Occupational Guide and Definitions for the Standard Occupational Classification system

This Guide is a listing of all 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes, titles, and definitions.


Click on the SOC code of an occupational group to access the definitions of the individual occupations in that group.


11-0000 Management Occupations

33-0000 Protective Service Occupations

13-0000 Business and Financial Operations Occupations

35-0000 Food Preparation and Serving Related Occupations

15-0000 Computer and Mathematical Occupations

37-0000 Building,Grounds,Cleaning,Maintenance Occupation

17-0000 Architecture and Engineering Occupations

39-0000 Personal Care and Service Occupations

19-0000 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations

41-0000 Sales and Related Occupations

21-0000 Community and Social Services Occupations

43-0000 Office and Administrative Support Occupations

23-0000 Legal Occupations

45-0000 Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Occupations

25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations

47-0000 Construction and Extraction Occupations

27-0000 Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports & Media Occs

49-0000 Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Occupations

29-0000 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations

51-0000 Production Occupations

31-0000 Healthcare Support Occupations

53-0000 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations


SOC Code

SOC Title

SOC Definition


Chief Executives

Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body.  Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.


General and Operations Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations.  Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services.  Excludes First-Line Supervisors.



Develop, introduce or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, State, or Federal level.  Includes only workers in elected positions.


Advertising and Promotions Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or give-aways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.


Marketing Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers.  Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm's profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm's customers are satisfied.  Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.


Sales Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer.  Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives.  Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.


Public Relations and Fundraising Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client; or if engaged in fundraising, plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.


Administrative Services Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, facilities planning and maintenance, custodial operations, and other office support services.  Medical records administrators are included in “Medical and Health Services Managers” (11-9111).  Excludes “Purchasing Managers" (11-3061).


Computer and Information Systems Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming.  Excludes “Computer Occupations" (15-1111 through 15-1199).


Financial Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment.


Industrial Production Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.


Purchasing Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services.  Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.


Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations.  Includes logistics managers.


Compensation and Benefits Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization.  Job analysis and position description managers are included in “Human Resource Managers” (11-3121).


Human Resources Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization.  Excludes managers who primarily focus on compensation and benefits (11-3111) and training and development (11-3131).


Training and Development Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.


Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments.  May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation.  May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities.  Excludes “First-Line Supervisors of Farming, Fishing, and Forestry Workers” (45-1011).


Construction Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems.  Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation.  Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.


Education Administrators, Preschool and Childcare Center/Program

Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic and nonacademic activities of preschool and childcare centers or programs.  Excludes “Preschool Teachers" (25-2011).


Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School

Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of public or private elementary or secondary level schools.


Education Administrators, Postsecondary

Plan, direct, or coordinate research, instructional, student administration and services, and other educational activities at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.


Education Administrators, All Other

All education administrators not listed separately.


Architectural and Engineering Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.  Excludes “Natural Sciences Managers" (11-9121).


Food Service Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages.  Excludes “Chefs and Head Cooks” (35-1011).


Funeral Service Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes.  Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes.  Excludes “Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors” (39-4031).


Gaming Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate gaming operations in a casino.  May formulate house rules.


Lodging Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations.  Excludes “Food Service Managers" (11-9051) in lodging establishments.


Medical and Health Services Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate medical  and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.


Natural Sciences Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.  Excludes “Architecture and Engineering Managers" (11-9041) and "Computer and Information Systems Managers" (11-3021).


Postmasters and Mail Superintendents

Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and supportive services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.


Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties.  Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).


Social and Community Service Managers

Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization.  Oversee the program or organization's budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits.  Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.


Emergency Management Directors

Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.


Managers, All Other

All managers not listed separately.


Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes

Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers.  May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.


Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products

Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale.  Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers.


Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products

Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods.  Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield.  Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements.  May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products.  Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products.


Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products

Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment.  Purchase raw or semi-finished materials for manufacturing.  Excludes “Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products" (13-1021) and "Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products" (13-1022).


Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators

Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures.  Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation.  May also settle insurance claims.  Excludes "Fire Inspectors and Investigators" (33-2021).


Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage

Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement.  Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations.  May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.


Compliance Officers

Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere.  Excludes "Financial Examiners" (13-2061), “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents" (13-2081), “Occupational Health and Safety Specialists” (29-9011), “Occupational Health and Safety Technicians” (29-9012), "Transportation Security Screeners" (33-9093), “Agricultural Inspectors” (45-2011), “Construction and Building Inspectors” (47-4011), and “Transportation Inspectors” (53-6051).


Cost Estimators

Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service.  May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.


Human Resources Specialists

Perform activities in the human resource area.  Includes employment specialists who screen, recruit, interview, and place workers.  Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).


Farm Labor Contractors

Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers.  May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.


Labor Relations Specialists

Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints.  Excludes equal employment opportunity (EEO) officers who are included in “Compliance Officers” (13-1041).



Analyze and coordinate the logistical functions of a firm or organization.  Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources.  Excludes “Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers” (11-3071).


Management Analysts

Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively.  Includes program analysts and management consultants.  Excludes “Computer Systems Analysts" (15-1121) and "Operations Research Analysts" (15-2031).


Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners

Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.



Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization.  May design and produce promotional materials.  May also raise awareness of the organization’s work, goals, and financial needs.


Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists

Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer.  May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.


Training and Development Specialists

Design and conduct training and development programs to improve individual and organizational performance.  May analyze training needs.


Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists

Research market conditions in local, regional, or national areas, or gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or create a marketing campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution.


Business Operations Specialists, All Other

All business operations specialists not listed separately.


Accountants and Auditors

Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others.  Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data.  Excludes “Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents” (13-2081).


Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate

Appraise real property and estimate its fair value.  May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.


Budget Analysts

Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations.  Analyze budgeting and accounting reports.


Credit Analysts

Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money.  Prepare reports with credit information for use in decision making.


Financial Analysts

Conduct quantitative analyses of information affecting investment programs of public or private institutions.


Personal Financial Advisors

Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate.  Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives.


Insurance Underwriters

Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.


Financial Examiners

Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions.  May examine, verify, or authenticate records.


Credit Counselors

Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt.  May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explaining loan requirements or restrictions.  May help develop debt management plans, advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, and bankruptcy counseling.


Loan Officers

Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans.  Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods.  Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, and loan underwriters.


Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents

Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.


Tax Preparers

Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses.  Excludes “Accountants and Auditors” (13-2011).


Financial Specialists, All Other

All financial specialists not listed separately.


Computer and Information Research Scientists

Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors.  Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.


Computer Systems Analysts

Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to implement and improve computer systems.  Analyze user requirements, procedures, and problems to automate or improve existing systems and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and scheduling limitations.  May analyze or recommend commercially available software.


Information Security Analysts

Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information.  May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure.  May respond to computer security breaches and viruses.  Excludes “Computer Network Architects” (15-1143).


Computer Programmers

Create, modify, and test the code, forms, and script that allow computer applications to run.  Work from specifications drawn up by software developers or other individuals.  May assist software developers by analyzing user needs and designing software solutions.  May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.


Software Developers, Applications

Develop, create, and modify general computer applications software or specialized utility programs.  Analyze user needs and develop software solutions.  Design software or customize software for client use with the aim of optimizing operational efficiency.  May analyze and design databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.  May supervise computer programmers.


Software Developers, Systems Software

Research, design, develop, and test operating systems-level software, compilers, and network distribution software for medical, industrial, military, communications, aerospace, business, scientific, and general computing applications.  Set operational specifications and formulate and analyze software requirements.  May design embedded systems software.   Apply principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis.


Web Developers

Design, create, and modify Web sites.  Analyze user needs to implement Web site content, graphics, performance, and capacity.  May integrate Web sites with other computer applications.  May convert written, graphic, audio, and video components to compatible Web formats by using software designed to facilitate the creation of Web and multimedia content.  Excludes “Multimedia Artists and Animators” (27-1014).


Database Administrators

Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems.  Coordinate changes to computer databases.  May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1122).


Network and Computer Systems Administrators

Install, configure, and support an organization’s local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system.  Monitor network to ensure network availability to all system users and may perform necessary maintenance to support network availability.  May monitor and test Web site performance to ensure Web sites operate correctly and without interruption.  May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software.  May supervise computer user support specialists and computer network support specialists.  May administer network security measures.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts”(15-1122), “Computer User Support Specialists” (15-1151), and “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1152).


Computer Network Architects

Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks.  Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning.  May also design network and computer security measures.  May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software.  Excludes “Information Security Analysts” (15-1122), “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142), and “Computer Network Support Specialists” (15-1152).


Computer User Support Specialists

Provide technical assistance to computer users.  Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, or via telephone or electronically.  May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems.  Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142).


Computer Network Support Specialists

Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), and Internet systems or a segment of a network system.  Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption.  Excludes “Network and Computer Systems Administrators” (15-1142) and “Computer Network Architects” (15-1143).


Computer Occupations, All Other

All computer occupations not listed separately.  Excludes “Computer and Information Systems Managers” (11-3021), “Computer Hardware Engineers” (17-2061), “Electrical and Electronics Engineers” (17-2070), “Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1021), “Multimedia Artists and Animators” (27-1014), “Graphic Designers” (27-1024), “Computer Operators” (43-9011), and “Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairs” (49-2011).



Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits.  May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.



Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields.  Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.


Operations Research Analysts

Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decision making, policy formulation, or other managerial functions.  May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, service, or products.  May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.



Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information.  May specialize in fields such as bio-statistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics.  Includes mathematical and survey statisticians.  Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).


Mathematical Technicians

Apply standardized mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.


Mathematical Science Occupations, All Other

All mathematical scientists not listed separately.


Architects, Except Landscape and Naval

Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property.  Excludes “Landscape Architects” (17-1012) and “Marine Engineers and Naval Architects” (17-2121).


Landscape Architects

Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.


Cartographers and Photogrammetrists

Collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.  Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes.  May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS).  May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems.



Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries.  Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.


Aerospace Engineers

Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft.  May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture.  May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.


Agricultural Engineers

Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.


Biomedical Engineers

Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and heath management and care delivery systems.


Chemical Engineers

Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.


Civil Engineers

Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.  Includes architectural, structural, traffic, ocean, and geo-technical engineers.  Excludes “Hydrologists" (19-2043).


Computer Hardware Engineers

Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use.  May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components.  Excludes “Software Developers, Applications" (15-1132) and “Software Developers, Systems Software (15-1133).


Electrical Engineers

Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use.  Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).


Electronics Engineers, Except Computer

Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties.  Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls.  Excludes “Computer Hardware Engineers" (17-2061).


Environmental Engineers

Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines.  Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.


Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors

Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws.  Includes industrial product safety engineers.


Industrial Engineers

Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination.  Excludes “Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors" (17-2111).


Marine Engineers and Naval Architects

Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.


Materials Engineers

Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications.  Develop new uses for known materials.  Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials.  Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.


Mechanical Engineers

Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment.  Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.


Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers

Conduct sub-surface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites.  May specify the ground support systems, processes and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities.  May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions.  May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs.  Excludes "Petroleum Engineers" (17-2171).


Nuclear Engineers

Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.


Petroleum Engineers

Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs.  Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.


Engineers, All Other

All engineers not listed separately.


Architectural and Civil Drafters

Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works.  Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.


Electrical and Electronics Drafters

Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.


Mechanical Drafters

Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.


Drafters, All Other

All drafters not listed separately.


Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technicians

Operate, install, calibrate, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles.  May record and interpret test data.


Civil Engineering Technicians

Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.


Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technicians

Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, calibrate, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions.  Excludes “Broadcast Technicians" (27-4012).


Electro-Mechanical Technicians

Operate, test, maintain, or calibrate unmanned, automated, servo-mechanical, or electromechanical equipment.  May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment at worksites, such as oil rigs, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal.  May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.


Environmental Engineering Technicians

Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientist.  May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.


Industrial Engineering Technicians

Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff.  May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.


Mechanical Engineering Technicians

Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or calibrate machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.


Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters, All Other

All engineering technicians, except drafters, not listed separately.


Surveying and Mapping Technicians

Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes.  May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features.  May verify accuracy and completeness of maps.  Excludes “Surveyors" (17-1022), "Cartographers and Photogrammetrists" (17-1021), and "Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042).


Animal Scientists

Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.


Food Scientists and Technologists

Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.


Soil and Plant Scientists

Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth.  May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.


Biochemists and Biophysicists

Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena.  May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity.  May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.



Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi.  Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.


Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists

Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife.  May specialize in wildlife research and management.  May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.


Biological Scientists, All Other

All biological scientists not listed separately.


Conservation Scientists

Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment.  May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands.  May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering.  Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023) and "Foresters" (19-1032).



Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes.  May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement.  May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations.  May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.



Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes.  May develop the means for prevention and control.


Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists

Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health.  Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities.  Includes physicians, dentists, public health specialists, pharmacologists, and medical pathologists who primarily conduct research.  Practitioners who primarily provide medical or dental care or dispense drugs are included in “Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners” (29-1000).


Life Scientists, All Other

All life scientists not listed separately.



Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.



Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.  Excludes “Biochemists and Biophysicists” (19-1021).


Atmospheric and Space Scientists

Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses.  Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.



Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge.  Excludes “Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers" (19-2042) and "Biochemists and Biophysicists" (19-1021).


Materials Scientists

Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass.  Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications.  Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.


Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health

Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or the health of the population.  Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and  recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources.  Excludes “Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists" (19-1023), "Conservation Scientists" (19-1031), "Forest and Conservation Technicians" (19-4093), "Fish and Game Wardens" (33-3031), and "Forest and Conservation Workers" (45-4011).


Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers

Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth.  May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems.  May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces.  Includes mineralogists, crystallographers, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.



Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation, its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and its return to the ocean and atmosphere.


Physical Scientists, All Other

All physical scientists not listed separately.



Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy.  May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods.  Excludes “Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists" (13-1161).


Survey Researchers

Plan, develop, or conduct surveys.  May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording.  Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams.  Excludes "Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists" (13-1161) and "Statisticians" (15-2041).


Clinical, Counseling, and School Psychologists

Diagnose and treat mental disorders; learning disabilities; and cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems, using individual, child, family, and group therapies.  May design and implement behavior modification programs.


Industrial-Organizational Psychologists

Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems.  Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training and development; and organizational development and analysis.  May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.


Psychologists, All Other

All psychologists not listed separately.



Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations.  May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.


Urban and Regional Planners

Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.


Anthropologists and Archeologists

Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings.  May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world.  May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.



Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena.  Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.



Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.


Political Scientists

Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems.  May study topics, such as public opinion, political decision-making, and ideology.  May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities.  May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents.  Excludes “Survey Researchers” (19-3022).


Social Scientists and Related Workers, All Other

All social scientists and related workers not listed separately.


Agricultural and Food Science Technicians

Work with agricultural and food scientists in food, fiber, and animal research, production, and processing; and assist with animal breeding and nutrition.  Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.  Includes technicians who assist food scientists or technologists in the research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.


Biological Technicians

Assist biological and medical scientists in laboratories.  Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, make observations, and calculate and record results.  May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.


Chemical Technicians

Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.


Geological and Petroleum Technicians

Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in both laboratory and production activities to obtain data indicating potential resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum.  Analyze mud and drill cuttings.  Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.  Investigate and collect information leading to the possible discovery of new metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum deposits.


Nuclear Technicians

Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory or production activities.  May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment.  May monitor radiation. 


Social Science Research Assistants

Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research.  May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management.  Excludes “Graduate Teaching Assistants" (25-1191).


Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health

Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist.  May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.


Forensic Science Technicians

Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations.  Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation.  May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques.  May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.


Forest and Conservation Technicians

Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources.  May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts, under the direction of foresters; or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation, fire prevention and suppression.  May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats.  Excludes “Conservation Scientists” (19-1031) and “Foresters” (19-1032).


Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians, All Other

All life, physical, and social science technicians not listed separately.


Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors

Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders.  May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through  21-1029), "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039), and "Mental Health Counselors" (21-1014) providing these services.


Educational, Guidance, School, and Vocational Counselors

Counsel individuals and provide group educational and vocational guidance services.


Marriage and Family Therapists

Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems.  Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029) and "Psychologists" of all types (19-3031 through 19-3039).


Mental Health Counselors

Counsel with emphasis on prevention.  Work with individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health.  May help individuals deal with issues associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; and aging.  Excludes “Social Workers" (21-1021 through 21-1029), "Psychiatrists" (29-1066), and "Psychologists" (19-3031 through 19-3039).


Rehabilitation Counselors

Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, or the stress of daily life.  Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities.  Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement.


Counselors, All Other

All counselors not listed separately.


Child, Family, and School Social Workers

Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children.  May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children.  In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy.  May also advise teachers.


Healthcare Social Workers

Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses.  Services include advising family care givers, providing patient education and counseling, and making referrals for other services.  May also provide care and case management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.


Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers

Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs.  Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.


Social Workers, All Other

All social workers not listed separately.


Health Educators

Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles.  Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments.  May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs.  Excludes “Community Health Workers” (21-1094).


Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists

Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole.  Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.


Social and Human Service Assistants

Assist in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families.  May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services.  May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care.  Excludes "Rehabilitation Counselors" (21-1015), "Psychiatric Technicians" (29-2053), "Personal Care Aides" (39-9021), and "Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs" (43-4061).


Community Health Workers

Assist individuals and communities to adopt healthy behaviors.  Conduct outreach for medical personnel or health organizations to implement programs in the community that promote, maintain, and improve individual and community health.  May provide information on available resources, provide social support and informal counseling, advocate for individuals and community health needs, and provide services such as first aid and blood pressure screening.  May collect data to help identify community health needs.  Excludes “Health Educators” (21-1091).


Community and Social Service Specialists, All Other

All community and social service specialists not listed separately.



Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination.  Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.


Directors, Religious Activities and Education

Plan, direct, or coordinate programs designed to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group.  May provide counseling and guidance relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.


Religious Workers, All Other

All religious workers not listed separately.



Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions.  May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.


Judicial Law Clerks

Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents.  Excludes "Lawyers" (23-1011) and "Paralegals and Legal Assistants" (23-2011).


Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers

Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters.  Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements.  Excludes “Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators” (23-1022).


Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators

Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue.  Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.


Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates

Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law.  May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines.  May determine liability of defendant in civil cases.  May perform wedding ceremonies.


Paralegals and Legal Assistants

Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent.  Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action.  Excludes “Legal Secretaries” (43-6012).


Court Reporters

Use verbatim methods and equipment to capture, store, retrieve, and transcribe pretrial and trial proceedings or other information.  Includes stenocaptioners who operate computerized stenographic captioning equipment to provide captions of live or prerecorded broadcasts for hearing-impaired viewers.


Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers

Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes.  May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.


Legal Support Workers, All Other

All legal support workers not listed separately.


Business Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in computer science.  May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services.  Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes "Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1021).


Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in the agricultural sciences.  Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes “Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1043).


Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in biological sciences.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in forestry and conservation science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes "Agricultural Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1041) and “Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary” (25-1053).


Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances.  Work may include instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.  Excludes "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach biochemistry.


Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in environmental science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Physics Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in anthropology or archeology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women’s studies, or urban affairs.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in economics.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Geography Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in geography.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in sociology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Social Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary, All Other

All postsecondary social sciences teachers not listed separately.


Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine.  Excludes "Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1072) and "Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary" (25-1042) who teach medical science.


Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary

Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Education Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in library science.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Law Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in law.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in social work.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Communications Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English.  Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL).  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research. 


History Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in human history and historiography.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Graduate Teaching Assistants

Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing teaching or teaching-related duties, such as teaching lower level courses, developing teaching materials, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers.  Graduate teaching assistants must be enrolled in a graduate school program.  Graduate assistants who primarily perform non-teaching duties, such as research, should be reported in the occupational category related to the work performed.  Excludes “Teacher Assistants” (25-9041).


Home Economics Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management.  Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.


Vocational Education Teachers, Postsecondary

Teach or instruct vocational or occupational subjects at the postsecondary level (but at less than the baccalaureate) to students who have graduated or left high school.  Includes correspondence school instructors; industrial, commercial, and government training instructors; and adult education teachers and instructors who prepare persons to operate industrial machinery and equipment and transportation and communications equipment.  Teaching may take place in public or private schools whose primary business is education or in a school associated with an organization whose primary business is other than education.


Postsecondary Teachers, All Other

All postsecondary teachers not listed separately.


Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education

Instruct preschool-aged children in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth needed for primary school in preschool, day care center, or other child development facility.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  May be required to hold State certification.  Excludes "Childcare Workers" (39-9011) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).


Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education

Teach elemental natural and social science, personal hygiene, music, art, and literature to kindergarten students.  Promote physical, mental, and social development.  May be required to hold State certification.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).


Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education

Teach students basic academic, social, and other formative skills in public or private schools at the elementary level.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).


Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education

Teach students in one or more subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School " (25-2023) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050). 


Career/Technical  Education Teachers, Middle School

Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects in public or private schools at the middle, intermediate, or junior high level, which falls between elementary and senior high school as defined by applicable laws and regulations.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).


Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education

Teach students in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies at the secondary level in public or private schools.  May be designated according to subject matter specialty.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes "Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School" (25-2032) and "Special Education Teachers" (25-2050).


Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School

Teach occupational, career and technical, or vocational subjects at the secondary school level in public or private schools.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099).  Excludes “Special Education Teachers, Secondary School” (25-2054).


Special Education Teachers, Preschool

Teach preschool school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). 


Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten and Elementary School

Teach elementary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). 


Special Education Teachers, Middle School

Teach middle school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). 


Special Education Teachers, Secondary School

Teach secondary school subjects to educationally and physically handicapped students.  Includes teachers who specialize and work with audibly and visually handicapped students and those who teach basic academic and life processes skills to the mentally impaired.  Substitute teachers are included in "Teachers and Instructors, All Other" (25-3099). 


Special Education Teachers, All Other

All special education teachers not listed separately.


Adult Basic and Secondary Education and Literacy Teachers and Instructors

Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in remedial education classes, preparatory classes for the General Educational Development test, literacy, or English as a Second Language.  Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution.


Self-Enrichment Education Teachers

Teach or instruct courses other than those that normally lead to an occupational objective or degree. Courses may include self-improvement, nonvocational, and nonacademic subjects.  Teaching may or may not take place in a traditional educational institution. Excludes “Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors” (39-9031).  Flight instructors are included with “Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers” (53-2010).


Teachers and Instructors, All Other

All teachers and instructors not listed separately.



Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents.  Participate in research activities based on archival materials.



Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions.  May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.


Museum Technicians and Conservators

Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit.  May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art.  May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits.  Includes book or document conservators.



Administer libraries and perform related library services.  Work in a variety of settings, including public libraries, educational institutions, museums, corporations, government agencies, law firms, non-profit organizations, and healthcare providers.  Tasks may include selecting, acquiring, cataloguing, classifying, circulating, and maintaining library materials; and furnishing reference, bibliographical, and readers' advisory services.  May perform in-depth, strategic research, and synthesize, analyze, edit, and filter information.  May set up or work with databases and information systems to catalogue and access information.


Library Technicians

Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference.  Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process.  Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files.  Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.


Audio-Visual and Multimedia Collections Specialists

Prepare, plan, and operate multimedia teaching aids for use in education.  May record, catalogue, and file materials.


Farm and Home Management Advisors

Advise, instruct, and assist individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home economics activities.  Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to solve problems; and instruct and train in product development, sales, and the use of machinery and equipment to promote general welfare.  Includes county agricultural agents, feed and farm management advisers, home economists, and extension service advisors.


Instructional Coordinators

Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology in specialized fields that provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses.  Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.


Teacher Assistants

Perform duties that are instructional in nature or deliver direct services to students or parents.  Serve in a position for which a teacher has ultimate responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.  Excludes “Graduate Teaching Assistants” (25-1191).


Education, Training, and Library Workers, All Other

All education, training, and library workers not listed separately.


Art Directors

Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual communications media, such as print, broadcasting, and advertising.  Direct workers engaged in art work or layout design. 


Craft Artists

Create or reproduce hand-made objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.


Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators

Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.


Multimedia Artists and Animators

Create special effects, animation, or other visual images using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products or creations, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.


Artists and Related Workers, All Other

All artists and related workers not listed separately.


Commercial and Industrial Designers

Develop and design manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children's toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.


Fashion Designers

Design clothing and accessories.  Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.


Floral Designers

Design, cut, and arrange live, dried, or artificial flowers and foliage.


Graphic Designers

Design or create graphics to meet specific commercial or promotional needs, such as packaging, displays, or logos.  May use a variety of mediums to achieve artistic or decorative effects.


Interior Designers

Plan, design, and furnish interiors of residential, commercial, or industrial buildings.  Formulate design which is practical, aesthetic, and conducive to intended purposes, such as raising productivity, selling merchandise, or improving life style.  May specialize in a particular field, style, or phase of interior design.  Excludes "Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers" (27-1026).


Merchandise Displayers and Window Trimmers

Plan and erect commercial displays, such as those in windows and interiors of retail stores and at trade exhibitions.


Set and Exhibit Designers

Design special exhibits and movie, television, and theater sets.  May study scripts, confer with directors, and conduct research to determine appropriate architectural styles.


Designers, All Other

All designers not listed separately.



Play parts in stage, television, radio, video, motion picture productions, or other settings for entertainment, information, or instruction.  Interpret serious or comic role by speech, gesture, and body movement to entertain or inform audience.  May dance and sing.


Producers and Directors

Produce or direct stage, television, radio, video, or motion picture productions for entertainment, information, or instruction.  Responsible for creative decisions, such as interpretation of script, choice of actors or guests, set design, sound, special effects, and choreography.


Athletes and Sports Competitors

Compete in athletic events.


Coaches and Scouts

Instruct or coach groups or individuals in the fundamentals of sports.  Demonstrate techniques and methods of participation.  May evaluate athletes' strengths and weaknesses as possible recruits or to improve the athletes' technique to prepare them for competition.  Those required to hold teaching degrees should be reported in the appropriate teaching category.  Excludes "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091). 


Umpires, Referees, and Other Sports Officials

Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events.  Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations.  Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.



Perform dances.  May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for video recording



Create new dance routines.  Rehearse performance of routines.  May direct and stage presentations.


Music Directors and Composers

Conduct, direct, plan, and lead instrumental or vocal performances by musical groups, such as orchestras, bands, choirs, and glee clubs.  Includes arrangers, composers, choral directors, and orchestrators.


Musicians and Singers

Play one or more musical instruments or sing.  May perform on stage, for on-air broadcasting, or for sound or video recording.


Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other

All entertainers and performers, sports and related workers not listed separately.


Radio and Television Announcers

Speak or read from scripted materials, such as news reports or commercial messages, on radio or television.  May announce artist or title of performance, identify station, or interview guests.  Excludes “Broadcast News Analysts” (27-3021). 


Public Address System and Other Announcers

Make announcements over public address system at sporting or other public events.  May act as master of ceremonies or disc jockey at weddings, parties, clubs, or other gathering places.


Broadcast News Analysts

Analyze, interpret, and broadcast news received from various sources.


Reporters and Correspondents

Collect and analyze facts about newsworthy events by interview, investigation, or observation.  Report and write stories for newspaper, news magazine, radio, or television.  Excludes "Broadcast News Analysts" (27-3021).


Public Relations Specialists

Engage in promoting or creating an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations.  May write or select material for release to various communications media.



Plan, coordinate, or edit content of material for publication.  May review proposals and drafts for possible publication.  Includes technical editors.


Technical Writers

Write technical materials, such as equipment manuals, appendices, or operating and maintenance instructions.  May assist in layout work.


Writers and Authors

Originate and prepare written material, such as scripts, stories, advertisements, and other material.  Excludes "Public Relations Specialists" (27-3031) and "Technical Writers" (27-3042).


Interpreters and Translators

Interpret oral or sign language, or translate written text from one language into another.


Media and Communication Workers, All Other

All media and communication workers not listed separately.


Audio and Video Equipment Technicians

Set up, or set up and operate audio and video equipment including microphones, sound speakers, video screens, projectors, video monitors, recording equipment, connecting wires and cables, sound and mixing boards, and related electronic equipment for concerts, sports events, meetings and conventions, presentations, and news conferences.  May also set up and operate associated spotlights and other custom lighting systems.  Excludes "Sound Engineering Technicians" (27-4014).


Broadcast Technicians

Set up, operate, and maintain the electronic equipment used to transmit radio and television programs.  Control audio equipment to regulate volume level and quality of sound during radio and television broadcasts.  Operate transmitter to broadcast radio or television programs.


Radio Operators

Receive and transmit communications using radiotelephone equipment in accordance with government regulations.  May repair equipment.  Excludes “Radio, Cellular, and Tower Equipment Installers and Repairs” (49-2021).


Sound Engineering Technicians

Operate machines and equipment to record, synchronize, mix, or reproduce music, voices, or sound effects in sporting arenas, theater productions, recording studios, or movie and video productions.



Photograph people, landscapes, merchandise, or other  subjects, using digital or film cameras and equipment.  May develop negatives or use computer software to produce finished images and prints.  Includes scientific photographers, aerial photographers, and photojournalists.


Camera Operators, Television, Video, and Motion Picture

Operate television, video, or motion picture camera to record images or scenes for various purposes, such as TV broadcasts, advertising, video production, or motion pictures.


Film and Video Editors

Edit moving images on film, video, or other media.  May edit or synchronize soundtracks with images.  Excludes “Sound Engineering Technicians”(27-4014).


Media and Communication Equipment Workers, All Other

All media and communication equipment workers not listed separately.



Assess, treat, and care for patients by manipulation of spine and musculoskeletal system.  May provide spinal adjustment or address sacral or pelvic misalignment.


Dentists, General

Examine, diagnose, and treat diseases, injuries, and malformations of teeth and gums.  May treat diseases of nerve, pulp, and other dental tissues affecting oral hygiene and retention of teeth.  May fit dental appliances or provide preventive care.  Excludes "Prosthodontists" (29-1024), "Orthodontists" (29-1023), "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022) and "Dentists, All Other Specialists" (29-1029).  


Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

Perform surgery and related procedures on the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial regions to treat diseases, injuries, or defects.  May diagnose problems of the oral and maxillofacial regions.  May perform surgery to improve function or appearance.



Examine, diagnose, and treat dental malocclusions and oral cavity anomalies.  Design and fabricate appliances to realign teeth and jaws to produce and maintain normal function and to improve appearance.



Construct oral prostheses to replace missing teeth and other oral structures to correct natural and acquired deformation of mouth and jaws, to restore and maintain oral function, such as chewing and speaking, and to improve appearance.


Dentists, All Other Specialists

All dentists not listed separately.


Dietitians and Nutritionists

Plan and conduct food service or nutritional programs to assist in the promotion of health and control of disease.  May supervise activities of a department providing quantity food services, counsel individuals, or conduct nutritional research.



Diagnose, manage, and treat conditions and diseases of the human eye and visual system.  Examine eyes and visual system, diagnose problems or impairments, prescribe corrective lenses, and provide treatment.  May prescribe therapeutic drugs to treat specific eye conditions.  Ophthalmologists are included in “Physicians and Surgeons, All Other” (29-1069).



Dispense drugs prescribed by physicians and other health practitioners and provide information to patients about medications and their use.  May advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosage, interactions, and side effects of medications.



Physicians who administer anesthetics prior to, during, or after surgery, or other medical procedures.


Family and General Practitioners

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases and injuries that commonly occur in the general population.  May refer patients to specialists when needed for further diagnosis or treatment.


Internists, General

Physicians who diagnose and provide non-surgical treatment of diseases and injuries of internal organ systems.  Provide care mainly for adults who have a wide range of problems associated with the internal organs.  Subspecialists, such as cardiologists and gastroenterologists, are included in "Physicians and Surgeons, All Other" (29-1069).


Obstetricians and Gynecologists

Physicians who provide medical care related to pregnancy or childbirth and those who diagnose, treat, and help prevent diseases of women, particularly those affecting the reproductive system.  May also provide general medical care to women.


Pediatricians, General

Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent children's diseases and injuries.



Physicians who diagnose, treat, and help prevent disorders of the mind.



Physicians who treat diseases, injuries, and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation.  Excludes "Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons" (29-1022).


Physicians and Surgeons, All Other

All physicians and surgeons not listed separately.


Physician Assistants

Provide healthcare services typically performed by a physician, under the supervision of a physician.  Conduct complete physicals, provide treatment, and counsel patients.  May, in some cases, prescribe medication.  Must graduate from an accredited educational program for physician assistants.  Excludes "Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics" (29-2041), "Medical Assistants" (31-9092), "Registered Nurses" (29-1141), “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).



Diagnose and treat diseases and deformities of the human foot.


Occupational Therapists

Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that help build or restore vocational, homemaking, and daily living skills, as well as general independence, to persons with disabilities or developmental delays.


Physical Therapists

Assess, plan, organize, and participate in rehabilitative programs that improve mobility, relieve pain, increase strength, and improve or correct disabling conditions resulting from disease or injury.


Radiation Therapists

Provide radiation therapy to patients as prescribed by a radiologist according to established practices and standards.  Duties may include reviewing prescription and diagnosis; acting as liaison with physician and supportive care personnel; preparing equipment, such as immobilization, treatment, and protection devices; and maintaining records, reports, and files.  May assist in dosimetry procedures and tumor localization.


Recreational Therapists

Plan, direct, or coordinate medically-approved recreation programs for patients in hospitals, nursing homes, or other institutions.  Activities include sports, trips, dramatics, social activities, and arts and crafts.  May assess a patient condition and recommend appropriate recreational activity.  Excludes “Recreation Workers” (39-9032).


Respiratory Therapists

Assess, treat, and care for patients with breathing disorders.  Assume primary responsibility for all respiratory care modalities, including the supervision of respiratory therapy technicians.  Initiate and conduct therapeutic procedures; maintain patient records; and select, assemble, check, and operate equipment.


Speech-Language Pathologists

Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders.  May select alternative communication systems and teach their use.  May perform research related to speech and language problems.


Exercise Physiologists

Assess, plan, or implement fitness programs that include exercise or physical activities such as those designed to improve cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, or flexibility.  Excludes “Physical Therapists” (29-1123), “Athletic Trainers” (29-9091), and “Fitness Trainers and Aerobic Instructors” (39-9031).


Therapists, All Other

All therapists not listed separately.



Diagnose, treat, or research diseases and injuries of animals.  Includes veterinarians who conduct research and development, inspect livestock, or care for pets and companion animals.


Registered Nurses

Assess patient health problems and needs, develop and implement nursing care plans, and maintain medical records.  Administer nursing care to ill, injured, convalescent, or disabled patients.  May advise patients on health maintenance and disease prevention or provide case management.  Licensing or registration required.  Includes Clinical Nurse Specialists.  Excludes “Nurse Anesthetists” (29-1151), “Nurse Midwives” (29-1161), and “Nurse Practitioners” (29-1171).


Nurse Anesthetists

Administer anesthesia, monitor patient’s vital signs, and oversee patient recovery from anesthesia.  May assist anesthesiologists, surgeons, other physicians, or dentists.  Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education. 


Nurse Midwives

Diagnose and coordinate all aspects of the birthing process, either independently or as part of a healthcare team.  May provide well-woman gynecological care.  Must have specialized, graduate nursing education. 


Nurse Practitioners

Diagnose and treat acute, episodic, or chronic illness, independently or as part of a healthcare team.  May focus on health promotion and disease prevention.  May order, perform, or interpret diagnostic tests such as lab work and x rays.  May prescribe medication.  Must be registered nurses who have specialized graduate education. 



Assess and treat persons with hearing and related disorders.  May fit hearing aids and provide auditory training.  May perform research related to hearing problems.


Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners, All Other

All health diagnosing and treating practitioners not listed separately.


Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists

Perform complex medical laboratory tests for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.  May train or supervise staff.


Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians

Perform routine medical laboratory tests for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.  May work under the supervision of a medical technologist.


Dental Hygienists

Clean teeth and examine oral areas, head, and neck for signs of oral disease.  May educate patients on oral hygiene, take and develop x rays, or apply fluoride or sealants.


Cardiovascular Technologists and Technicians

Conduct tests on pulmonary or cardiovascular systems of patients for diagnostic purposes.  May conduct or assist in electrocardiograms, cardiac catheterizations, pulmonary functions, lung capacity, and similar tests.  Includes vascular technologists.


Diagnostic Medical Sonographers

Produce ultrasonic recordings of internal organs for use by physicians.


Nuclear Medicine Technologists

Prepare, administer, and measure radioactive isotopes in therapeutic, diagnostic, and tracer studies using a variety of radioisotope equipment.  Prepare stock solutions of radioactive materials and calculate doses to be administered by radiologists.  Subject patients to radiation.  Execute blood volume, red cell survival, and fat absorption studies following standard laboratory techniques.


Radiologic Technologists

Take x rays and CAT scans or administer nonradioactive materials into patient's blood stream for diagnostic purposes.  Includes technologists who specialize in other scanning modalities.  Excludes “Diagnostic Medical Sonographers”(29-2032) and “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists” (29-2035).


Magnetic Resonance Imaging Technologists

Operate Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanners.  Monitor patient safety and comfort, and view images of area being scanned to ensure quality of pictures.  May administer gadolinium contrast dosage intravenously.  May interview patient, explain MRI procedures, and position patient on examining table.  May enter into the computer data such as patient history, anatomical area to be scanned, orientation specified, and position of entry.


Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics

Assess injuries, administer emergency medical care, and extricate trapped individuals.  Transport injured or sick persons to medical facilities.


Dietetic Technicians

Assist in the provision of food service and nutritional programs, under the supervision of a dietitian.  May plan and produce meals based on established guidelines, teach principles of food and nutrition, or counsel individuals.


Pharmacy Technicians

Prepare medications under the direction of a pharmacist.  May measure, mix, count out, label, and record amounts and dosages of medications according to prescription orders.


Psychiatric Technicians

Care for individuals with mental or emotional conditions or disabilities, following the instructions of physicians or other health practitioners.  Monitor patients' physical and emotional well-being and report to medical staff.  May participate in rehabilitation and treatment programs, help with personal hygiene, and administer oral or injectable medications.


Respiratory Therapy Technicians

Provide respiratory care under the direction of respiratory therapists and physicians.


Surgical Technologists

Assist in operations, under the supervision of surgeons, registered nurses, or other surgical personnel.  May help set up operating room, prepare and transport patients for surgery, adjust lights and equipment, pass instruments and other supplies to surgeons and surgeon's assistants, hold retractors, cut sutures, and help count sponges, needles, supplies, and instruments.


Veterinary Technologists and Technicians

Perform medical tests in a laboratory environment for use in the treatment and diagnosis of diseases in animals.  Prepare vaccines and serums for prevention of diseases.  Prepare tissue samples, take blood samples, and execute laboratory tests, such as urinalysis and blood counts.  Clean and sterilize instruments and materials and maintain equipment and machines.  May assist a veterinarian during surgery.


Ophthalmic Medical Technicians

Assist ophthalmologists by performing ophthalmic clinical functions.  May administer eye exams, administer eye medications, and instruct the patient in care and use of corrective lenses.


Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses

Care for ill, injured, or convalescing patients or persons with disabilities in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, private homes, group homes, and similar institutions.  May work under the supervision of a registered nurse.  Licensing required.


Medical Records and Health Information Technicians

Compile, process, and maintain medical records of hospital and clinic patients in a manner consistent with medical, administrative, ethical, legal, and regulatory requirements of the health care system.  Process, maintain, compile, and report patient information for health requirements and standards in a manner consistent with the healthcare industry’s numerical coding system.  Excludes “File Clerks” (43-4071).


Opticians, Dispensing

Design, measure, fit, and adapt lenses and frames for client according to written optical prescription or specification.  Assist client with inserting, removing, and caring for contact lenses.  Assist client with selecting frames.  Measure customer for size of eyeglasses and coordinate frames with facial and eye measurements and optical prescription.  Prepare work order for optical laboratory containing instructions for grinding and mounting lenses in frames.  Verify exactness of finished lens spectacles.  Adjust frame and lens position to fit client.  May shape or reshape frames.  Includes contact lens opticians.


Orthotists and Prosthetists

Design, measure, fit, and adapt orthopedic braces, appliances or prostheses, such as limbs or facial parts for patients with disabling conditions.


Hearing Aid Specialists

Select and fit hearing aids for customers.  Administer and interpret tests of hearing.  Assess hearing instrument efficacy.  Take ear impressions and prepare, design, and modify ear molds.  Excludes “Audiologists” (29-1181).


Health Technologists and Technicians, All Other

All health technologists and technicians not listed separately.


Occupational Health and Safety Specialists

Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors.  May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals.  May be employed in the public or private sector.  Includes environmental protection officers.


Occupational Health and Safety Technicians

Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists.  Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.


Athletic Trainers

Evaluate and advise individuals to assist recovery from or avoid athletic-related injuries or illnesses, or maintain peak physical fitness.  May provide first aid or emergency care.


Genetic Counselors

Assess individual or family risk for a variety of inherited conditions, such as genetic disorders and birth defects.  Provide information to other healthcare providers or to individuals and families concerned with the risk of inherited conditions.  Advise individuals and families to support informed decisionmaking and coping methods for those at risk.  May help conduct research related to genetic conditions or genetic counseling.


Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Workers, All Other

All healthcare practitioners and technical workers not listed separately.


Home Health Aides

Provide routine individualized healthcare such as changing bandages and dressing wounds, and applying topical medications to the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities at the patient’s home or in a care facility.  Monitor or report changes in health status.  May also provide personal care such as bathing, dressing, and grooming of patient.


Psychiatric Aides

Assist mentally impaired or emotionally disturbed patients, working under direction of nursing and medical staff.  May assist with daily living activities, lead patients in educational and recreational activities, or accompany patients to and from examinations and treatments.  May restrain violent patients.  Includes psychiatric orderlies.


Nursing Assistants

Provide basic patient care under direction of nursing staff.  Perform duties such as feed, bathe, dress, groom, or move patients, or change linens.  May transfer or transport patients.  Includes nursing care attendants, nursing aides, and nursing attendants.  Excludes “Home Health Aides” (31-1011), “Orderlies” (31-1015), “Personal Care Aides” (39-9021), and “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1013).



Transport patients to areas such as operating rooms or x-ray rooms using wheelchairs, stretchers, or moveable beds.  May maintain stocks of supplies or clean and transport equipment.  Psychiatric orderlies are included in “Psychiatric Aides” (31-1013).  Excludes “Nursing Assistants” (31-1014).


Occupational Therapy Assistants

Assist occupational therapists in providing occupational therapy treatments and procedures.  May, in accordance with State laws, assist in development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, direct activity programs, and document the progress of treatments.  Generally requires formal training.


Occupational Therapy Aides

Under close supervision of an occupational therapist or occupational therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations.  These duties include preparing patient and treatment room.


Physical Therapist Assistants

Assist physical therapists in providing physical therapy treatments and procedures.   May, in accordance with State laws, assist in the development of treatment plans, carry out routine functions, document the progress of treatment, and modify specific treatments in accordance with patient status and within the scope of treatment plans established by a physical therapist.  Generally requires formal training.


Physical Therapist Aides

Under close supervision of a physical therapist or physical therapy assistant, perform only delegated, selected, or routine tasks in specific situations.  These duties include preparing the patient and the treatment area.


Massage Therapists

Perform therapeutic massages of soft tissues and joints.  May assist in the assessment of range of motion and muscle strength, or propose client therapy plans.


Dental Assistants

Assist dentist, set up equipment, prepare patient for treatment, and keep records.


Medical Assistants

Perform administrative and certain clinical duties under the direction of a physician.  Administrative duties may include scheduling appointments, maintaining medical records, billing, and coding information for insurance purposes.  Clinical duties may include taking and recording vital signs and medical histories, preparing patients for examination, drawing blood, and administering medications as directed by physician.  Excludes "Physician Assistants" (29-1071).


Medical Equipment Preparers

Prepare, sterilize, install, or clean laboratory or healthcare equipment.  May perform routine laboratory tasks and operate or inspect equipment.


Medical Transcriptionists

Transcribe medical reports recorded by physicians and other healthcare practitioners using various electronic devices, covering office visits, emergency room visits, diagnostic imaging studies, operations, chart reviews, and final summaries.  Transcribe dictated reports and translate abbreviations into fully understandable form.  Edit as necessary and return reports in either printed or electronic form for review and signature, or correction.


Pharmacy Aides

Record drugs delivered to the pharmacy, store incoming merchandise, and inform the supervisor of stock needs.  May operate cash register and accept prescriptions for filling.


Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers

Feed, water, and examine pets and other nonfarm animals for signs of illness, disease, or injury in laboratories and animal hospitals and clinics.  Clean and disinfect cages and work areas, and sterilize laboratory and surgical equipment.  May provide routine post-operative care, administer medication orally or topically, or prepare samples for laboratory examination under the supervision of veterinary or laboratory animal technologists or technicians, veterinarians, or scientists.  Excludes "Nonfarm Animal Caretakers" (39-2021).



Draw blood for tests, transfusions, donations, or research.  May explain the procedure to patients and assist in the recovery of patients with adverse reactions. 


Healthcare Support Workers, All Other

All healthcare support workers not listed separately


First-Line Supervisors of Correctional Officers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of correctional officers and jailers.


First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of members of police force.


First-Line Supervisors of Fire Fighting and Prevention Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in fire fighting and fire prevention and control.


First-Line Supervisors of Protective Service Workers, All Other

All protective service supervisors not listed separately above.



Control and extinguish fires or respond to emergency situations where life, property, or the environment is at risk.  Duties may include fire prevention, emergency medical service, hazardous material response, search and rescue, and disaster assistance.


Fire Inspectors and Investigators

Inspect buildings to detect fire hazards and enforce local ordinances and State laws, or investigate and gather facts to determine cause of fires and explosions.


Forest Fire Inspectors and Prevention Specialists

Enforce fire regulations, inspect forest for fire hazards and recommend forest fire prevention or control measures.  May report forest fires and weather conditions.



Maintain order in courts of law.


Correctional Officers and Jailers

Guard inmates in penal or rehabilitative institutions in accordance with established regulations and procedures.  May guard prisoners in transit between jail, courtroom, prison, or other point.  Includes deputy sheriffs and police who spend the majority of their time guarding prisoners in correctional institutions.


Detectives and Criminal Investigators

Conduct investigations related to suspected violations of Federal, State, or local laws to prevent or solve crimes.  Excludes "Private Detectives and Investigators" (33-9021).


Fish and Game Wardens

Patrol assigned area to prevent fish and game law violations.  Investigate reports of damage to crops or property by wildlife.  Compile biological data.


Parking Enforcement Workers

Patrol assigned area, such as public parking lot or city streets to issue tickets to overtime parking violators and illegally parked vehicles.


Police and Sheriff's Patrol Officers

Maintain order and protect life and property by enforcing local, tribal, State, or Federal laws and ordinances.  Perform a combination of the following duties: patrol a specific area; direct traffic; issue traffic summonses; investigate accidents; apprehend and arrest suspects, or serve legal processes of courts.


Transit and Railroad Police

Protect and police railroad and transit property, employees, or passengers.


Animal Control Workers

Handle animals for the purpose of investigations of mistreatment, or control of abandoned, dangerous, or unattended animals.


Private Detectives and Investigators

Gather, analyze, compile and report information regarding individuals or organizations to clients, or detect occurrences of unlawful acts or infractions of rules in private establishment.


Gaming Surveillance Officers and Gaming Investigators

Act as oversight and security agent for management and customers.  Observe casino or casino hotel operation for irregular activities such as cheating or theft by either employees or patrons.  May use one-way mirrors above the casino floor, cashier's cage, and from desk.  Use of audio/video equipment is also common to observe operation of the business.  Usually required to provide verbal and written reports of all violations and suspicious behavior to supervisor.


Security Guards

Guard, patrol, or monitor premises to prevent theft, violence, or infractions of rules.  May operate x-ray and metal detector equipment.  Excludes “Transportation Security Screeners” (33-9093).


Crossing Guards

Guide or control vehicular or pedestrian traffic at such places as streets, schools, railroad crossings, or construction sites.


Lifeguards, Ski Patrol, and Other Recreational Protective Service

Monitor recreational areas, such as pools, beaches, or ski slopes to provide assistance and protection to participants.


Transportation Security Screeners

Conduct screening of passengers, baggage, or cargo to ensure compliance with Transportation Security Administration (TSA) regulations.  May operate basic security equipment such as x-ray machines and hand wands at screening checkpoints.


Protective Service Workers, All Other

All protective service workers not listed separately.


Chefs and Head Cooks

Direct and may participate in the preparation, seasoning, and cooking of salads, soups, fish, meats, vegetables, desserts, or other foods.  May plan and price menu items, order supplies, and keep records and accounts.


First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in preparing and serving food.


Cooks, Fast Food

Prepare and cook food in a fast food restaurant with a limited menu.  Duties of these cooks are limited to preparation of a few basic items and normally involve operating large-volume single-purpose cooking equipment.


Cooks, Institution and Cafeteria

Prepare and cook large quantities of food for institutions, such as schools, hospitals, or cafeterias.


Cooks, Private Household

Prepare meals in private homes.  Includes personal chefs.


Cooks, Restaurant

Prepare, season, and cook dishes such as soups, meats, vegetables, or desserts in restaurants.  May order supplies, keep records and accounts, price items on menu, or plan menu.


Cooks, Short Order

Prepare and cook to order a variety of foods that require only a short preparation time.  May take orders from customers and serve patrons at counters or tables.  Excludes "Fast Food Cooks" (35-2011).


Cooks, All Other

All cooks not listed separately.


Food Preparation Workers

Perform a variety of food preparation duties other than cooking, such as preparing cold foods and shellfish, slicing meat, and brewing coffee or tea.



Mix and serve drinks to patrons, directly or through waitstaff.


Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food

Perform duties which combine preparing and serving food and nonalcoholic beverages.


Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop

Serve food to diners at counter or from a steam table.  Counter attendants who also wait tables are included in "Waiters and Waitresses" (35-3031).


Waiters and Waitresses

Take orders and serve food and beverages to patrons at tables in dining establishment.  Excludes "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).


Food Servers, Nonrestaurant

Serve food to individuals outside of a restaurant environment, such as in hotel rooms, hospital rooms, residential care facilities, or cars.  Excludes "Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers" (41-9091) and "Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop" (35-3022).


Dining Room and Cafeteria Attendants and Bartender Helpers

Facilitate food service.  Clean tables, remove dirty dishes, replace soiled table linens; set tables; replenish supply of clean linens, silverware, glassware, and dishes; supply service bar with food; and serve items such as water, condiments, and coffee to patrons.



Clean dishes, kitchen, food preparation equipment, or utensils.


Hosts and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop

Welcome patrons, seat them at tables or in lounge, and help ensure quality of facilities and service.


Food Preparation and Serving Related Workers, All Other

All food preparation and serving related workers not listed separately.


First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate work activities of cleaning personnel in hotels, hospitals, offices, and other establishments.


First-Line Supervisors of Landscaping, Lawn Service, and Groundskeeping Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of workers engaged in landscaping or groundskeeping activities.  Work may involve reviewing contracts to ascertain service, machine, and workforce requirements; answering inquiries from potential customers regarding methods, material, and price ranges; and preparing estimates according to labor, material, and machine costs.


Janitors and Cleaners, Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners

Keep buildings in clean and orderly condition.  Perform heavy cleaning duties, such as cleaning floors, shampooing rugs, washing walls and glass, and removing rubbish.  Duties may include tending furnace and boiler, performing routine maintenance activities, notifying management of need for repairs, and cleaning snow or debris from sidewalk.


Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners

Perform any combination of light cleaning duties to maintain private households or commercial establishments, such as hotels and hospitals, in a clean and orderly manner.  Duties may include making beds, replenishing linens, cleaning rooms and halls, and vacuuming.


Building Cleaning Workers, All Other

All building cleaning workers not listed separately.


Pest Control Workers

Apply or release chemical solutions or toxic gases and set traps to kill or remove pests and vermin that infest buildings and surrounding areas.


Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers

Landscape or maintain grounds of property using hand or power tools or equipment.  Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units.  Excludes "Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop, Nursery, and Greenhouse" (45-2092).


Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation

Mix or apply pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, or insecticides through sprays, dusts, vapors, soil incorporation, or chemical application on trees, shrubs, lawns, or botanical crops.  Usually requires specific training and State or Federal certification.  Excludes "Commercial Pilots" (53-2012) who dust or spray crops from aircraft.


Tree Trimmers and Pruners

Using sophisticated climbing and rigging techniques, cut away dead or excess branches from trees or shrubs to maintain right-of-way for roads, sidewalks, or utilities, or to improve appearance, health, and value of tree.  Prune or treat trees or shrubs using handsaws, hand pruners, clippers, and power pruners.  Works off the ground in the tree canopy and may use truck-mounted lifts.  Excludes workers who primarily perform duties of "Pesticide Handlers, Sprayers, and Applicators, Vegetation" (37-3012) and "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" (37-3011).


Grounds Maintenance Workers, All Other

All grounds maintenance workers not listed separately.


Gaming Supervisors

Supervise and coordinate activities of workers in assigned gaming areas.  Circulate among tables and observe operations.  Ensure that stations and games are covered for each shift.  May explain and interpret operating rules of house to patrons.  May plan and organize activities and services for guests in hotels/casinos.  May address service complaints.  Excludes "Slot Supervisors" (39-1012).


Slot Supervisors

Supervise and coordinate activities of slot department workers to provide service to patrons.  Handle and settle complaints of players.  Verify and pay off jackpots.  Reset slot machines after payoffs.  Make repairs or adjustments to slot machines or recommend removal of slot machines for repair.  Report hazards and enforce safety rules.


First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of personal service workers, such as flight attendants, hairdressers, or caddies.


Animal Trainers

Train animals for riding, harness, security, performance, or obedience, or assisting persons with disabilities.  Accustom animals to human voice and contact; and condition animals to respond to commands.  Train animals according to prescribed standards for show or competition.  May train animals to carry pack loads or work as part of pack team.


Nonfarm Animal Caretakers

Feed, water, groom, bathe, exercise, or otherwise care for pets and other nonfarm animals, such as dogs, cats, ornamental fish or birds, zoo animals, and mice.  Work in settings such as kennels, animal shelters, zoos, circuses, and aquariums.  May keep records of feedings, treatments, and animals received or discharged.  May clean, disinfect, and repair cages, pens, or fish tanks.  Excludes "Veterinary Assistants and Laboratory Animal Caretakers" (31-9096).


Gaming Dealers

Operate table games.  Stand or sit behind table and operate games of chance by dispensing the appropriate number of cards or blocks to players, or operating other gaming equipment.  Distribute winnings or collect players' money or chips.  May compare the house's hand against players' hands.


Gaming and Sports Book Writers and Runners

Post information enabling patrons to wager on various races and sporting events.  Assist in the operation of games such as keno and bingo.  May operate random number generating equipment and announce the numbers for patrons.  Receive, verify, and record patrons' wagers.  Scan and process winning tickets presented by patrons and payout winnings for those wagers. 


Gaming Service Workers, All Other

All gaming service workers not listed separately.


Motion Picture Projectionists

Set up and operate motion picture projection and related sound reproduction equipment.


Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers

Assist patrons at entertainment events by performing duties, such as collecting admission tickets and passes from patrons, assisting in finding seats, searching for lost articles, and locating such facilities as rest rooms and telephones.


Amusement and Recreation Attendants

Perform a variety of attending duties at amusement or recreation facility.  May schedule use of recreation facilities, maintain and provide equipment to participants of sporting events or recreational pursuits, or operate amusement concessions and rides.


Costume Attendants

Select, fit, and take care of costumes for cast members, and aid entertainers.  May assist with multiple costume changes during performances.


Locker Room, Coatroom, and Dressing Room Attendants

Provide personal items to patrons or customers in locker rooms, dressing rooms, or coatrooms.


Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers, All Other

All entertainment attendants and related workers not listed separately.



Prepare bodies for interment in conformity with legal requirements.


Funeral Attendants

Perform a variety of tasks during funeral, such as placing casket in parlor or chapel prior to service; arranging floral offerings or lights around casket; directing or escorting mourners; closing casket; and issuing and storing funeral equipment.


Morticians, Undertakers, and Funeral Directors

Perform various tasks to arrange and direct funeral services, such as coordinating transportation of body to mortuary, interviewing family or other authorized person to arrange details, selecting pallbearers, aiding with the selection of officials for religious rites, and providing transportation for mourners.  Excludes “Funeral Service Managers” (11-9061).



Provide barbering services, such as cutting, trimming, shampooing, and styling hair, trimming beards, or giving shaves.


Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists

Provide beauty services, such as shampooing, cutting, coloring, and styling hair, and massaging and treating scalp.  May apply makeup, dress wigs, perform hair removal, and provide nail and skin care services.  Excludes "Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance (39-5091), "Manicurists and Pedicurists" (39-5092), and "Skincare Specialists" (39-5094).


Makeup Artists, Theatrical and Performance

Apply makeup to performers to reflect period, setting, and situation of their role.


Manicurists and Pedicurists

Clean and shape customers' fingernails and toenails.  May polish or decorate nails.



Shampoo and rinse customers' hair.


Skincare Specialists

Provide skincare treatments to face and body to enhance an individual’s appearance.  Includes electrologists and laser hair removal specialists.


Baggage Porters and Bellhops

Handle baggage for travelers at transportation terminals or for guests at hotels or similar establishments.



Assist patrons at hotel, apartment, or office building with personal services.  May take messages, arrange or give advice on transportation, business services or entertainment, or monitor guest requests for housekeeping and maintenance.


Tour Guides and Escorts

Escort individuals or groups on sightseeing tours or through places of interest, such as industrial establishments, public buildings, and art galleries.


Travel Guides

Plan, organize, and conduct long distance travel , tours, and expeditions for individuals and groups.


Childcare Workers

Attend to children at schools, businesses, private households, and childcare institutions.  Perform a variety of tasks, such as dressing, feeding, bathing, and overseeing play.  Excludes "Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education" (25-2011) and "Teacher Assistants" (25-9041).


Personal Care Aides

Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility.  Duties performed at a place of residence may include keeping house (making beds, doing laundry, washing dishes) and preparing meals.  May provide assistance at non-residential care facilities.  May advise families, the elderly, convalescents, and persons with disabilities regarding such things as nutrition, cleanliness, and household activities.


Fitness Trainers and Aerobics Instructors

Instruct or coach groups or individuals in exercise activities.  Demonstrate techniques and form, observe participants, and explain to them corrective measures necessary to improve their skills.  Excludes teachers classified in 25-0000 Education, Training, and Library Occupations.  Excludes “Coaches and Scouts” (27-2022) and "Athletic Trainers" (29-9091).


Recreation Workers

Conduct recreation activities with groups in public, private, or volunteer agencies or recreation facilities.  Organize and promote activities, such as arts and crafts, sports, games, music, dramatics, social recreation, camping, and hobbies, taking into account the needs and interests of individual members.


Residential Advisors

Coordinate activities in resident facilities in secondary and college dormitories, group homes, or similar establishments.  Order supplies and determine need for maintenance, repairs, and furnishings.  May maintain household records and assign rooms.  May assist residents with problem solving or refer them to counseling resources.


Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other

All personal care and service workers not listed separately.


First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of retail sales workers in an establishment or department.  Duties may include management functions, such as purchasing, budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.


First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate activities of sales workers other than retail sales workers.  May perform duties, such as budgeting, accounting, and personnel work, in addition to supervisory duties.



Receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions.  May use electronic scanners, cash registers, or related equipment.  May process credit or debit card transactions and validate checks.  Excludes “Gaming Cage Persons and Booth Cashiers” (41-2012).


Gaming Change Persons and Booth Cashiers

Exchange coins, tokens and chips for patrons' money.  May issue payoffs and obtain customer's signature on receipt.  May operate a booth in the slot machine area and furnish change persons with money bank at the start of the shift, or count and audit money in drawers.  Excludes “Cashiers” (41-2011).


Counter and Rental Clerks

Receive orders, generally in person, for repairs, rentals, and services.  May describe available options, compute cost, and accept payment.  Excludes “Counter Attendants, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop” (35-3022), “Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks” (43-4081), “Order Clerks” (43-4151), and “Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks” (43-4181).


Parts Salespersons

Sell spare and replacement parts and equipment in repair shop or parts store.


Retail Salespersons

Sell merchandise, such as furniture, motor vehicles, appliances, or apparel to consumers.  Excludes "Cashiers" (41-2011).


Advertising Sales Agents

Sell or solicit advertising space, time, or media in publications, signage, TV, radio, or Internet establishments or public spaces.


Insurance Sales Agents

Sell life, property, casualty, health, automotive, or other types of insurance.  May refer clients to independent brokers, work as an independent broker, or be employed by an insurance company.


Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents

Buy and sell securities or commodities in investment and trading firms, or provide financial services to businesses and individuals.  May advise customers about stocks, bonds, mutual funds, commodities, and market conditions.


Travel Agents

Plan and sell transportation and accommodations for travel agency customers.  Determine destination, modes of transportation, travel dates, costs, and accommodations required.  May also describe, plan, and arrange itineraries and sell tour packages.  May assist in resolving clients’ travel problems.


Sales Representatives, Services, All Other

All services sales representatives not listed separately.


Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Technical and Scientific Products

Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers where technical or scientific knowledge is required in such areas as biology, engineering, chemistry, and electronics, normally obtained from at least 2 years of post-secondary education.  Excludes “Sales Engineers” (41-9031).


Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing, Except Technical and Scientific Products

Sell goods for wholesalers or manufacturers to businesses or groups of individuals.  Work requires substantial knowledge of items sold.


Demonstrators and Product Promoters

Demonstrate merchandise and answer questions for the purpose of creating public interest in buying the product.  May sell demonstrated merchandise.



Model garments or other apparel and accessories for prospective buyers at fashion shows, private showings, or retail establishments.  May pose for photos to be used in magazines or advertisements.  May pose as subject for paintings, sculptures, and other types of artistic expression.


Real Estate Brokers

Operate real estate office, or work for commercial real estate firm, overseeing real estate transactions.  Other duties usually include selling real estate or renting properties and arranging loans.


Real Estate Sales Agents

Rent, buy, or sell property for clients.  Perform duties, such as study property listings, interview prospective clients, accompany clients to property site, discuss conditions of sale, and draw up real estate contracts.  Includes agents who represent buyer.


Sales Engineers

Sell business goods or services, the selling of which requires a technical background equivalent to a baccalaureate degree in engineering.  Excludes "Engineers" (17-2011 through 17-2199) whose primary function is not marketing or sales.



Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.


Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers

Sell goods or services door-to-door or on the street.


Sales and Related Workers, All Other

All sales and related workers not listed separately.


First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers

Directly supervise and coordinate the activities of clerical and administrative support workers.


Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service

Operate telephone business systems equipment or switchboards to relay incoming, outgoing, and interoffice calls.  May supply information to callers and record messages.


Telephone Operators

Provide information by accessing alphabetical, geographical, or other directories.  Assist customers with special billing requests, such as charges to a third party and credits or refunds for incorrectly dialed numbers or bad connections.  May handle emergency calls and assist children or people with physical disabilities to make telephone calls.


Communications Equipment Operators, All Other

All communications equipment operators not listed separately.


Bill and Account Collectors

Locate and notify customers of delinquent accounts by mail, telephone, or personal visit to solicit payment.  Duties include receiving payment and posting amount to customer's account; preparing statements to credit department if customer fails to respond; initiating repossession proceedings or service disconnection; and keeping records of collection and status of accounts.


Billing and Posting Clerks

Compile, compute, and record billing, accounting, statistical, and other numerical data for billing purposes.  Prepare billing invoices for services rendered or for delivery or shipment of goods.


Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks

Compute, classify, and record numerical data to keep financial records complete.  Perform any combination of routine calculating, posting, and verifying duties to obtain primary financial data for use in maintaining accounting records.  May also check the accuracy of figures, calculations, and postings pertaining to business transactions recorded by other workers.  Excludes “Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks” (43-3051).


Gaming Cage Workers

In a gaming establishment, conduct financial transactions for patrons.  May reconcile daily summaries of transactions to balance books.  Accept patron's credit application and verify credit references to provide check-cashing authorization or to establish house credit accounts.  May sell gambling chips, tokens, or tickets to patrons, or to other workers for resale to patrons.  May convert gaming chips, tokens, or tickets to currency upon patron's request.  May use a cash register or computer to record transaction.


Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks

Compile and record employee time and payroll data.  May compute employees' time worked, production, and commission.  May compute and post wages and deductions, or prepare paychecks.  Excludes “Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks” (43-3031).


Procurement Clerks

Compile information and records to draw up purchase orders for procurement of materials and services.



Receive and pay out money.  Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution's various transactions.


Financial Clerks, All Other

All financial clerks not listed separately.


Brokerage Clerks

Perform duties related to the purchase, sale or holding of securities.  Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.


Correspondence Clerks

Compose letters or electronic correspondence in reply to requests for merchandise, damage claims, credit and other information, delinquent accounts, incorrect billings, or unsatisfactory services.  Duties may include gathering data to formulate reply and preparing  correspondence.


Court, Municipal, and License Clerks

Perform clerical duties for courts of law, municipalities, or governmental licensing agencies and bureaus.  May prepare docket of cases to be called; secure information for judges and court; prepare draft agendas or bylaws for town or city council; answer official correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; issue licenses or permits; and record data, administer tests, or collect fees.  Clerks of Court are classified in “Managers, All Other” (11-9199).


Credit Authorizers, Checkers, and Clerks

Authorize credit charges against customers' accounts.  Investigate history and credit standing of individuals or business establishments applying for credit.  May interview applicants to obtain personal and financial data; determine credit worthiness; process applications; and notify customers of acceptance or rejection of credit.


Customer Service Representatives

Interact with customers to provide information in response to inquiries about products and services and to handle and resolve complaints.  Excludes individuals whose duties are primarily installation, sales, or repair.


Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs

Determine eligibility of persons applying to receive assistance from government programs and agency resources, such as welfare, unemployment benefits, social security, and public housing.


File Clerks

File correspondence, cards, invoices, receipts, and other records in alphabetical or numerical order or according to the filing system used.  Locate and remove material from file when requested.


Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks

Accommodate hotel, motel, and resort patrons by registering and assigning rooms to guests, issuing room keys or cards, transmitting and receiving messages, keeping records of occupied rooms and guests' accounts, making and confirming reservations, and presenting statements to and collecting payments from departing guests.


Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan

Interview persons by telephone, mail, in person, or by other means for the purpose of completing forms, applications, or questionnaires.  Ask specific questions, record answers, and assist persons with completing form.  May sort, classify, and file forms. 


Library Assistants, Clerical

Compile records, sort, shelve, issue, and receive library materials such as books, electronic media, pictures, cards, slides and microfilm.  Locate library materials for loan and replace material in shelving area, stacks, or files according to identification number and title.  Register patrons to permit them to borrow books, periodicals, and other library materials.  Excludes “Library Technicians” (25-4031).


Loan Interviewers and Clerks

Interview loan applicants to elicit information; investigate applicants' backgrounds and verify references; prepare loan request papers; and forward findings, reports, and documents to appraisal department.  Review loan papers to ensure completeness, and complete transactions between loan establishment, borrowers, and sellers upon approval of loan.


New Accounts Clerks

Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions.  Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.


Order Clerks

Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities.  Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means.  Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints.  Excludes "Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance" (43-5032) who both dispatch and take orders for services.


Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping

Compile and keep personnel records.  Record data for each employee, such as address, weekly earnings, absences, amount of sales or production, supervisory reports, and date of and reason for termination.  May prepare reports for employment records, file employment records, or search employee files and furnish information to authorized persons.


Receptionists and Information Clerks

Answer inquiries and provide information to the general public, customers, visitors, and other interested parties regarding activities conducted at establishment and location of departments, offices, and employees within the organization.  Excludes "Switchboard Operators, Including Answering Service" (43-2011).


Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks

Make and confirm reservations for transportation or lodging, or sell transportation tickets.  May check baggage and direct passengers to designated concourse, pier, or track; deliver tickets, contact individuals and groups to inform them of package tours; or provide tourists with travel or transportation information.  Excludes "Travel Agents" (41-3041), "Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks" (43-4081), and "Cashiers" (41-2011) who sell tickets for local transportation.


Information and Record Clerks, All Other

All information and record clerks not listed separately.


Cargo and Freight Agents

Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals, and shipping docks.  Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform.  Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.


Couriers and Messengers

Pick up and deliver messages, documents, packages, and other items between offices or departments within an establishment or directly to other business concerns, traveling by foot, bicycle, motorcycle, automobile, or public conveyance.  Excludes "Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers" (53-3033).


Police, Fire, and Ambulance Dispatchers

Operate radio, telephone, or computer equipment at emergency response centers.  Receive reports from the public of crimes, disturbances, fires, and medical or police emergencies.  Relay information to law enforcement and emergency response personnel.  May maintain contact with caller until responders arrive.


Dispatchers, Except Police, Fire, and Ambulance

Schedule and dispatch workers, work crews, equipment, or service vehicles for conveyance of materials, freight, or passengers, or for normal installation, service, or emergency repairs rendered outside the place of business.  Duties may include using radio, telephone, or computer to transmit assignments and compiling statistics and reports on work progress.


Meter Readers, Utilities

Read meter and record consumption of electricity, gas, water, or steam.


Postal Service Clerks

Perform any combination of tasks in a post office, such as receive letters and parcels; sell postage and revenue stamps, postal cards, and stamped envelopes; fill out and sell money orders; place mail in pigeon holes of mail rack or in bags; and examine mail for correct postage.


Postal Service Mail Carriers

Sort mail for delivery.  Deliver mail on established route by vehicle or on foot.


Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators

Prepare incoming and outgoing mail for distribution.  Examine, sort, and route mail.  Load, operate, and occasionally adjust and repair mail processing, sorting, and canceling machinery.  Keep records of shipments, pouches, and sacks; and other duties related to mail handling within the postal service.  Excludes "Postal Service Clerks" (43-5051) and "Postal Service Mail Carriers" (43-5052).


Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks

Coordinate and expedite the flow of work and materials within or between departments of an establishment according to production schedule.  Duties include reviewing and distributing production, work, and shipment schedules; conferring with department supervisors to determine progress of work and completion dates; and compiling reports on progress of work, inventory levels, costs, and production problems.  Excludes "Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and Samplers, Recordkeeping" (43-5111).