New Jersey Department of Education

Developing and Measuring Student Outcomes

According to the National Summer Learning Association summer learning can have a significant impact on students in both the short-term and the long-term. Short-term outcomes are intended to provide immediate results during the summer. Long-term outcomes for students who attend summer programming can persist for 1–5 years. Developing SMART Goals for both short-term and long-term outcomes can be done using a logic model. The Capacity Institute, an organization that assists non-profits with performance management, defines a logic model as:

A logic model is a one-page idea map showing how a program influences its participants to achieve outcomes, or sustainable life changes. A logic model includes a concise description of participants, inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. Below is an example of a logic model:

Defining the Logic Model

Logic models connect your work to your expected outcomes—often expressed in changes in student performance and achievement. Included in most logic models are four components: resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes.

Resources are the raw materials needed to create the program, implement its activities, and attain the desired outputs and outcomes. Sometimes called inputs, resources include both material items (such as curricula, instruction materials, facilities, and funding) and nonmaterial items (such as time, community support, and specialized knowledge and skills).

Activities are the processes, actions, and events through which the program resources achieve the intended outcomes; they are the steps in implementing a program. Examples include collaborating with partners, developing training or curriculum materials, conducting training sessions or workshops, and collecting and analyzing student performance data.

Outputs are tangible, often process-oriented results or products typically expressed in numbers, such as number of students tested, number of teachers trained, and number of books read. While outputs provide information derived from the completion of program activities, they cannot indicate whether a change has occurred. For example, an output can tell you how many teachers attended training but not whether the training increased the teachers’ knowledge of the training topic.

Short- and mid-term outcomes are the changes in program participants’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior due to their involvement in the program. Outcomes can also be quick adjustments in organizational practices or system design. Short-term outcomes are observable almost immediately after participation; mid-term outcomes can take months or years to emerge and typically build toward long-term outcomes.

Long-term outcomes, sometimes called impacts, are a program’s lasting influences. Like short- and mid-term outcomes, long-term outcomes can be changes in knowledge, beliefs, and behavior. Examples include higher student achievement scores, increased high school graduation rates, and greater college acceptance rates.


Here is an example of a simple logic model format template:




Short-term Outcomes

Mid-term Outcomes

Long-term Outcomes







Here is an example of a summer learning logic model:




Short-term Outcomes

Mid-term Outcomes

Long-term Outcomes

Research and examples of Thematic Units

Curriculum Supervisors

NJDOE Instructional Units

NJDOE Prerequisite Skills


Explore various themes for units

PD on Scaffolding

Unit Design

Assessment Design

Developed thematic units

Incorporated learning acceleration strategies in units

Pre-established interventions for struggling student

Student survey on learning

Increased Student Collaboration

Student/Teacher goal setting

Increased levels of student engagement

By the end of summer learning, 90% of participants will have an improved attitude toward learning

By Spring 2023 60% of students who attended Summer Learning who ended 2022 approaching expectations in ELA will meet expectations


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