preservation of rare biodiversity, forest resources, and cultural resources.

Sparta Mountain WMA Rare, Threatened, & Endangered Plants

Scientific Name

Common Name

State Status

Anemone cylindrica

Long-head Anemone


Aplectrum hyemale



Asclepias quadrifolia

Four-leaf Milkweed


Aster urophyllus

Arrow-leaf Aster


Bromus ciliatus var. ciliatus

Fringed Brome


Calla palustris

Wild Calla


Carex aggregata

Glomerate Sedge


Ceratophyllum echinatum

Spiny Coontail


Chenopodium simplex

Maple-leaf Goosefoot


Desmodium cuspidatum var. cuspidatum

Toothed Tick-trefoil


Dicentra canadensis



Doellingeria infirma

Cornel-leaf Aster


Elymus trachycaulus

Slender Wheatgrass


Epilobium leptophyllum

Bog Willowherb


Equisetum sylvaticum

Woodland Horsetail


Eragrostis frankii

Frank's Love Grass


Galium trifidum var. trifidum

Small Bedstraw


Glyceria grandis var. grandis

American Manna Grass


Juncus articulatus

Jointed Rush


Juniperus communis var. depressa

Dwarf Juniper


Kalmia polifolia



Lactuca hirsuta var. sanguinea

Red-stem Hairy Lettuce


Lechea intermedia var. intermedia

Large-pod Pinweed


Lilium philadelphicum var. philadelphicum

Wood Lily


Lycopodium hickeyi

Hickey's Ground-pine


Lysimachia thyrsiflora

Tufted Loosestrife


Milium effusum

Tall Millet Grass


Panicum oligosanthes var. scribnerianum

Scribner's Panic Grass


Phegopteris connectilis

Northern Beech Fern


Platanthera psycodes

Purple Fringed Orchid


Poa languida

Drooping Spear Grass


Potamogeton obtusifolius

Blunt-leaf Pondweed


Potamogeton robbinsii

Robbin's Pondweed


Salix lucida ssp. lucida

Shining Willow


Selaginella rupestris

Rock Spike-moss


Sphagnum angustifolium



Sphagnum fuscum



Sphagnum subsecundum



Sphagnum teres



Spiranthes ochroleuca

Yellowish Nodding Ladies'-tresses


Utricularia intermedia

Flat-leaf Bladderwort


Utricularia minor

Lesser Bladderwort


Vaccinium oxycoccos

Small Cranberry




After management, we keep an eye out for:

Deer browse

Deer browse refers to what deer eat—the leaves,twigs, and buds of a variety of plants. To help regeneration of the young plants on the management sites, we work to keep deer browse to a minimum. Data will be collected during annual site visits, and evidence of deer browse will be recorded and tracked.

Browse will be carefully analyzed on a parcel by parcel basis in order to alter management strategies when necessary.


Invasive Plant Species

As invasive exotic species pose a threat to native plants and wildlife, we will monitor for invasive species populations during the project. Fortunately, we have found low occurrences of Invasive plant species in management areas, if present at all. If needed, herbicide application will be done by licensed applicators following strict protocols. We use treatment methods which directly target individual plants. These techniques use minimal herbicide with little to no residual herbicide migrating into the soil.