(b) Poultry manure should not be stored outside unless it is covered by some type of waterproof sheeting and water is diverted away from the stack. The manure stack should be located on high ground and away from drainage ways and sources of surface water. Covered stockpiles should be considered for short-term storage only. If manure will be stored in this manner for more than one month, place an impervious pad under the stack.
1. Stockpiles of manure can be protected by covering with plastic sheeting, which is anchored with earth or other suitable weighted materials. Anchor the edges by laying the sheeting edge across a small trench approximately 12 inches deep and backfilling with soil. Lay suitable weighted materials over the top of the plastic on the pile. Heavy gauge (six mil) plastic can last one or two seasons. Lighter gauge plastic is not recommended.
2. The liner consisting of a minimum of a six mil plastic is laid on the soil surface on top of which the stockpile is formed. If the soil is loose, compact it before laying out the plastic. Apply a 2-inch layer of manure over the majority of the plastic before forming the pile to minimize the possibility of tearing by the equipment tires. Fold the edges of the liner one to two feet up the sides of the pile and anchor in the manure. Apply the surface cover as described for a covered stockpile. The ground liner will be torn during unloading of the pile and new plastic will be required each year.
3. If a permanent location for manure storage is desired, a concrete slab can be constructed on which to place a covered stockpile. The concrete should be at least six inches thick, reinforced with wire mesh and placed on six inches of compact gravel. To prevent concrete failure, thicken the perimeter of the concrete to form a footer where traffic enters and exits. Construct the stockpile as described for a covered stockpile, as set forth in (b)1 above. Anchor the cover sheet with wood poles, concrete blocks or other heavy objects on the concrete slab.
4. Bunkers are permanent aboveground concrete slabs with two parallel walls of concrete identical to those used for storing silage on livestock farms. A bunker allows deeper piling and compaction of manure to reduce the total area required for manure storage. An end wall can be constructed to slightly increase the storage capacity. However, loading the structure is more easily accomplished without an end wall. A cover of plastic sheeting can be attached to the walls with batten strips and anchored with a suitable weighted material. A more permanent cover of fiberglass reinforced fabric with edge anchorage eyelets similar to that used for truck covers may be utilized.
5. concrete slabs, bunkers or other structures with permanent roofs may be constructed to eliminate the need for plastic covers. The roof structure must be a clear span supported by the outside walls or perimeter posts. Roof structures must be of sufficient height to allow manure piling. Compaction loading will be difficult under a roof. Roofs 12 feet or higher will require wall panels to protect the stored manure from excessive blowing rain.
(c) The rate of manure application should be limited to that amount required for crop production and maintenance of a reasonable level of soil fertility. The amount of poultry manure used depends on crop needs, soil fertility levels, physical characteristics of the soil and the potency of the manure. The actual amount of manure applied should be calculated for each crop production situation as follows:
1. Manure analysis should be conducted;
2. Soil fertility tests should be conducted on land areas to be fertilized;
3. Crop needs for projected yields for each of the main fertilizer elements should be determined from appropriate guides for crop production; and
4. Manure application should be limited to amounts needed to make up the difference between crop needs and existing soil fertility levels.
(d) The following concern field application of poultry manure:
1. Manure should not be spread on ground that is frozen, snow covered or too wet to be plowed within the time limits listed in (d)3 and 4 below.
2. A manure free vegetative buffer zone of not less than 25 feet shall be maintained along or around defined drainage channels and sinkholes on slopes of six percent or less. On slopes greater than six percent, the vegetative buffer shall be four times the percent slope times 100 feet. Where a vegetative buffer is not established, manure shall not be spread closer than 50 feet from the defined drainage channel or sinkholes on slopes of six percent or less. Without a vegetative buffer on slopes greater than six percent, the distance shall be eight times percent slope times 100 feet. For example, the buffer zone for a 10 percent slope should be 8 x 0.10 x 100 = 80 feet.
3. The following manure management alternatives concern manure with less than 60 percent moisture content:i. Manure to be spread on land which will be tilled, shall be incorporated in the soil within 48 hours by:4. Manure containing 60 percent or more moisture shall only be spread on cropland to be tilled and must be incorporated in the soil the same day by:(1) Moldboard plowing;ii. Manure may be spread on the surface of pasture or hayland having more than a 75 percent vegetative cover.
(2) Chisel plowing followed by disking; or
(3) Other methods which at a minimum achieve the results attained by the methods identified in (d)3i(1) or (2) above.
iii. Manure may be spread on the surface on land where no-till corn will be planted at half the recommended rate as determined in (c) above during the months of March, April, or May.i. Moldboard plowing;5. The following concern land slope:
ii. Chisel plowing followed by disking; or
iii. Other methods which at a minimum achieve the results attained by the methods identified in (d)4i or ii above.i. Manure shall not be applied on land where the slope exceeds eight percent, except when injected or plow furrow application is made.6. The requirements for the application of manure as contained in (d)5 above may be modified if the application is made according to an approved conservation plan, developed by the Soil Conservation District for the control of runoff and erosion, and which has been implemented by the owners.
ii. If injected or plow furrow application is made, the slope of the land shall not exceed 10 percent.