Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Science & Research
N.J. Geological Survey
Digital Geodata Series DGS 96-4


Field Data Management System (v. 2.1) User's Guide


Gregory C. Herman
New Jersey Geological Survey
PO Box 427
Trenton, NJ 08625

Last Revised October 6, 1998


3.1 Overview
3.2 Program details
3.2.0 FMS.EXE
3.2.1 FIELDATA.PBC Data "type" abbreviations Data "kind" abbreviations Slickenside data entry
3.2.3 DATASORT.PBC General data sorting (*.SRT files) Plot file data sorting (*.MES files) Domain overlap analysis
3.2.4 VARISORT.PBC Unit and location sorting Station sorting
3.2.5 ROSESTAT.PBC Overview Program functions Spike diagrams Sector diagrams Diagram showing strike and dip azimuths Trend diagrams Statistics output for making plot files (*.LUT)
3.2.11 LINCALC.PBC Intersection lineation from two user-specified planes Intersection lineations from FIELDATA files
4.1 Overview
4.2 meso.aml ARCPLOT plotting scripts and form menus
4.2.1 meso.aml menu
4.2.2 Setup Map Composer menu
4.2.3 Location & Drawing menu
5.0 Other ARC/INFO utilities and graphics files
6.0. Useful tips


Appendix A. Example of an FMS application

Appendix B. Summary of input/output data-file structure for the FMS

Appendix C. SVORONOI Lower-hemisphere Stereographic Contouring Software


The Field data Management System (FMS) is computer software designed for managing, analyzing, and plotting structural geology data. The FMS consists of compiled programs for MS-DOS compatible personal computers (PC's) and uncompiled ARC Macro Language (AML) scripts and form menus for the UNIX version of ARC\INFO (v. 7.0. and later) Geographic Information System (GIS). The programs are designed to use data collected from outcrops or maps. The PC platform is used for data management and analysis so that these utilities are portable and available to many users. The workstation platform is used for graphics plotting because of the processing power and large memory required for integrating structural geologic data into full-color, quadrangle-scale maps.

Geological data are organized into ASCII data files by keyboard entry. Structural data can be sorted based on location, stratigraphic unit, and structural variables then graphically plotted in either the map or profile view using a variety of analysis tools. Most of these tools use both standard and circular histograms for analyzing the frequency of structural bearing. Other statistics provide information on the structural inclination and the quantity of structural data within a sorted data set. The FMS also provides data import and export filters that format structural data for use with other commercial geologic software. The FMS does not build GIS coverages of structural symbols. It only provides the option of generating fracture-trace (line) coverages for the structural bearing or apparent inclination of structures.

The FMS has been used by the N.J. Geological Survey for producing full-colored geologic maps of considerable structural complexity. However, the method is still evolving. Anyone dedicated to using these tools may discover program "bugs" and some unfinished help utilities. Nevertheless, the FMS provides the geologist with a powerful set of tools for analyzing and plotting geological structures on maps and cross sections. Examples of some FMS applications are included that demonstrate some of the more complex program functions.


The following paragraph describes text notation used for describing the FMS method. The use of an asterisk in a computer file name denotes all program files with the same file name extension. DOS-PC related files use capital letters whereas UNIX files use lower-case letters with boldface type. The latter style is used because of the notation-specific character of UNIX operating systems. Therefore, *.SRT denotes all DOS files that have the .SRT file name extension whereas *.aml refers to all ARC/INFO AMLs (such as meso.aml).

Capitalized words are also used to denote many software program names, some of which are trademark registered or trademarked. ARC/INFO, ARCEDIT, and ARCPLOT, and AML are registered trademarks of Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Sun and Sun Workstation are registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation. PowerBASIC is a trademark of SPECTRA Publishing. GRAFPLUS is a copyrighted screen capture utility of Jewell Technologies, Inc. CorelDRAW is a registered trademark of Corel Corporation. AutoCAD is a registered trdemark of Autodesk, Inc., and DXF is a trademark of Autodesk, Inc. The series of programs, scripts, and data files comprising the N.J. Geological Survey FMS are not trademark registered and may be distributed provided appropriate references are given.

Different character fonts are used to highlight program functions that require a keyboard response from the user. All commands, prompts, and menu screens for the DOS-PC part of the FMS appear as Times New Roman font (for example, "Continue with the sort or Return to the main menu?"). The characters shown as bold type indicate the keystroke options that show as highlighted keys of varying colors within the FMS.EXE program. For example, the prompt "Continue with the sort or Return to the main menu?" shows the two highlighted response choices of C or R. In the program, these characters are highlighted light red relative to the other white text characters. At other places in the FMS.EXE program the user will be prompted for specific keyboard responses that require pressing the Enter key. These prompts will have choices indicated within parentheses, for example (Y/N/HELP). This prompt requires a keyboard response corresponding to either "yes", "no", or "help". The phrase "Caps Lock" indicates that the keyboard key Caps Lock should be pressed so that the Caps Lock mode is on. The Ctrl - Print Screen indicates that a sequence of keystrokes is required. In this case, first pressing and holding the Ctrl key and then press the Print Screen key. The different FMS programs are accessed from the main FMS menu by issuing the correct keyboard keystroke. For example, FIELDATA, and DATASORT are two FMS subroutines that respectively, build field data files, and sort FIELDATA files based on user-specified variables.


3.1 Overview

FMS version 2.1 is a computer software upgrade from FMS version 1.0 (Kaeding and Herman, 1988). If an earlier version of the FMS has been previously installed on a hard drive, then delete or move any program files (*.BAS, or *.PBC and *.EXE) from the earlier version to a different subdirectory, and copy the set of programs for version 2.1 into the FMS directory. All data files generated using unedited version 1.0 are upward compatible to version 2.1. However, if the user has customized version 1.0 so that the FIELDATA file structure has been modified from its original form, then there may be a compatibility problem. All subsequent reference to the FMS assumes association with version 2.1.

The FMS provides many new data management, analysis, and graphics plotting functions for geologic data collected from outcrop and compiled from maps. The program requires at least a color VGA monitor, and a math co-processor for 286 or 386 CPUs. The DOS-PC part of the FMS is a set of PowerBASIC programs compiled as executable (*.EXE) and chained (*.PBC) files. Typing and entering FMS at the DOS prompt within the directory where the programs have been copied starts the program. To execute the program from any directory location, copy the supplied FMS.BAT file to any directory that is listed in the "path" statement of your system's AUTOEXEC.BAT file. During program execution, Caps Lock mode should always be active. In addition to the detailed explanation given below of the program functions, the FMS also provides brief, on-line explanations at the beginning of each program and some on-line help utilities within some programs.

Many FMS program routines that have been improved or added in FMS (ver. 2.1). Field data can now be organized in the PC environment using either an abbreviated format (EZSORT) or the standard, detailed format (FIELDATA). Other improvements include better printing (PRINTDAT) and data sorting (DATASORT) utilities. New programs have been added for converting sequential ASCII data files into spreadsheets (INFOCONV), for calculating lineations of intersecting planes (LINCALC), for graphically analyzing the structural bearing of sorted data files (ROSESTAT) or map structures (ARCAZMTH), and for sort or generating map or profile fracture traces (LINSORT and FRACGEN). ROSESTAT provides different utilites for generating circular histograms (rose diagrams) and is used with DATASORT to establish the link between the PC and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) environment for automatically plotting oriented structural data on maps. DATASORT files can also be converted with STERCONV into a file format recognized by RockWare, Inc.'s STEREO stereonet contouring software and can be used with the SVORONOI stereographic contouring software (Appendix C).

The sets of PC-FMS programs use many of the same file input/output (I/O) routines and error traps. A brief discussion of these similarities follows in order to avoid repetitive explanation in the following sections. All programs include some elementary error trapping routines designed to avoid program abortion as a consequence of incorrect responses to program prompts or from other errors arising from entering the wrong file name or directory path. A reminder will usually be displayed immediately below a program prompt that informs the user of the appropriate response. For example, when the following prompt appears during program execution,

the user will be required to answer with a "Y" or "N". If an incorrect response is issued, the following will appear:

The original prompt will then be reissued in its original screen position or on the next screen line.

Other similar functions include subroutines for file I/O. For example, the following prompt:

requires keyboard entry of the disk drive and/or path where FIELDATA files reside. Error traps have been designed to notifying the user if the wrong path or filename was entered. The FMS is designed to use some default paths that will help reduce these I/O errors and to help facilitate program execution. The user is advised to set up the FMS using the following subdirectory structure to reduce the amount of repetitive keystrokes:

At places in the FMS where repetitive keystrokes have been identified, for example when conducting multiple sorts on the same FIELDATA file, the program will prompt for use of current data sets and directory paths rather than having to manually enter the same response multiple times. However, these functions are at varying stages of development in the different routines.

Other error traps have been written to aid in identifying common problems that may arise during program execution. However, these routines will only catch problems once; if the error is subsequently repeated without correction, the program will abort with either no explanation or with a statement citing a particular BASIC or program error number. If there is no apparent solution to the problem, please contact Gregory Herman at the New Jersey Geological Survey at (609) 984-6587 or by email: gregh@njgs.dep.state.nj.us for product support.

3.2 Program details

3.2.0 FMS.EXE

Click here for a graphic view of the main menu screen.

FMS.EXE is the executable program that first displays a title screen, and subsequently invokes the main FMS menu for accessing all other programs. All other FMS programs (*.PBC) are only accessible through this executable program.

Program options are accessed by pressing a keyboard key corresponding to the highlighter letter for a program (for example, pressing [V] for the VARISORT program.).


This program records geologic information for field stations and requires outcrop information for the station number, geologic unit, geographic domain, structural readings and descriptive variables. The data are recorded in sequential ASCII test files that are assigned the file *.FD file name extension . A FIELDATA file can be sorted, parsed, printed, and reformatted, using other FMS programs. Data are entered into FIELDATA files by keyboard entry. Structural data can be entered in either azimuth or quadrant form, but are only saved as azimuth data. The quadrant form is shown below along with converted azimuth equivalents:

   Quadrant form                     Azimuth form
Strike,dip, dip direction    Strike, dip, dip direction
    N45W,23,S              =          135,23,S
       S,45,W              =            0,45,W
    S75W,90,N              =           75,90,N

Data are entered into a file by first specifying the station number, location, and unit variables for an outcrop. Each of these variables can be up to ten alphabetic or integer characters in length. However, no spaces should be used within the variable string. Also, if a FIELDATA file is to be converted into a spreadsheet format using INFOCONV (see section 3.2.7), then the station variables can only be integers and no more than six characters in length.

After entering these initial data for each station, the 'type" of data will next be prompted. It is necessary to enter this primary descriptive variable based on the limited abbreviation list indicated below in section For example, typing in B would specify a bedding measurement. Depending upon the "type" of data, the program will then prompt the user for either a secondary ("kind") modifier, or the structural orientation (strike, dip, dip direction, or trend, plunge). These secondary variables must be an even number of characters up to ten. A suggested list of secondary variables is shown in section Care should be taken not to have "kind" modifiers with the same abbreviation as "types" of structures. If the user forgets the different variables for use in data entry, HELP can be entered at the appropriate prompt and a list of the suggested abbreviations will appear on the screen.

The user can also create their own secondary variables, provided each variable is only two characters long. Much information may be linked together and entered as the secondary variable. This allows the user great flexibility when later sorting through the data. For example, to specify a quartz-coated (QZ), tool and groove (TG) slickenside indicating left lateral (LL) displacement, the user could enter QZTOLL for a "kind" modifier and this information would then be stored in the modifier data file position. If the user wants to provide "kind" modifiers for "types" of data that do not ordinarily require additional modifying variables in the program (such as bedding or joints), the two "types" of data "P" and "L" allow entry of "user-specific planar and linear structures" respectively. For example, in order to specify an nonmineralized joint plane (JU) with a spacing classification of C1, the "type" of data would be entered as "P", followed by "kind", JUC1.

The structural orientation data immediately follows data entry for a structure's descriptive variable(s). The structural data uses a comma-delimited convention that is prompted for in the program. For example, a bedding plane orientation would be entered as 80,45,N. The dip direction must be only one character, usually based on either a north or south hemisphere convention. However, structures that either strike or trend due west or east can use either W or E. These latter directional modifiers can be used for other orientations, although it is recommended that the north and south modifiers be used as a preference due to the program design. Also, because of the program design, vertical dips also require a dip direction entry. This does not affect any subsequent spatial analysis or sorting routines. Just be sure to include this entry in the conventional format.

If you make a mistake at any point in data entry, type Z the next time your are prompted for the "type" of data. You will be asked to enter the number of data points you want deleted. For instance, if the error was in the dip of a bedding plane in which you entered B and then 34,99,N, you would type Z and then a 4 when asked for the number of pieces of info you want deleted. Each entry separated by either a carriage return (Enter) or by a comma counts as one piece of data. This procedure will automatically tag the areas that need to be erased. Later, after you are finished entering data, errors can be removed by running the file through the CLEANUP program, accessed from the main FMS menu.

When you've finished typing in the data from one station and are ready to input data from another, enter S when the "type" of data is prompted. The program will then prompt for the next station number, location, and unit, etc..... When you are finished entering data, type END at the "type" of data prompt, and the data will be saved to the file you specified in the beginning.

*note: Experienced users may want to abandon the data entry mode using the FIELDATA program, and simply build their own data files using a non-document ASCII word processing program, such as the MS-DOS editor or Windows Notepad. This alternate mode of data entry is more flexible, and has proven to be more efficient in some instances. However, it is important that the conventional FIELDATA file format is maintained, because any deviations from the required data format will jeopardize subsequent data processing routines elsewhere in the FMS. Data "type" abbreviations

Following is the restricted list of primary variables used in the FMS:

B = Bedding                        L = User-defined Linear Structure
BDZ = Brittle Deformation Zone     P = User-defined Planar Structure
C = Cleavage                       SP = Shear Plane
DDZ = Ductile Deformation Zone     SZ = Shear Zone
F = Fault                          SL = Slickenline (Lineation)
FI = Fiber                         SS = Slickenside (Shear plane
FO = Foliation                     ST = Stylolite
FR = Fracture                      TG = Tension Gash
J = Joint                          TGA = Tension Gash Array
KB = Kink Band                     V = Vein
KBB = Kink Band Boundary           LAY = Layering Data "kind" abbreviations

Following is a suggested list of two-character variables for use with the FMS. Any combination of secondary variables can be used providing that the variables are two characters long and a maximum of ten characters is used. The user can also devise new secondary variables but must avoid the use of character strings used for the primary variables.

AM = amphibole
BC = bedding-cleavage intersection
BI = biotite
CA = calcite
CR = crenulation                    NO = normal
CC = crosscut                       PM = prominent/primary
CH = chlorite                       PX = pyroxene
CJ = conjugate                      QZ = quartz
CT = cataclasite                    RL = right lateral
EP = epidote                        RV = reverse
FA = fold axis                      SB = subordinate
FC = fracture (for cleavage)        SC = secondary
HB = hornblende                     SI = slip
LL = left lateral                   SY = slaty
MI = mica                           TO = tool and groove
MY = mylonite                       XX = unspecified Entering slickenside data

The FMS only process slickenside orientations that have been measured using pitch (rake) on a shear plane. If a slickensided shear plane has been measured using conventional trend and plunge for the lineation, then use the separate data entry "type" SP (shear plane) and SL (slickenline). By specifying "type" SS, the FIELDATA program converts the pitch information into a lineation with trend and plunge, and saves the shear plane information as "SP" and the lineation data as "SL". The following routines illustrates this mode of data entry:

As seen with the above example, the dip of the plane must only have one directional variable, whereas the pitch direction requires two variables. If there are data entry errors in specifying these directional variables, then there are error traps that will prompt for data reentry. Also, if the specified rake direction of the lineation does not properly qualify as an acceptable direction based on the plane's orientation, an error notice will be given and the user is then prompted to either retry data entry or enter a different set of data.


Prints *.FD files to either the screen or to a printer.


After accessing DATASORT from the main menu, Starting the program, and specifying the appropriate input and output directory path and file names (see section 3.1 above), the user is prompted:

Responding "N" invokes the general data sort routine, and produces a sorted (*.SRT) file that contain only the structural data orientation information from those locations and/or units specified in subsequent menu prompts. Responding "Y" results in other prompts and subroutines used in producing sorted mesostructure files (*.MES), which are designed for use with the companion workstation program (meso.aml) for automatically plotting oriented structure symbols in an ARCPLOT map composition (see section 4.2).

This program will not sort files with error tags remaining from FIELDATA entry. Make sure that you CLEANUP any *.FD files before sorting. General data sort (*.SRT files)

The general DATASORT program sorts and collates structural orientation data from FIELDATA files based on a set of descriptive variables that you specify. Structural data for a "type" and "kind" of structural feature from designated geologic units and/or locations are sorted and written to sequential ASCII files that are assigned a file name extension .SRT. If you want to sort and collate structural information from particular stations, then run VARISORT to make a new data file only for those stations.

For the general DATASORT, the user may first choose to sort data from a certain location and/or unit from the following menu prompts:

The user must next decide what "type" and "kind" of structural feature to sort, and from what station(s), location, or unit depending upon the initial response. As with FIELDATA, "type" and "kind" abbreviations are available upon request within the program. A notable feature of this revised version of the FMS is the option to sort for all "kinds" of a particular "type" of structure by specifying "ALL" to the "Kind of structure" prompt. This option has proven to be very useful for conducting sort routines for 'types" of structural features that ordinarily require differentiation, but can be evaluated as an entire group of structures without requiring multiple sort procedures.

The user is encouraged to browse through FIELDATA files prior to sorting to obtain a list of kind modifiers used in a file. Make sure you use the same abbreviation that is used within FIELDATA files. After the search is complete, the program will specify the number of data sorted from the corresponding number of field stations. The user should make a written record of this information as a matter of data bookkeeping. Mesostructure file data sorting (*.MES files)

After starting DATASORT the user is prompted for file input and output directory paths, and file names. The following prompt then appears on the screen:

If the initial response is "Y", another prompt will follow:

If the user answers "Y" to this second prompt, then additional file input/output operations are needed for accessing existing statistics files (*.LUT) generated with earlier ROSESTAT statistics dump subroutines (see section By either answering "N" to the second prompt, or when finishing the file input/output requirements needed by a "Y" response, a third and final screen prompt will appear:

By answering "N" to this third prompt, the program will immediately begin the sort process and list the results according to following *.MES file format:

Answering the prompt with "HELP" invokes an explanation screen and subsequently returns the prompt for appropriate action.

The entire process for generating a *.MES file for use with ARC/INFO-ARCPLOT meso.aml is summarized below.

1) Use DATSORT or EZSORT with the "N" response to the initial program query ("Will this sort be used to create a mesostructure plot file? (Y/N)). This will generate a .SRT file only containing structural orientation data.

2) Use the resulting .SRT file in ROSESTAT to create a .LUT reference file by specifying "Dump statistics" after the diagram is displayed on the screen. The .LUT file contains numeric values for each 10 degree sector corresponding to weighted markersymbol length values for any structures occurring in the corresponding sector.

3) Conduct another DATASORT or EZSORT using the "Y" response to the initial program query ("Will this sort be used to create a mesostructure plot file? (Y/N), and then respond to the next set of queries regarding frequency-weighted plot symbols and domain overlap analysis.

4) Next enter the name of the previously generated .LUT file when prompted, and the resulting sort process displays the results to the screen. Afterwards, the program prompts the user to either save the sorted data to file, to sort again, or exit the program. Domain overlap analysis

A "Y" response to the following prompt initiates a set of program subroutines that allow the user to sort for structures showing "domain overlap":

This program routine filters structural data based on FIELDATA location or unit variables and selected ranges of strike or trend azimuths. It is designed to facilitate comparison of similar structural trends among differing structural domains or for entire data set. For example, if a set of azimuth sectors are observed maximums for a particular structure in one structural domain, then this option will allow the user to sort for all occurrences of similar structures having the specified range of strike or trend azimuths in other FIELDATA locations (structural domains). This may be of particular utility in examining the extent and distribution of coeval structures, (for example joint sets) in overlapping structural domains. Refer to Appendix A for an example of this application. The resulting output file will be assigned a *.MES file name extension and will consist of the standard *.MES file format (see above, section

Because this sort option is designed for use with meso.aml in ARCPLOT (refer to section 4.2) the station number must be an integer with a maximum length of six characters. The trend angle is either the strike or dip azimuth of a planar structure or the trend of a linear structure. The weighting factor is derived from an existing *.LUT file previously generated from a ROSEPLOT statistics routine (section


Varisort.PBC sorts and collates structural data from an input FIELDATA (*.FD) file based on station number, geologic units, or location variables. All data from each station containing the specified variables is written or appended to another designated output FIELDATA file. This program will not sort files with error tags remaining from FIELDATA entry. Make sure that you CLEANUP *.FD files before sorting.

At the start of the program, the following menu appears on the screen:

After indicating the type of sort routine, the user is then asked to specify file input and output directory paths, file names, and other sorting variables. VARISORT unit and location sorting

Sorting data files using unit or location variables requires input of sort variables one at a time followed by the response "END". The following example shows a set of screen prompts and sample entries for the option "Unit sort by a geologic unit or multiple units." VARISORT station sorting

When specifying the station sort option, the user must choose between:

Choosing the Individual stations sort mode invokes the same series of prompts used for variable input during the unit or location sort routine (section However, if the user chooses to sort for a Range of stations, then the following example illustrates the accompanying screen display and input mode:

After ending the variable input mode for any sort option, the program displays a list of the station number being read from the input file, and indicates those stations for which data are being saved into the new file. The user should browse through the input FIELDATA files prior to sorting to check for the appropriate variables and to make sure that these same variables are specified for the sort.


Click here for a graphic view one program option Overview

ROSESTAT provides various graphic routines for statistically analyzing structural bearing and inclination, and the number of structural readings in a data set. Date are input using DATASORT (*.SRT) files. Available plot options include half- or full-rose histogram analysis (rose diagrams) of planar strike or dip azimuth, lineation trend, or simultaneous planar strike and dip azimuth. Other plot options allow the user to choose between diagrams that show either 5- or 10-degree sectors, or 1 degree spikes. Some basic sector and data file statistics are included. A statistics dump program subroutine is also provided for the purpose of generating an output file to be used in conjunction with the set of ARCPLOT AMLS and form menus for plotting oriented structural symbols on maps (section 4.0).

The program is currently written so that hard copy graphic output is only obtained by screen capture with a non-supplied utility program of the user choice. In order to retrieve a hard copy of a graphics-mode screenplot, a screen-capture utility program must be memory resident before running FMS and ROSEPLOT. The N.J. Geological Survey uses GRAFPLUS by Jewell Technologies, Inc. to obtain a direct screendump of a plot to a raster (*.PCX) file for subsequent editing and hardcopy printing. Program functions

After accessing ROSESTAT from the FMS main menu and Starting the program, an initial screen prompt is displayed as follows:

Usually, a second screen prompt that provides options for the bin size of the circular histogram follows the preceding menu prompt:

However, the fourth option from the initial menu (Both strike and dip azimuth for same planar data set) defaults to a sector bin size of 10 degree, and therefore will not subsequently show the second plot option menu. After responding to the initial menu prompt, the user will then be asked to specify the appropriate input directory path and file names (see section 3.1 above). Subsequent program options depend upon the desired utility. Spike diagrams

Click here for example graphic; program option half-rose , 1 degree spike diagram

The 1 degree histogram (spike diagram) shown below illustrates the standard graphics display and associated statistics included for Half-rose strike of planar data with 1 degree spike diagram option. In addition to the rose diagram, file information and statistics are shown which include the DATASORT (*.SRT) file name and number of readings (n = 546), the mode azimuth, the percentage of the total data set that the mode represents, the mean dip and standard deviation (rms dev.) for the data set, and the value of the outer circle. These data are standard for both the half- and full-rose display options utilizing the 1o spike diagram.

The set of screen prompts that appear in the lower left side of the graphics screen display available options for subsequent program actions. To proceed, simply enter a keyboard response corresponding to one of the highlighted alphabetic characters. Sector diagrams

Click here for a graphic display of a full-rose diagram using the 5 degree sector program option on planar data.

The 5 degree histogram shown below illustrates the standard graphics display and associated statistics included for Full-rose strike of planar data with 5 degree sector diagram options. In addition to the rose diagram, file information and statistics are shown which include the DATASORT file name and number of readings ( n = 591), individual sector information including the percentage of the total data set within a particular sector and the average dip, the mean dip and standard deviation (rms. dev.) for the entire data set, and the value of the outer circle. These data are standard for both the half- and full-rose display options utilizing either the 5- or 10-degree sector diagrams. Because the number of sector often exceeds the vertical screen dimensions for a single screen, the user has the option of systematically viewing and reviewing the sector statistics by responding appropriately to the screen prompt. .The set of screen prompts that appear in the lower left side of the graphics screen display available options for subsequent program actions. To proceed, simply enter a keyboard response corresponding to one of the highlighted alphabetic symbols. Diagram showing both strike and dip azimuth

Click here for a full-rose diagram graphic using the 10 degree sectors for simultaneous display of strike and dip trends of planar data.

The 10 degree sector histogram shown below illustrates the standard graphics display and associated statistics included for Both strike and dip azimuth for same planar data set. As previously mentioned, the bin size defaults to 10 degree sectors. In addition to the rose diagram, file information and statistics are shown which include the DATASORT (*.SRT) file name and number of readings (n = 361), the mean dip and standard deviation (rms dev.) for the entire data set, and the value of the outer circle. Individual sector information includes dip statistics for the percentage of the total data set and the average dip for a particular sector, displayed for opposing dip azimuth values (SE versus NW).

The set of screen prompts that appear in the lower left side of the graphics screen display available options for subsequent program actions. To proceed, simply enter a keyboard response corresponding to one of the highlighted alphabetic symbols. Trend diagrams

The plot option for lineations with no dip data requires an ASCII data format having sequential strike azimuths ranging between 0 to 179 degrees as shown in the example:

The file name extension .LIN must be used for recognition by this program. All types of diagram displays are available for this plot option. The file information and statistics given for this option are the same as the regular spike and sector diagrams as indicated above, except there are no dip statistics.

A set of screen prompts will appear in the lower left side of the graphics screen with options for subsequent program actions. To proceed, simply enter a keyboard response corresponding to one of the highlighted alphabetic symbols. Statistics dump for producing mesostructure reference files (*.LUT)

Click here for VGA graphic display of a full-rose digram with gaphics-dump prompt.

This ROSESTAT program routine writes a set of sector-based statistics from a structural data set to a sequential ASCII file that can be accessed used as a mesostructure plot file for DATASORT (see section This subroutine can only be accessed by pressing D for dump statistics as prompted for on the The sector-based statistics include the normalized relative frequency values for each 10 degree sector based on the group's sector maximum The normalized sector values can be multiplied by a user-specified numerical value for adjusting the value of output parameter. The range of output values can thus be frequency-weighed and used as input variables for setting the grapahics size for ARCPLOT markersymbol in the meso.aml data plotting (refer to section 4.0). The equation for the markersize value is shown below:

The resulting markersize values used for automated map-symbol plotting are therefore factored values and not the data distribution percentages displayed for a rose diagram on the graphics screen. Planar data files will have up to 18 sectors ranging from 0 to 179 degrees. Linear data files will have up to 36 sectors ranging from 0 to 359 degrees. The resulting output file will contain numeric (decimal) values. The file name root will be the same as for the DATASORT file but will be assigned an ouput file name extension of .LUT.

The subroutine for entering the user-specified decimal factor is interactive, as it allows the user to repeatedly enter different decimal fractions until the desired maximum markersize value is attained. For example, the program will issue an original prompt as follows:

If the user enters the numeric value of .305 (in an attempt to achieve a maximum markersize of .3"), and then if the resulting maximum markersize value is too low as illustrated by the resulting screen display:

then by pressing "A" for "Adjust the markersize values", the current numerical factor is displayed, and the user is prompted to enter another numerical value for achieving the desired markersymbol value. For example:

This process can be repeated until the maximum markersize value is attained and the user returns to the start-up menu for subsequent program actions.



This program is accessed from the main FMS menu and is used to remove errors in FIELDATA file that were tagged during a data entry session. Refer to section 3.2.1 above for additional information about this routine.


This program converts a sequential FIELDATA input file into an output file with a spreadsheet (array) format. The converted output file will have the same root file name as the input file, but will be assigned a file name extension of *.INF. This program will not convert station numbers that include alphabetic or symbol variables, and the station number must not exceed six integers in length.

Because of the strict data input format required for file I/O functions, this program can be used to check the sequential FIELDATA files for data entry errors. The output format provides a data file structure that facilitates uploading of data files generated in the FMS into spreadsheet database files.


This program is designed sort lineation trends (0 to 179 degrees) from ASCII text files composed of delimited database variables denoting lineation trend and lithology traversed by the lineation. The program sorts a subset of trends based on user input of alphabetic variables corresponding to lithologic units. The data file name extension must be *.DAT. Sorting is based on variables manually assigned to each lineation by the user from map anaylsis. The program is designed to sort lineation data based on lithologic variables denoting the unit(s) that the lineation traverse(s). The variable string is alphabetic and should have the youngest lithic unit listed first and oldest last.

The data format must be NNN AAA$, where NNN is the strike azimuth and AAA$ is a single or complex character string variable denoting the lithic unit(s) that the lineation intersect(s). For example:

The output file name is assigned the file name extension *.LIN and contains a sequence of trend data only. The following screen display prompts the user for a sort option:

After choosing an option, file I/O operations are prompted.

This program was written to investigate fault strike orientations in a volcanic terrain exhibiting multiple episodes of faulting and volcanic activity. The variation of fault trends with time was analyzed based on the ages of the volcanic units cut by the faults.


This program converts DATATSORT (*.SRT) files into a file format required by STEREO, the commercially available stereonet contouring software by RockWare, Inc. Converted *.SRT files are assigned the file name extension *.DAT. After starting the program, the following screen prompt is displayed.

By choosing one of these initial options, the user is then prompted to enter an input *.SRT file for conversion and to specify file output directory path and file name. The user is also requested to supply the following information:



This program was designed for the user that wishes to utilize many of the FMS functions without having to build a complete FIELDATA file. The program reads data from simplified data files having the file name extension .FDZ. These data files only contain outcrop station numbers, structural geologic orientation data, and the station delimiter "/". The following examples illustrate the format of a custom *.FDZ file:

(format)                   (example)
station number              123456
strike,dip,dip-direction    N45E,60,S
strike,dip,dip-direction    NS,40,W
station number              289465
strike,dip,dip-direction    123,88,N
strike,dip,dip-direction    45,67,S

Data can be read in either quadrant or azimuth form, but data entered in quadrant form are automatically converted to their azimuth equivalent. The following examples show data entry variations and their azimuth equivalent (strike, dip, dip-direction or trend plunge):

Regardless of the data entry format, the dip-direction must have only one (1) direction indicator, and the station number can be any integer up to six digits with no hyphens or spaces. EZSORT will then sort the designated input file and creates output sort (*.SRT) or mesostructure (*.MES) files for use in conjunction with FMS ROSESTAT and meso.aml. EZSORT uses the same sorting subroutines for generating the mesostructure plot files as explained for DATASORT (section


This program calculates intersection lineations for sets of planar structures within a designated FIELDATA file or for any two specific planes. Upon starting the program from the main FMS menu, the following screen prompt is displayed. Intersection lineation from two user-specified planes

The data input format for this program option requires data entry for strike azimuth between 0 degree and179 degree , dip angles between 0 degree and 90 degree, and dip direction variables entered as N, S, E, or W. There must be a dip direction entered, even for horizontal or vertical planes (ex. 124,45,N or 0,90,N). The following sequence emulates the screen display prompts during data entry:

Please note that after typing in each plane, the Enter key must be pressed. Also note that to terminate data entry mode, a negative number should be entered as shown in the example above. Intersection lineations from FIELDATA files.

This program option automatically calculates intersection lineation for up to three types of specified planes from individual field stations in a FIELDATA file. Lineation orientations can be output into either DATASORT (*.SRT) files or EZSORT (*.FDZ) data files. After choosing this calculation option, the screen displays the following prompt:

This option allows the user to filter the lineation intersection data to include only those lineations occurring in a specified range of plunge values. This plunge filter was devised to provide users with a tool for examining the occurrence of a particular set of intersection lineations that are of relative importance with respect to restricted ranges of correlative data. For example, this option could be used for comparing intersection trends of fractures mapped for a bedrock aquifer where the mapped draw-down-curves for an aquifer pump-test indicate anisotropic flow conditions. By limiting the intersection routine to calculate only gently plunging intersections, the hydraulic anisotropy of the aquifer in the map view can be directly compared with the azimuth orientation of only those fracture intersections that most likely contribute to the hydraulic effects observed in the map view.

After specifying the range of plunge angles to calculate, the program next prompts for the types of planes to use in the intersection calculation. For example:

As indicated in the example above, on-line help is available for determining what abbreviations to use. The help screens operate in a similar manner as for the FIELDATA program (section 3.2.1).

After specifying the necessary types and kinds of information for the sort routine, the user is then prompted to supply file I/O information and the file output results are both displayed to screen and written to file.


This program can be used to automatically update the unit and location variables in a FIELDATA (*.FD) file based on a list of station attributes contained in a reference ASCII file generated in ARC/INFO from a geologic coverage. The reference file must have the file name extension .NSP. It can be generated in ARC/INFO using the IDENTITY command for a station point file containing the identical set of outcrop station numbers used in FIELDATA files, and an IDENTITY (ARC/INFO) polygon coverage for which the geologic units and location variables have been assigned. The *.NSP file is produced in INFO using a command string such as: {LIST station,geonum,domain PRINT}, which generates an arcnsp textfile that can be edited as a ASCII textfile for use in this program. All program prompts use the standard data file input/output functions found elsewhere in the FMS. An example of an unedited arcnsp file and it's edited correlative (*.NSP) is shown below.

This program was written because we needed to periodically assign field station to different structural domains. This program allows changes to FIDELDATA files to be semiautomated rather than having manually edit the data file.

Please note that the input arcnsp file needs to be edited to a format required by FIELDATA for post data entry processing. Specifically, all alphabetic characters need capitalization, and variable strings must be comma delimited in the *.NSP file.


Click here for a graphic illustration showing program option 3 using 5 degree bins.

This program extracts chord or polyline segment lengths and calculates azimuth statistics from an AutoCAD drawing exchange file (*.DXF) containing line and polyline data. The geographic azimuth (0 degree -179 degree) for the set of arcs are tallied and summarized with histogram plots of azimuth angle versus percentage occurrence for either 1 degree , 5 degree , or 10 degree histogram bins. Other options within the program allow for simultaneous comparison of strike azimuth for sets of lines and outcrop structural data from existing DATASORT (*.SRT) files.

The opening menu offering the different program functions is as follows:

Program options numbers 1 and 2 were designed for analyzing gently-inclined planar structures such as thrust faults that may exhibit tortuous map traces where topographic relief is high and the map trace of a fault may not accurately reflect the average strike of the planar feature. For this option, the endpoints of each arc segment are used for determining the chord azimuth and length. Program options 3 and 4 calculate the structural bearing and length of any curve consisting of a series of lines or polylines.

The top graph in the example graphic shows the azimuth bearing of a set of moderate- to high-angle faults (mostly normal-slip) over a six-quadrangle region and the lower graph summarizes the strike for 2360 Mode 1 (tensional), non-bedding fractures measured within the same area. Program option 5 generates a histogram of the structural bearing for data contained within a DATASORT file only. Hardcopy output of the graphics is obtained by using any screen-capture utility of the user's choice (not supplied).


Click here for a graphic display of the spatial distribution of 627 outcrop fractures measured on 174 filed stations.

This program generates a screen display of fracture traces from two input files: a mesostructure plot file (*.MES) and a comma-delimited ASCII file containing geographic coordinates and a point ids (*.STA). The FRACGEN program also produces data-output files containing pairs of geographic coordinates corresponding to end points of fracture trends. The output file format is structured for generating line coverages using ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) software. FRACGEN is designed for input files containing x-coordinate data increasing westward and y-coordinate increasing northward). Use of other coordinate data has not been tested.

Two types of input files are required for FRACGEN. The first is an ASCII file containing an outcrop station number, x-coordinate value, and a y-coordinate value (for example, 45708,785006,500000). This file should have the file-name extension *.STA, and can be generated from INFO using the <LIST STATION,X-COORD,Y-COORD PRINT> command for a pre-existing ARC/INFO point coverage with the aforementioned items. The second input file requires an ASCII text file with the structure of a mesostructure (*.MES) data file generated within the DATASORT program. Output files will be generated and assigned the *.AML file name extension. This file then can be used within ARC/INFO to generate a line coverage.

Two main program options are available for generating output files. Both options produce coordinate data corresponding to the endpoints of lines. The first option produces lines for the map view showing the structural bearing of either planar (strike) or linear (trend) geologic structures. The second option produces lines on a vertical profile (cross section) view showing the apparent inclination (dip) of planar structures from an inclined perspective normal to the map azimuth. The user can choose the map azimuth (0-179 degree ) through the center of the map data or specify one by entering coordinate pairs for the endpoints. A user-specified projection angle is used to calculate the depth at which the endpoints of each map trace are plotted relative to an assumed horizontal map surface. A projection angle of 0 degree will result in all apparent dips being plotted at the same height along a straight datum, whereas a projection angle of 90 degree plots the dip traces at the map positions. All data points in the *.MES file that also occur in the *.STA file will be projected and plotted with an apparent inclination. Another program option provides filtering of restricted ranges of map azimuth or apparent dip values. Upon saving the data to an *.AML file, the fracture trace will be assigned a line-ID value equal to either the dip or apparent dip of the fracture trace. Finally, if fracture traces are to be generated for the profile then the mesostructure (*.MES) file must contain structural data in a dip azimuth format.

FRACGEN calculates a map slope of the profile trace based on either the data distribution or the specified profile end points. The program then projects and translates each outcrop location and end points of each fracture trace into a profile view using the point-slope equation for the profile map trace and a set of trigonometric functions. All data are projected onto a profile plane relative to a horizontal datum equal to zero elevation. The elevation of all projected outcrop locations is expressed as either positive or negatives elevations relative to the datum. The screen display for this option is similar to that for the map option but also includes a display of the profile datum along with a text summary of the azimuth bearing for the profile and the projection angle.

The sequence of program menus is as follows:

If the map option is chosen then the following prompts appear:

Upon pressing either S or D, the user is then prompted:

If weighting factors are to be used, then the user is prompted:

After responding to a series of additional directory and file I/O specification prompts, the program the user to enter a value for the length of the fracture trace:

After entering this value, the program then plots the fracture trace data on the screen and offers the user the option to either view the points (outcrop locations) only, save the *.AML file, filter the data by azimuth range, restart the program, or exit the program. The fracture trace length is 10,000 feet centered at the outcrop location indicated by the small circles. The minimum and maximum map coordinates are summarized to the right of the map display and subsequent program functions are prompted below.

If the profile option is initially chosen, then the following prompts appear after responding to set of program prompts listed above:

If a custom profile option is specified, then the user is next requested to enter the map coordinates for end points of the profile:


4.1 Overview

The group of software programs that comprise the UNIX part of the FMS are a collection of ARC Macro Language (AML) scripts and ARCPLOT form menus, markerset files, and lineset files designed for making digital geologic maps. These programs have only been tested on Sun Workstations running ARC/INFO (ver. 7.0). The main function of these programs is to automatically plot oriented structural geology symbols on maps. They also provide many of the tools needed for composing bedrock geology maps in the ARC/INFO GIS environment. The line files (bedrock.lin and surface.lin) are based on U.S. Geological Survey cartographic standards. Although the bedrock.mrk markersymbol file contains many structure symbols that conform to the U.S. Geological Survey cartographic standards, many other symbols are custom designs of the N.J. Geological Survey that do not conform with the federal standards. The N.J. Geological Survey does not guarantee the accuracy or performance of any of these software products and assumes no liability as a result of their installation and use. This user's manual only explains the group of scripts and form menus assembled by the N.J. Geological Survey for use with ARC/INFO GIS. We therefore assume that the user has a working familiarity with ARC/INFO GIS in order to install and use these products.

The series of scripts that comprise the symbol-plotting program (meso.aml) have only been tested in ARCPLOT and do not generate ARC/INFO symbol coverages. Structural symbols and associated annotation are produced as graphic elements within ARCPLOT map-compositions. These graphic files can be grouped as a single composition element or kept separate for subsequent cartographic editing and reproduction. However, numbers that are generated for indicating structural inclination can be saved as annotation within an outcrop point coverage by activating a switch on the Location & Drawing Form Menu (section 4.2.3) before starting the plot routine. Coverage annotation can then be edited in either ARCPLOT or ARCEDIT.

4.2. meso.aml

The automated symbol-plotting routine is started in the GIS environment by entering the &r meso command at the ARCPLOT prompt. It is therefore necessary to have a meso.aml file in the working directory from which the command is issued or include the directory path if the file resides in a different workspace (for example, &r /bedrock/geology/meso.aml). The meso.aml file initalizes a group of directory path variables that are used for file input/output (I/O) functions. The directory path variables include those used for:

The provided lineset (bedrock.lin and surface.lin), markerset (bedrock.mrk), and font files (font34 and font27) must either reside in the directory containing meso.aml or be placed into the appropriate working directory by the system administrator for global access. We recommend placing the lineset and markerset files into the arc install directory for symbols (for example /esri/arcexe70/symbols) and the font files in the arc install directory for fonts (for example /esri/arcexe70/igl70exe). All of the other form menus and utility scripts used by meso.aml should reside in a general utility workspace from which multiple users have read access.

An integral part of the meso.aml programs is the point coverage for field stations (outcrops). These coverages are usually digitized from field maps, built solely as point coverages, and given an integer item for the station number (INFO item STATION with 6 input and 6 output characters). The N.J. Geological Survey only uses integers for numbering field stations. The first two or three-digits correspond to a quadrangle reference number and the remaining three digits specifying the station number. For example, station number 55106 is the 106th station in quadrangle number 55. The ARC command addxy must also be issued for the point coverage so that the Cartesian coordinates for each station are added to the coverage's point attribute table (INFO .PAT file).

4.2.1 meso.aml menu

The startup.menu appears on screen after typing and entering the &run meso command at the system prompt in a command tool.. All form menus work by positioning the screen cursor over the appropriate icon and pressing the left-hand mouse button. The right-hand mouse button will provide help text located on the lower left-hand side of each form menu. This startup.menu provides options to setup the map composition (Setup Map Composer), configure and run a plot session (Location & Drawing), or end the meso.aml (Done).

4.2.2 Setup Map Composer menu

The Map Composer Setup Menu menu appears on the screen after clicking on the Setup Map Composer button of the startup.menu. The Mapextent, Mapunits, Mapscale, and Pagesize functions are ordinary ARCPLOT session parameters that are required for starting a map composition. It's not necessary to use this menu to initialize these variables if they were previously set from the command line or from running an AML. However, it is necessary to initialize the Mapscale button if you are plotting the value of the structural inclination or if frequency-weighted plot symbols are chosen as a menu option in the following Location & Drawing menu (section 4.2.3). The mapscale variable is used as part of the plotting algorithm to determine the proper spacing and location of the number relative to the oriented structural symbol. The Arcplot command line button is used for temporarily exiting the form menu so that ARCPLOT or other system commands can be entered from the command line. The user must subsequently return to the form menu by typing &return at the command line. The MAP END button closes the current map composition, the CLEAR DISPLAY and RESET DISPLAY are self explanatory. The Done and Cancel buttons will exit this form menu and return to the startup.menu. All form menus should be exited before ending an ARCPLOT session.

4.2.3 Location & Drawing menu

The Location and Drawing Menu provides the link to the graphics environment for choosing the plot symbol and executing the symbol-plotting routine.

All variables should be initialized on the plot.menu except for the small square boxes that will display a check mark when clicked. The STATION COVERAGES frame shows the ARC/INFO point coverages, which contain the outcrop station number and geographic variables, used for locating the position of each symbol. We advise users to only place outcrop-station coverages in the workspace specified in the meso.aml for station coverages because line and polygon coverages within the workspace will also be listed in this frame which could lead to confusion and program errors. The *.MES frame lists the available mesostructure files. These are the ASCII files that were generated in the FMS (DOS-PC) platform (section and uploaded to the UNIX platform. This file transfer generally requires a dos2unix conversion.

The STRUCTURE SYMBOL frame contains choices of the markersymbols from the bedrock.mrk markerset file. The correlation between these menu choices and the markersymbol can be edited in the ../meso/amls/draw.aml script. The user should refer to the bedrock.mrk plot file (mrklin.gra) for choosing symbols that are made available with this product. Other custom symbols can be added to this script.

The MARKERCOLOR menu selection is self-explanatory. The ORIENTATION menu buttons provide options for plotting symbols using dip azimuth or strike/trend. Most of the markersymbols used for planar structures (for example bedding, cleavage, foliation, etc.) require the dip azimuth option. The strike/trend button is used for map lineations with or without plunge. The button choice directly corresponds to the azimuth variable in the *.MES file as established in the DATASORT program routine discussed earlier (section If the user chooses a *.MES file that was designed for a sip azimuth plot in the DATASORT routine but wants to use this same file for plotting strike lineations only, then check the da->str menu button and the draw.aml corrects the azimuth for each plotted symbol.

The MARKERLENGTH button provides choices for the size of the structural symbol (in inches). The weighted option uses the value from the chosen *.MES file for setting variably-sized plot symbols. Refer to section for more information on the deriving these symbol lenghts using ROSESTAT and DATASORT. The remaining choices for markersymbol length are self-explanatory. If other symbol sizes are preferred, then edit the plot.menu using the ARCPLOT formedit command, or simply change the value of the variable using the system text editor. The weighted x _______ entry line provides the user with the choice of reducing the markersymbol size by the entered value when making map compositions of varied scales. It is important to set the MARKERLENGTH menu option after setting the STRUCTURE SYMBOL. Otherwise, the default value (.30 inches) for the chosen markersymbol will be used.

The DIP/PLUNGE VALUES buttons provide options for plotting inclination values for the structural symbol. The none option plots only the structural symbols. The group button will sequentially plot the dip or plunge value immediately after the structure symbol. The separate button will first plot all symbols then subsequently plot all numbers resulting in disassociated symbols and numbers. The colored button automatically sets the color of the plot symbol based on the value of its inclination. The default colors and the inclination values are green (for values less than 30 degree ), blue (30 degree - 60 degree ), and red (61 degree - 90 degree). This option is useful for identifying structural domains based on the inclination of sets of structures (for example, identifying domains containing gently dipping cleavage form moderate- to steeply-dipping cleavage). No numbers will be plotted using this plot option. The meso.aml program is also set up to use different joint symbols that are based on these same ranges of structural inclination. Gentle-dipping joints use an unfilled flag for their representation, moderate-dipping joints have a flag that is half-filled diagonally, steeply-dipping joints have solid flags, and vertical joints can use either bisected hollow or solid flags. The unattached end of the flag for all joint symbols points in the direction of dip. This approach is used to alleviate the crowding normally associated with plotting multiple joint readings and their inclination values at each outcrop. If the user prefers to plot joint symbols and their dip values, then simply edit the plot.menu using the ARCPLOT formedit command, or simply change the value of the variable within the textfile using the system text editor.

The annocoverage button, when checked, will automatically create an annotation coverage (annocoverage) for the current point coverage based on the DIP/PLUNGE values. After plotting a set of structures and numbers, the user must temporarily exit the form menu using the ARCPLOT Command Line button and issue the ARCPLOT command annocover none to end annocover annotation entry. The command line directive &return returns control of the program to the form menu.

The mgroup symbols button, when checked, will group all symbols for a plotted set into one map composition element. This menu option can be used to limit the number of map composition elements for maps requiring a large number of symbols. It is important to remember the 1000-element limit for any single map composition.

The Draw icon/button on the lower right part of the form menu issues the command to begin the plot routine once all of the aforementioned menu options have been initialized. When this button is clicked and the plotting is underway, some ARCPLOT selection processes will be echoed as text strings in the active command tool window during cursor processing. The UNIX busy-clock icon will also appear whenever the mouse cursor is placed over the active form menu. Upon finishing the plot, the command tool window stops scrolling text, and the mouse cursor display returns to the regular pointing (arrowhead) icon.

Other form menu options are provided that allow subsequent editing functions to the map composition and post-processsing menu-control options. The Msel *, Mmove *, Mwho *, Minfo, and Mdelete buttons are used to edit map composition elements. The Help button calls help textfile that provides details describing form menu functions and control. The Cancel and Done buttons exit the menu and return program control to the intial startup menu.

5.0 Other ARC/INFO utilities and graphics files

Other form menus, amls, and map compositions are included in the meso directory that facilitate map construction and editing. These include the:

A station coverage for the Newfoundland 7-1/2 minute quadrangle and three corresponding *.MES files are also included as a reference to help you get started. The coverage has been exported as nwfndlnd.e00 and needs to be imported for use. The *.MES files include two files for planar structures (NEWFB.MES - bedding and NEWFJNTS.MES - joints) and one file for lineations (NEWFBCI.MES - bedding and cleavage intersections). The planar files were sorted using the dip azimuth option for generating an output file. Two other test files are included for reference (TEST.MES and TEMPJ.MES).

6.0. Useful tips

The following tips may provide useful when using the FMS to produce ARC/INFO (ver. 7.x) map compositions using meso.aml.

1). Map composers can only contain 1000 map elements. It is therefore necessary to sometimes split large *.MES files into smaller ones so that for any one drawing session the maximum number of composition elements is not exceeded. It is usually necessary to conduct a plot session, then mcopy the ungrouped elements to a backup map composition, then mgroup the elements in the master composition to allow for subsequent symbol drawing. During this process, be sure that the ARCPLOT session parameters (mapextent, mapscale, mappos, and pagesize) for all map compositions are the same. It is best to have a setup *.AML within each workspace directory that can be run for initially setting the ARCPLOT session parameters.

2). Because most of the structural symbols in the bedrock.mrk file are oriented with the dip direction pointing north, it is best to use the dip azimuth choice for generating an *.MES output file within DATASORT. Then select the dip azimuth button on the Location and Drawing menu for plotting the planar symbols and any dip values in the map composition.

3). After generating an annocoverage for particular station coverage, edit the annotation coverage in ARCPLOT. However, if you edit the annocoverage within a map composition, you will have to periodically Mselect the stale annotext element and any extraneous elements associated with the editing session. Next you must Mdelete them, and then issue another annotext coverage {subclass} command to bring the revised annotext back into the composition in it's edited form.


Engelder, Terry, Fischer, M. P. and Gross, M. R., 1993, Geological aspects of fracture mechanics: Geological Society America Short Course Notes, 1993 Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass., 280 p.

Groshong, R. H., Jr., 1988, Low-temperature deformation mechanisms and their interpretation: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, p. 1329-1360.

Hancock, P. L., 1985, Brittle microtectonics: principles and practice: Journal of Structural Geology, v. 7, p. 437-457.

Herman, G. C., Monteverde, D. H., Volkert, R. A., Drake, A. A. Jr., and Dalton, R. F., 1994, Environmental Geology of Warren County, New Jersey; Bedrock fracture map: N.J. Geological Survey Open File Map 15B, 2 plates, scale 1:48,000.

Kaeding, Margaret, and Herman, G.C., 1988, Field data Management System (FMS ver. 1.0): N.J. Geological Survey Technical Memorandum 88-4, 848 p., 1 floppy disk.

Appendix A. Example of an FMS application.

"Joint" analysis of the Newfoundland 7-1/2 minute Quadrangle.

Domain Overlap analysis for non-bedding fractures of the Newfoundland 7-1/2 minute Quadrangle

The bit map graphic images above are an example of output from applying the FMS process for regional fracture analysis. This work is based on unpublished field data of the NJGS and illustrates many of the procedures for analyzing and plotting orientated bedrock structures.

This analysis examines the distribution and orientation of non-bedding fractures measured in Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks in the Newfoundland 7-1/2 minute quadrangle, New Jersey by Greg Herman and Rich Volkert. For this analysis, the term "joint" is used to identify an outcrop-scale, unmineralized fracture that is mapped separate from fractures that are oriented about parallel to sedimentary bedding or metamorphic foliation.

All structural information mapped in the Newfoundland 7-1/2 minute quadrangle were catalogued in the FMS (DOS-PC) using the FIELDATA format. A total 1546 joints from 784 field stations were entered into two files, one containing 999 readings from 515 outcrops mapped in Proterozoic rocks (RVNEWF.FD) and the other containing 547 readings from 269 outcrops mapped in Paleozoic rocks (GHNEWF.FD). The Proterozic gneissic and granitoid rocks are grouped by lithology but are separated into two structural domains for the northwest (NWHLD) and southeast (SEHLD) parts of the quadrangle. All Paleozoic rocks were grouped by lithology for this basic analysis into a single structural domain using the location variable GPMR.

A series of DATASORT sorting routines were conducted on the two FIELDATA files using the following sort options (section

1) RVNEWF.FD sorted by "location" NWHLD and "type" of structure "J" (joint)
2) RVNEWF.FD sorted by Location SEHLD and "type" of structure "J"
3) GHNEWF.FD sorted by "All stations in file" and "type" of structure "J"

Next, each sorted file (NWHLDJ.SRT, SEHLDJ.SRT, and GHNWFJ.SRT) was analyzed to identify the strike azimuth of maximum relative frequency using ROSESTAT. Each histogram plot used the full-rose display option with 10o sectors. Each diagram was saved to a file using a screen-capture utility after using the dump Graphics option in ROSESTAT. A set of sector-based statistics was also generated for each data population using the Dump statistics option of ROSETSTAT. The results and aforementioned menu options used in this process are shown for the NWHLDJ.SRT file in section The markersymbol length for the three resulting statistics files (NWHLDJ.LUT, SEHLDJ.LUT, and GHNEWFJ.LUT) was set at 0.3". The three *.LUT files were then used during the next DATASORT using the mesostructure plot-file program option (section for generating the three corresponding mesostructure files. The three *.MES files were copied to the workstation using the dos2unix infile outfile command.

Once the *.MES files were uploaded and checked for completeness and accuracy (using a system text editor), a map composition was created. The set of session parameters used for the map composition were created and set using AML.. These parameters included:

The lithologic contacts and faults for the nwfndlnd GIS coverage were added to the composition along with the map trace of the fold axes. Next the meso.aml was started and the following plot options were set in the Location & Drawing Menu:

Each of the three mesostructure files above were then drawn using these settings. The resulting ARCPLOT map composition was then converted to a graphics file (*.gra), converted again to an HPGL file, and then copied to the PC platform for desktop editing and printing using CorelDRAW ver. 4.0. Each HPGL file required a unix2dos conversion. The different linesymbols were then edited for display.

The joint analysis shows the maximum joint strikes for the Proterozic and Paleozoic domains are different. Furthermore, the maximums for both Proterozoic domains are similar, and show a counter-clockwise rotation in comparison to the maximum joint strike for the Paleozoic.

The distribution and extent of each maximum for each rock type were next analyzed with respect to one another by structural domain. The two 10 degree sector maximums for each of the structural domains were noted as follows:

NWHLDJ, n = 374, 120 degree -129 degree with 11% (of the total readings), 100 degree -109 degree with 9%

SEHLDJ, n = 591, 120 degree -129 degree with 11%, 110 degree -119 degree with 11%

GHNWFJ, n = 546, 150 degree -159 degree with 14%, 140 degree -149 degree with 13%

Another set of DATASORT program routines were then conducted using these strike maximums and the domain overlap analysis option (section Both FIELDATA files were first sorted for joints striking in the 110 degree -129 degree range of (Proterozoic maximums) and then both files were sorted for joints striking in the 140 degree -159 degree range (Paleozoic maximums). The DATASORT program options included sorting for strike of planar features without frequency-based symbol-length weighting. The resulting *.MES files (PALJMAX.MES, and PZJMAX.MES) were transferred to the workstation environment and two more map compositions were generated using the same file transfer methods, ARCPLOT session parameters, and coverage elements as before. Each set of filtered joint data was also drawn using meso.aml.

The maps show that joints with trends of maximum frequency are distributed in all identified domains. Furthermore, joints with Paleozoic trend maximums (140 degree-159 degree) are widespread throughout all rocks in the region. However, fractures with Proterozoic trend maximums (110 degree -129 degree ) are restricted in their spatial distribution in Paleozoic rocks to areas containing mapped faults and fold. This analysis demonstrates that non-bedding fractures develop in different orientations in different aged rocks at different times. If the trend maximums for each age of rock correlate to true extension joints of the respective ages, then fractures of Paleozoic age showing a Proterozoic maximum-trend may have formed by non-regional strains related to folding and faulting, and may even be shear fractures.

This analysis is important because an aquifer's performance is related to how fractures interconnect to transmit and store ground water. Observed aquifer behavior can be related to observed geologic trends for use in predicting ground water and contaminant migration. Also, extensional fractures or "joints" are often filled or partially filled with secondary minerals such as calcite and quartz that can also retard ground water storage and flow. The distribution, orientation, and origin a particular fracture set may prove to be useful for calibrating ground water flow models in fractured-rock aquifers.

Appendix B. Summary of data-file structure used by FMS

This summary is provided as a reference for use during FMS operations to eliminate program execution errors based on inaccurate file structure.

1) FIELDATA files (*.FD)

The full-utility FIELDATA file and each field station must begin and end with the <STATION> variable. Following is an example of the beginning of a FIELDATA file and one station:

2) FIELDATA files (*.FDZ)

The abbreviated format for a field data file for use with the EZSORT program is as follows:


The *.INF file is the spreadsheet equivalent of the FIELDATA (*.FD) file

4) DATASORT sort files (*.SRT)

Following are examples of DATASORT files containing orientation data for planar structures and linear structures from a standard DATASORT routine. The *.srt files can be either space- or comma-delimted. The following examples illustrate output from the DATASORT program.

5) DATASORT mesostructure plot files (*.MES)

The first six characters of the *.MES files are the field-station number. The seventh through ninth characters are the structural bearing, the tenth and eleventh are the structural inclination. The last three denote the size of a markerymbol for the ARCPLOT command <markersize>. The mesostructre plot files should have all spaces filled with zeros.

6) FRACGEN.PBC station-input file (*.STA)

7) FRACGEN.PBC fracture-trace output files (*.AML)

The structure of the *.AML files conforms to the standard for ARC/INFO generate files for line coverages. The leading number is the line-id and equals either the dip or apparent dip for fracture traces in either the map or profile view respectively.

8) ROSESTAT.PBC statistics look-up file (*.LUT)

Appendix C. SVORNOI Lower-hemisphere Stereographic Contouring Software

The SVORONOI stereographic contouring software is included with the FMS in the SVOR subdirectory on the FMS (DOS-PC) diskette. The staff of the NJGS uses this software for quick examination of the three-dimensional orientation of data sets generated using the general sort option in DATASORT. Following is a brief explanation of this software and information concerning its distribution.

The network of polygons that partitions a plane into regions lying closest to individual members of a given set of points is commonly referred to as a Voronoi tessellation. The SVORONOI program calculates a spherical Voronoi tessellation for a set of points plotted on a stereographic map projection. The version of SVORONOI supplied with the FMS plots data on a lower-hemisphere, equal-angle stereographic projection diagram. SVORONOI generates statistical maximum contours for directional (planar and linear) data sets using relative density values based on the spherical distribution of the data. The relative density of each Voronoi polygon is the inverse area of that polygon in relation to the total hemispherical surface area. Relative density contour values result by interpolating between the nodes of a Voronoi net using multiples of the average relative density (1X) for the entire set of points. SVORONOI also provides tools to plot small or great circles and poles to planes, and allows the user to rotate point and planar data about user-specified axes of rotation.

SVORONOI was developed by the Department of Geology & Geophysics, University of Connecticut, Box U-45, Storrs, CT 06268. At the time of this writing, the package is free of charge. Supporting documentation is also available upon request. Please contact Dr. Norman Gray at the University of Connecticut for more information.

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