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Publications
FY 2013: Governor's Council on the Prevention of Developmental Disabilities Report 

FY 2012: Governor's Council on the Prevention of Developmental Disabilities Report

2012: Be in the kNOw: 5-Year Strategic Plan to Prevent Perinatal Addictions in NJ 

2007: Be in the kNOw: 5-Year Strategic Plan to Prevent Perinatal Addictions in NJ 

Changes & Challenges: Securing Our Children's Future - OPMRDD

New Jersey Interagency Task Force on the Prevention of Lead Poisoning

Get the Lead Out - a Teachers Manual:  Lead poisoning is the nation's #1 preventable environmental health problem facing children today.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Get the Lead Out - Parents Manual
 
 
Reports


 

Highlights of Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook

 

Highlights of the Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook 

Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook - Final Report 


This final EPA report consists of about 20 downloadable pdf files, each covering a chapter or topic, such as:

Chapter 3 Water Ingestion - Children may be exposed to contaminants in water when drinking water directly as a beverage, indirectly from foods and drinks made with water, or incidentally while swimming.

Chapter 4 Non-Dietary Ingestion Factors - Young children can be exposed to non-food toxic substances (other than soil or dust) because as they explore their environment, almost everything goes into their mouth! Mouthing behavior includes all activities in which objects, including fingers, are touched by the mouth or put into the mouth (except for eating and drinking), and includes licking, sucking, chewing, and biting.

Chapter 5 Ingestion of Soil and Dust - Environmental chemicals (pesticides, toxins from stormwater runoff, lawn fertilizers, etc.) can affect children through their eating of soil and dust, due to their tendency to play on the floor indoors (our shoes carry outside toxins inside) and on the ground outdoors, plus their tendency to put objects or their fingers into their mouth.  They can ingest soil and dust by deliberate hand to mouth movements, or unintentionally by eating food that has dropped on the floor.

Chapter 6 Inhalation Rates - Ambient and indoor air are potential sources of children's exposure to toxic substances.  Children can be exposed to contaminated air during a variety of activities in different environments: air pollution outdoors (vehicle exhaust, smog, industrial pollution); inhaling chemicals from indoor use of various consumer products (cleaning products, perfumes, powders) and/or smoking of tobacco products.  Due to their size, physiology, and activity level, the inhalation rates of children differ from those of adults.

Chapter 7 Dermal Exposure Factors - Dermal (skin or hair) exposure can come through water (e.g., bathing, washing, swimming); soil (e.g., outdoor recreation, gardening, construction); sediment (e.g., wading, fishing); liquids (e.g., use of commercial products); vapors/fumes (e.g., use of commercial products); and indoor dust (e.g., carpets, floors, counter tops). Children may be more highly exposed because they crawl, roll or sit on surfaces treated with chemicals (i.e., carpets, floors, decks). They are also more likely to wear less clothing than adults, resulting in higher skin contact with contaminants. Even wearing diapers for long periods exposes children to chemical components of lotions and other products used for diapering.

Chapter 8 Body Weight - The average daily dose (ADD) of exposure needs to take into consideration the body weight of children and if exposure occurs only during childhood years, to determine extent of exposure to toxins and estimate risk.

Chapter 9 Intake of Fruits and Vegetables - While the American food supply is generally considered to be on of the safest in the world, fruits and vegetables may still be contaminated with toxic chemicals by several different pathways. Ambient pollutants from the air may fall on and be absorbed by plants, or dissolved in rainfall or irrigation waters that contact plants. Plant roots can also absorb pollutants from contaminated soil and groundwater. Additionally, pesticides, soil additives, and fertilizers can contaminate fruits and vegetables. Intake of these pollutants per unit body weight is greater for children than for adults.

Chapter 10 Intake of Fish and Shellfish - Contaminated finfish and shellfish are potential sources of human exposure to toxic chemicals.  Pollutants are carried in the surface waters, but also may be stored in river, lake and ocean floor sediments as a result of complex physical and chemical processes. Hence, finfish and shellfish are exposed to these pollutants and may become sources of contaminated food.  Children may be less able to metabolize, detoxify, and excrete these substances.

Chapter 11 Intake of Meats, Dairy Products and Fats - Again, while the American food supply is generally considered to be on of the safest in the world, meats, dairy products, and fats may be contaminated with toxic chemicals by several pathways. These foods soruces can be contaminated if animals are exposed to contaminated media (i.e., soil, water, or feed crops). The intake per unit body weight is greater for children than for adults; and the common meats, dairy products and fats eaten by children include non-fat milk solids, milk fat and solids, lean beef, and mil sugar (lactose).

Intake of Grain Products - As with fruits and vegetables, grain products may still be contaminated with toxic chemicals by several different pathways. Ambient pollutants from the air may fall on and be absorbed by plants, or dissolved in rainfall or irrigation waters that contact plants. Plant roots can also absorb pollutants from contaminated soil and groundwater. Additionally, pesticides, soil additives, and fertilizers can contaminate grain products. Intake of these pollutants per unit body weight is greater for children than for adults. During their early months prior to growing teeth, babies may eat large amounts of baby cereals, including milled rice, oats, and wheat flour.

Chapter 13 Intake of Home-Produced Foods - As with commercially produced foods, ambient pollutants in the air can be deposited on plants and/or absorbed by plants through rainfall, irrigation water, contaminated soil and ground water.   Pesticides, soil additives, and fertilizers to crops or gardens or coming in contact with animals, may potentially expose foods to toxins.  Homes or farms sitting on old industrial sites, Superfund sites, or former orchards that used previously approved but now banned pesticides, may have significant amounts of lead and industrial toxins. 

Chapter 15 Human Milk Intake - Breastfeeding is known to give a wide range of benefits to nursing infants, including protection against infection, increases in cognitive development, and avoidance of allergies due to intolerance to cow's milk. However, contaminants may be transmitted to infants through breastmilk if the mothers are themselves exposed to contaminated foods, environmental toxins, or other dangerous substances.

Chapter 16 Activity Factors - Because of children's immaturity and small stature, certain activities and behaviors specific to children place them at higher risk to certain environmental agents. Individual or group activities are important determinants of potential exposure, because toxic chemicals introduced into the environment may not cause harm to a child until an activity is performed that subjects the child to contact with those contaminants. Activities and time spent on them vary according to ethnicity, hobbies, location, gender, age, socioeconomic characteristics, and personal preferences, including: time spent indoors and outdoors; time spent bathing, showering, and swimming; and time spent playing on various types of surfaces.

Chapter 17 Consumer Products - Children may be exposed to toxic chemicals on a consistent basis because so many household items are potential exposures. for example, household cleaners can contain ammonia, alcohols, acids, and/or organic solvenets which may pose health concerns.  Routes of exposure to these toxins include ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Children can be in environments where adults use household consumer products such as cleaners, solvents, and paints, and since children spend a large amount of time indoors, the use of household chemicals can be a principal source of exposure.
 
 
 
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